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  • 1.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A Beginner’s Guide to Conflict Data: Finding and Using the Right Dataset2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a guide to identifying and using the right conflict dataset. It is composed of two parts: 1) a brief overview of factors researchers might consider when choosing a conflict dataset, and 2) a listing of approximately 60 of the most prominent conflict datasets. The first part of the paper includes a brief description of the historical evolution of conflict data. It then turns to various factors researchers might consider when using conflict data, focusing specifically on needs of the researcher, whether they be policy-related, qualitative research or quantitative research. For each of these categories, there is a discussion on conflict data that are relevant for those users, and substantive recommendations are provided for which dataset to choose. The second part of the paper is divided into two sections: armed conflict dataset and events datasets, both of which contain an alphabetical listing of prominent datasets. For each dataset, a description is provided, as is information on the temporal and spatial domain; the type of event in focus (usually armed conflict or war); how this event is defined; the violence threshold employed for case inclusion; a brief list of data coded; the principal researcher; and how to access the information.

  • 2.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    An Overview and Typology of Conflict Data: The Advantages of Data Diversity2008In: Building and Using Datasets on Armed Conflicts, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2008Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Coercion in Rebel Recruitment2014In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 364-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on rebel recruitment has focused on the economic and social incentives groups use as enticements, but has overlooked the question of why many armed groups recruit using coercion. The puzzle is why coercion occurs despite alienating civilian populations and being costly in terms of organizational and military effectiveness. I argue that recruitment is a dynamic process and that groups are likely to shift recruitment strategies depending on the exigencies of the conflict. The study tests this argument by examining whether rebels are more likely to employ coercion after suffering losses on the battlefield. Using unique microlevel new data on the conflict in Nepal, the results show that the argument is supported: the more rebel fatalities on the battlefield, the more likely are rebels to employ coercion.

  • 4.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification2009In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 369-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a new line of inquiry into ethnicity and armed conflict, asking the question: are conflicts in which rebels mobilize along ethnic lines more likely to see intensified violence than nonethnically mobilized conflicts? The article argues that the ascriptive nature of ethnicity eases the identification of potential rebels and facilitates a rebel group’s growth, leading to an increased risk for war. This proposition is empirically tested using a Cox model on all intrastate armed conflicts 1946–2004; the results show that ethnically mobilized armed conflicts have a 92 percent higher risk for intensification to war. In extending the analysis, the study finds that the vast majority of conflicts intensified in the first year, but for every year a low-scale conflict remained active thereafter, the risk of intensification increased, peaking around year 12.

  • 5.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    In data we trust?: A comparison of UCDP GED and ACLED conflict events datasets2012In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, several large-scale data-collection projects have produced georeferenced, disaggregated events-level conflict data which can aid researchers in studying the microlevel dynamics of civil war. This article describes the differences between the two leading conflict events datasets, the Uppsala Conflict Data Program Georeferenced Events Dataset (UCDP GED) and the Armed Conflict Location Events Dataset (ACLED), including their relative strengths and weaknesses. The aim of the article is to provide readers with some guidelines as to when these datasets should be used and when they should be avoided; it finds that those interested in subnational analyses of conflict should be wary of ACLED's data because of uneven quality-control issues which can result in biased findings if left unchecked by the researcher. The article concludes that those interested in non-violent events such as troop movements have only ACLED to choose from, since UCDP has not coded such data, but again warns researchers to be wary of the quality of the data. Finally, while the creation of these datasets is a positive development, some caveats are raised in relation to both datasets about the reliance on media sources.

  • 6.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nepal2007In: International Security and the United States, Greenwood/Praeger, New York , 2007Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Raising Rebels: Participation and Recruitment in Civil War2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some individuals choose to participate in rebellion, and what recruitment tactics can rebel groups use to affect this decision? These questions are central to the study of civil war because rebel groups must raise troops in order to challenge the government and to survive as an organization. Indeed, much of the civil war literature builds on participation as a key causal mechanism, yet it is rarely specified in theoretical or empirical models. The dissertation attempts to open this black box by tackling three sets of gaps in the existing literature; these relate to the assumptions made in most studies, the theoretical bases for understanding participation and recruitment, and the record of empirical testing. Essay I examines whether a particular type of recruitment practice, ethnic mobilization, is associated with higher levels of violence. The results show that when rebel groups mobilize along ethnic lines, there is a higher risk for intensified violence. Essay II employs new data on rebel troop size to study what factors affect participation in rebellion. The findings indicate that concerns over personal security rather than economic and social incentives best explain participation. Essay III addresses coerced recruitment, positing that conflict dynamics affect whether rebel groups shift from voluntary to coerced recruitment. Using micro-level data on the conflict in Nepal, the results show that the more losses rebels suffer on the battlefield, the greater the number of individuals they subsequently abduct. Finally, the Nepal case study presented in Essay IV suggests that indoctrination as a recruitment strategy was more important to rebel leaders than other facets of the insurgency. Taken together, this dissertation indicates that there is analytical leverage to be had by examining not only the individual’s decision to participate, but also the rebel group’s recruitment strategy, and that these rebel strategies are flexible and contingent on conflict dynamics.

    List of papers
    1. Recruiting Rebels: Indoctrination and Political Education in Nepal
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recruiting Rebels: Indoctrination and Political Education in Nepal
    2010 (English)In: The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the 21st Century, London: Routledge , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2010
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17610 (URN)0-415-77717-8 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-07-20 Created: 2008-07-20 Last updated: 2010-03-18Bibliographically approved
    2. From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification
    2009 (English)In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 369-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new line of inquiry into ethnicity and armed conflict, asking the question: are conflicts in which rebels mobilize along ethnic lines more likely to see intensified violence than non-ethnically mobilized conflicts? The paper argues that the ascriptive nature of ethnicity eases the identification of potential rebels and facilitates a rebel group’s growth, leading to an increased risk for war. This proposition is empirically tested using a Cox model on all intrastate armed conflicts 1946–2004; the results show that ethnically-mobilized armed conflicts have a 92% higher risk for intensification to war. In extending the analysis, the study finds that the vast majority of conflicts intensified in the first year, but for every year a low-scale conflict remained active thereafter, the risk of intensification increased, peaking around year twelve.

    Keywords
    civil war, civil conflict, ethnic conflict
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120217 (URN)10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00538.x (DOI)000266637600006 ()
    Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Participation in Rebellion: Rebel Troop Size, 1946-2007
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation in Rebellion: Rebel Troop Size, 1946-2007
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the question of participation in rebellion using new time-series data on over 400 rebel groups during the period 1946-2007. Drawing on a number of theoretical literatures, the study investigates factors commonly argued to lead to increased levels of participation. Surprisingly, the study finds that neither material incentives (contraband, oil in conflict zone) nor social incentives (ethnic mobilization) were associated with larger rebel groups. Instead, security concerns are important in determining participation; the study finds that individuals are more likely to join rebel groups when repression is at intermediate levels. The results also find that gdp per capita is robustly correlated with larger troop sizes. This is the first cross-national study to explicitly investigate participation, and its findings present a number of challenges to common arguments within the civil war literature.

    Keywords
    civil conflict, civil war, participation, rebel groups, rebellion, rebels
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120218 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12
    4. Coercion in Rebel Recruitment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coercion in Rebel Recruitment
    2014 (English)In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 364-398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on rebel recruitment has focused on the economic and social incentives groups use as enticements, but has overlooked the question of why many armed groups recruit using coercion. The puzzle is why coercion occurs despite alienating civilian populations and being costly in terms of organizational and military effectiveness. I argue that recruitment is a dynamic process and that groups are likely to shift recruitment strategies depending on the exigencies of the conflict. The study tests this argument by examining whether rebels are more likely to employ coercion after suffering losses on the battlefield. Using unique microlevel new data on the conflict in Nepal, the results show that the argument is supported: the more rebel fatalities on the battlefield, the more likely are rebels to employ coercion.

    Keywords
    civil conflict, civil war, rebellion, rebel recruitment, rebel group, rebels, Nepal, coercion
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120219 (URN)10.1080/09636412.2014.905368 (DOI)000335942000005 ()
    Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Recruiting Rebels: Indoctrination and Political Education in Nepal2010In: The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the 21st Century, London: Routledge , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Recruitment and Violence in Nepal’s Civil War: Microstudies under the Microscope2018In: Asian Survey, ISSN 0004-4687, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 261-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article shows that the statistical correlation between poverty and violence during the conflict in Nepal (1996–2006) is unlikely to be explained by grievances or low opportunity costs among the poor, but is better explained by considering the rebels’ strategy. This underscores the importance of validating arguments from statistical studies.

  • 10.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Repression by Proxy: How Military Purges and Insurgency Impact the Delegation of Coercion2015In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 924-946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do regimes delegate authority over a territory to nonstate militias, in effect voluntarily sacrificing their monopoly over the use of violence? This article argues that two factors increase the probability of states delegating control to a proxy militia, namely, military purges and armed conflict. Military purges disrupt intelligence-gathering structures and the organizational capacity of the military. To counteract this disruption, military leaders subcontract the task of control and repression to allied militias that have the local intelligence skills necessary to manage the civilian population. This argument is conditioned by whether the state faces an armed insurgency in a given region since intelligence, control, and repression are needed most where the state is being challenged. This hypothesis is tested on unique data for all subnational regions within Myanmar during the period 1962 to 2010 and finds that proxy militias are more likely to be raised in conflict areas after military purges.

  • 11.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The law of the land: Communal conflict and legal authority2014In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 441-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Common notions about the source of communal land conflict in Africa have long explained it as growing out of conditions of environmental scarcity. This article argues instead that the institutional structure of the legal system is central to understanding which countries are prone to experience communal land conflict. When competing customary and modern jurisdictions coexist in countries inhabited by mixed identity groups, the conflicting sources of legal authority lead to insecurity about which source of law will prevail. Because the source of law is contested, conflict parties cannot trust the legal system to predictably adjudicate disputes, which encourages the use of extrajudicial vigilante measures. Using new data on communal violence in West Africa, this argument is examined for the period 1990-2009. The results show that in countries where competing jurisdictions exist, communal land conflict is 200-350% more likely. These findings suggest that researchers should consider the role of legal institutions and processes in relation to social unrest and collective violence.

  • 12.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The origins of policing institutions: Legacies of colonial insurgency2018In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of colonial-era armed conflict on contemporary institutions. It argues that when British colonial administrators were faced with armed insurrection they responded with institutional reform of the police, and that the legacy of these reforms lives on today. Violent opposition prompted the British colonial administration to expand entrance opportunities for local inhabitants in order to collect intelligence needed to prosecute a counterinsurgency campaign. This investment in human capital and institutional reform remained when the colonial power departed; as a result, countries which experienced colonial-era conflict have more efficient policing structures today. I demonstrate how this worked in practice during the Malayan Emergency, 1948–60. Archival data from Malaysia show that local inhabitants were recruited into the police force in greater numbers and were provided with training which they would not have received had there been no insurgency. This process was consolidated and reproduced upon independence in path-dependent ways. To expand the empirical domain, I statistically explore new archival data collected from the UK National Archives on police financing across colonial territories. The results show that armed insurgency during the colonial era is associated with higher percentages of police expenditure during the colonial era and higher perceived levels of contemporary policing capacity.

  • 13.
    Eck, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Fariss, Christopher J.
    University of Michigan.
    Ill-Treatment and Torture in Sweden: A Critique of Cross-Case Comparisons2018In: Human Rights Quarterly, ISSN 0275-0392, E-ISSN 1085-794X, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 591-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Common perceptions of Sweden seldom include images of ill treatment and torture. However, human rights reports published by Amnesty Int'l and the US State Dept. describe recurring allegations of ill treatment and torture perpetrated by security forces in Sweden. What explains this unexpected case of human rights abuse? The answer to this question reveals an important theoretical concept that has not previously been discussed in human rights documentation and measurement projects: the level of institutional transparency. We provide evidence of the process by which the bureaucracy in Sweden ensures an extremely high level of transparency about allegations of human rights abuse by government agents. We argue that this transparency likely varies systematically over time but especially across countries. The major implication of our study therefore travels beyond Sweden: documentation and measurement projects that do not account for differential levels of transparency of government institutions may not be comparable across cases, possibly introducing bias to cross-sectional comparisons.

  • 14.
    Eck, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    One-Sided Violence against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data2007In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents new data on the direct and deliberate killings of civilians, called one-sided violence, in intrastate armed conflicts, 1989—2004. These data contribute to the present state of quantitative research on violence against civilians in three important respects: the data provide actual estimates of civilians killed, the data are collected annually and the data are provided for both governments and rebel groups. Using these data, general trends and patterns are presented, showing that the post-Cold War era is characterized by periods of fairly low-scale violence punctuated by occasional sharp increases in violence against civilians. Furthermore, rebels tend to be more violent on the whole, while governments commit relatively little violence except in those few years which see mass killings. The article then examines some factors that have been found to predict genocide and evaluates how they correlate with one-sided violence as conceptualized here. A U-shaped correlation between regime type and one-sided violence is identified: while autocratic governments undertake higher levels of one-sided violence than other regime types, rebels are more violent in democratic countries.

  • 15.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Guthrey, Holly L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Tønnesson, Stein
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The East Asian Peace: will it last?2017In: Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is, How it came about, Will it last? / [ed] Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2017, p. 281-296Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Pettersson, Therese
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Organized Violence 1989-20172018In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 535-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on trends in organized violence from data collected by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). With almost 90,000 deaths recorded by UCDP last year, 2017 saw a decrease for the third consecutive year to a level 32% lower than the latest peak in 2014. This trend in declining levels of organized violence is driven by state-based armed conflict, and by the case of Syria in particular. Forty-nine state-based conflicts were active in 2017, down by four compared to 2016, and ten of these reached the level of war, with at least 1,000 battle-related deaths. The overall decrease in fatalities lends support to the claim that conflict deaths are in decline and that the world is increasingly peaceful. This trend holds even more strongly when controlling for increases in world population. In contrast, non-state conflict has increased: a new peak of 82 active non-state conflicts was recorded in 2017 and fatalities have increased concurrently. Much of this is due to escalating violence in DR Congo and the Central African Republic. However, fatalities from non-state conflict remain but 15% of the total number of fatalities from organized violence. As for actors engaged in one-sided violence, their number also increased during 2017, although the number of fatalities remained at the same level as in 2016.

  • 17.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Introducing the UCDP Non-State Conflict Dataset2012In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) by presenting new global data on non-state conflict, or armed conflict between two groups, neither of which is the state. The dataset includes conflicts between rebel groups and other organized militias, and thus serves as a complement to existing datasets on armed conflict which have either ignored this kind of violence or aggregated it into civil war. The dataset also includes cases of fighting between supporters of different political parties as well as cases of communal conflict, that is, conflict between two social groups, usually identified along ethnic or religious lines. This thus extends UCDP's conflict data collection to facilitate the study of topics like rebel fractionalization, paramilitary involvement in conflict violence, and communal or ethnic conflict. In the article, we present a background to the data collection and provide descriptive statistics for the period 1989-2008 and then illustrate how the data can be used with the case of Somalia. These data move beyond state-centric conceptions of collective violence to facilitate research into the causes and consequences of group violence which occurs without state participation.

1 - 17 of 17
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