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  • 1.
    Andreas, Jonsson
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Simulations of the energy performance of smart windows based on user presence using a simplified balance temperature approachIn: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a simulation tool for simulating and comparing windows have been further developed so that the software also can simulate smart windows with the ability to vary the g-value or the solar heat gain coefficient. The g-value can be controlled using different control strategies, which can be based on time control, user control and different types of daylight control. The software is basically a simulation tool to calculate the energy for heating and cooling caused by the windows as a building component. Due to the simplicity of the program, it is suitable as a tool for selecting the right type of window for a certain building. Six different control strategies have been developed to show different approaches for controlling smart windows. Some results are shown as examples of how the new functionality is working. This new functionality of the software makes it easy to compare smart windows between themselves and also to make fair comparisons with static windows.

  • 2. Azens, A
    et al.
    Avendano, A
    Backholm, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Berggren, L
    Gustavsson, G
    Karmhag, R
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Flexible Electrochromic Foils:: Science, Technology and Application2005In: Proc. SPIE 5946, 2005, p. 359-374Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Azens, A
    et al.
    Avendano, E
    Backholm, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Berggren, L
    Gustavsson, G
    Karmhag, R
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fast tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndet fysik.
    Flexible Foils with Electrochromic Coatings: Science, Technology and Applications2005In: Mater. Sci Engr., Vol. B119, p. 214-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Azens, Andris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Avendano, Esteban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Backholm, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Berggren, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Gustavsson, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Karmhag, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fast tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Flexible Foils with Electrochromic Coatings: Science, Technology and Applications2004In: Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Björn, Lars Olof
    et al.
    Bengtson, Sven-Axel
    Shaoshan, Li
    Hecker, Christoph
    Ullah, Saleem
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Nilsson, Annica M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells2016In: Journal of Thermal Biology, ISSN 0306-4565, E-ISSN 1879-0992, Vol. 57, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16 mu m. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259 mu m the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3 mu m due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  • 6.
    Brogren, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Helgesson, Anna
    Karlsson, Björn
    Nilsson, Johan
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical properties, durability, and system aspects of a new aluminium-polymer-laminated steel reflector for solar concentrators2004In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 387-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A newly developed aluminium-polymer-laminated steel reflector for use in solar concentrators was evaluated with respect to its optical properties, durability, and reflector performance in solar thermal and photovoltaic systems. The optical properties of the reflector material were investigated using spectrophotometer and scatterometry. The durability of the reflector was tested in a climatic test chamber as well as outdoors in Älvkarleby , Sweden. Before ageing, the solar weighted total and specular reflectance values were 82% and 77%, respectively, and the reflector scattered light isotropically. After 1 year's outdoor exposure, the total and specular solar reflectance had decreased by less than 1%. However, after in damp heat and simulated solar radiation, the optical properties had changed significantly: The light scattering was anisotropic and the total and specular solar reflectance values had decreased to 75% and 42%, respectively. The decrease was found to be due to degradation of the protective polyethylene terephthalate (PET) layer, caused by UV radiation and high temperature. The conclusions are that the degradation is climate dependent and that PET is not suitable as a protective coating under extreme conditions, such as those in the climatic test chamber. However, the results from outdoor testing indicate that the material withstands exposure in a normal Swedish climate.

  • 7.
    Brogren, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Karlsson, B.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Werner, Anna
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Analysis of the effects of outdoor and accelerated aging on the optical properties of reflector materials for solar energy applications2004In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, no 82, p. 491-515Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Böhnke, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Kratz, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Hultåker, Annette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Köhler, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ribbing, Carl-Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Surfaces with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance on structured silicon for spacecraft thermal control2008In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 1410-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presented here is an examination of unstructured and structured (by anisotropic etching), monocrystalline silicon wafers coated with sputter deposited aluminum and chemical vapor deposited silicon dioxide for high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance, respectively. The topography of the samples was characterized with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties were examined with reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy, partly by usage of an integrating sphere. The measurement results were used to estimate the equilibrium temperature of the surfaces in space. The suitability of the surfaces with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance to aid in the thermal control of miniaturized, highly integrated components for space applications is discussed. A silicon dioxide layer on a metal layer results in a slightly lower reflectance when compared to surfaces with only a metal layer, but might be beneficial for miniaturized space components and modules that have to dissipate internally generated heat into open space. Additionally, it is an advantage to microstructure the emitting surface for enhanced radiation of excess heat.

  • 9.
    Forsth, Michael
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Technology, Borås.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Absorptivity and its dependence on heat source temperature and degree of thermal breakdown2011In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 285-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral absorptivity of 62 products has been measured in the wavelength region of 0.3-20 mu m. Effective absorptivity for fire-induced heat radiation typically lies in the range of 0.75-0.95. It was found that the effective absorptivity varies significantly with the temperature of the heat source. This has implications on the heating of a surface. The effect is more important when the absorptivity is used as input for calculations of ignition temperature and thermal inertia. It was also found that the absorptivity of radiation from fires for products exposed to irradiation in many cases decreased with increased exposure time. This is surprising since, for example, wood that is darkened when exposed to heat obviously has a higher absorptivity in the visual part of the spectrum than fresh non-darkened wood. The reason that was identified for this is because the absorptivity in the IR drops, and measurement results are given which clearly illustrate this.

  • 10. Försth, Michael
    et al.
    Zhao, Shuxi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Spectrally selective and adaptive surfaces for protection against radiative heating: ITO and VO22014In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two surface materials for reducing absorptivity of heat radiation from fires have been investigated. The first is VO2, which is a thermochromic material. When the temperature of a VO2 surface increases over a certain temperature, it switches, ideally, from infrared (IR)-absorbing to IR-reflecting. VO2 window coatings are still on a research level, yet to be commercialized. In this study, VO2 powder available on the market was investigated. The thermochromic effect could be identified but was not large enough to significantly improve the fire properties of treated surfaces. Some thoughts concerning how to improve the performance of VO2 are discussed. The second investigated material is indium tin oxide (ITO), which is a so called low-e coating, which means that it has low emissivity and absorptivity in the IR part of the spectrum. ITO is spectrally selective in the sense that it transmits visible light while reflecting a large fraction of the IR radiation, which is a rare property for surfaces in general but a typical property of thin electrically conducting non-metallic films. It is shown that the application of ITO to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) significantly improves its fire properties. ITO coating is a mature technology already in widespread use today in the electronics industry.

  • 11.
    Gelin, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Geotti-Bianchini, Franco
    van Nijnatten, Peter
    Thermal emissivity of coated glazing - simulation versus measurements2005In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 705-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large variety of coated glazing products are available on the market today. These are used in energy efficient low emissivity (low-e) or solar control windows. Not only the solar optical properties, but also the thermal emissivity of these coated glazing materials are of importance for the performance of such energy efficient windows. The thermal emissivity is calculated from the IR reflectance. A problem is that for accurate determination of the emissivity according to international standards, the reflectance needs to be known between 2000 and 200 cm−1, and many FTIR spectrophotometers cannot measure below 400 cm−1. In this paper some different strategies for the extrapolation to 200 cm−1 are discussed. A sensitivity analysis for different types of materials is presented for a few different extrapolation algorithms. The simplest extrapolation procedure assumes a constant reflectance value throughout the extrapolation interval. This appears to work well for surfaces with high reflectance values. A procedure based on a linear relation between the values at a starting wavelength and at the end point of the extrapolation interval or one using a simple second-degree polynomial function can be used when coatings on glass having medium or low reflectance values are evaluated. A guide on how to extrapolate the spectra, according to the different strategies, is included in the Appendix.

  • 12.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, E K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Azens, A
    Georen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gustavsson, G
    Karmhag, R
    Smulko, J
    Kish, L B
    Electrochromic foil-based devices: Optical transmittance and modulation range, effect of ultravioled irradiation, and quality assessment by 1/f current noise2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 17, p. 5921-5926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce electrochromic (EC) technology for modulating the transmittance of visible light and solar radiation in window apertures, with focus on recent work on foil-type devices embodying sputter deposited WO3 and NiO films joined by a polymer electrolyte. The purpose of this paper is to present a number of new and preliminary results showing that (i) double-sided antireflection coatings based on dip coating can enhance the transmittance significantly, (ii) tandem foils can yield a ratio between bleached-state and colored-state transmittance exceeding fifty, (iii) solar irradiance onto the EC device can enhance its charge insertion dynamics and thereby its optical modulation, and (iv) electromagnetic noise spectroscopy may serve as quality assessment of EC devices.

  • 13.
    Hall, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Karlsson, B
    Reflector materials for two-dimensional low-concentrating photovoltaic systems – The effect of specular versus diffuse reflectance on module efficiency2005In: Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 13, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Hatwaambo, Sylvester
    et al.
    Hakansson, Hakan
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    Mitigating the non-uniform illumination in low concentrating CPCs using structured reflectors2009In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 2020-2024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One problem in concentrating photovoltaic systems without active cooling is the formation of hot spots on the solar module cells. These hotspots are a result of uneven concentration of radiation within the solar module cells. The overall effect of concentrated heating is the reduction in the fill-factor of the solar module cell and the subsequent decrease in the overall efficiency of the system. In this paper, we investigate one alternative of improving the performance of a low concentrating photovoltaic system using semi-diffuse rolled reflective elements. Our results indicate that rolling marks on the reflector aligned parallel to the plane of the solar module cell improve the performance of the photovoltaic system. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Nilsson, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, Jacob
    Environmental Energy Technology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical characterization of low angle scattering samples using integrating sphere in combination with a light diffusing filmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Active versus passive solar heating in residential buildings2005In: North Sun, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 17.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations2010In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations.

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Investigation of side shift and edge losses of surface scattering samples in integrating sphere measurementsIn: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light scattering materials are frequently used in solar energy applications, for instance as cover glass in solar thermal absorbers or to increase the path length of photons in solar cells. Knowing the transmittance of such materials is essential to modeling, designing or characterizing a system with these materials as components. The transmittance is traditionally obtained using an integrating sphere spectrophotometer. However, it is known that most commercial spectrophotometers might underestimate the true transmittance of surface scattering samples. Some of the scattered light might hit the edge and escape out of the sample. Thereby the transmitted light exits the sample in such a fashion, that it is not collected by the integrating sphere. The detected signal from the light entering the sphere then underestimates the real transmittance or reflectance of the sample. In this paper this side shift and edge losses of surface scattering samples have been studied and the results show that this might have a significant impact on measured values. Several different techniques have been used to quantify the influence on measurements.

  • 19.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    The effect on transparency and light scattering of dip coated antireflection coatings on window glass and plasticsIn: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High visible transmittance values are interesting for windows in general and for the bleached state of smart windows in particular. For smart windows it is always possible to darken them and therefore the transparency of the bleached state can never become too high. One way of achieving a higher transmittance could be the use of antireflective coatings on the surfaces of the smart window. In this project the use of dip coating for putting antireflective coatings on window surfaces has been studied. The effect on transmittance and surface light scattering has been investigated and the results show that antireflective coatings on windows can have a positive impact on both.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings2010In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 84, no 8, p. 1370-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows.

  • 21.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonson, Emma K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    The effect on transparency and light scattering of dip coated antireflection coatings on window glass and electrochromic foil2010In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 94, no 6, p. 992-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern windows tend to include an increasing number of functional coatings and in order to keep the light transmittance at an acceptably high level antireflection coatings are likely to be used in future high performance windows. For switchable coatings this may be necessary in order to make them sufficiently light in the bleached state. In this paper we have investigated how haze levels of a selection of coatings on glass and plastics, including electrochromic PET foil, are influenced by the additional antireflection coatings. The results indicate a possible increase in light scattering levels for the antireflection coatings on PET foil and a reduction of haze for tin oxide coated glass.

  • 22.
    Jonsson, J C
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Smith, G B
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Deller, C
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Directional and angle resolved optical scattering of high performance translucent sheets for energy efficient lighting and skylights2005In: Applied Optics, Vol. 44, p. 2745-2753Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Jonsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Environmental Energy Technology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Rubin, Michael
    Environmental Energy Technology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Nilsson, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Environmental Energy Technology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical characterization of fritted glass for architectural applications2009In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 949-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fritted glass is commonly used as a light diffusing element in modern buildings. Traditionally it has been used for aesthetic purposes but it can also be used for energy savings by incorporating it in novel daylighting systems? To answer such questions the light scattering properties must be properly characterized.

    This paper contains measurements of different varieties of fritted glass, ranging from the simplest direct-hemispherical measurements to angle-resolved goniometer measurements. Modeling the light scattering to obtain the full bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) extends the measured data, making it useful in simulation programs such as Window 6 and Radiance. Surface profilometry results and SEM micrographs are included to demonstrate the surface properties of the samples studied.

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Evaluation of window energy rating models for different houses and European climates2004In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, no 82, p. 387-412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lansåker, Pia C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gunnarsson, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Au-Based Transparent Conductors for Window Applications: Effect of Substrate Material2010In: Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN 1662-0356, Vol. 75, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of Au were made by sputter deposition onto glass substrates with and without transparent and electrically conducting layers of SnO2:In. The Au films were up to ~11 nm in thickness and covered the range for thin film growth from discrete islands, via large scale coalescence and formation of a meandering conducting network, to the formation of a more or less “holey” film. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the SnO2:In films were considerably rougher than the glass itself. This roughness influenced the Au film formation so that large scale coalescence set in at a somewhat larger thickness for films on SnO2:In than on glass. Measurements of spectral optical transmittance and electrical resistance could be reconciled with impeded Au film formation on the SnO2:In layer, leading to pronounced “plateaus” in the near infrared optical properties for Au films on SnO2:In and an accompanying change from such two-layer films having a lower resistance than the single gold film at thicknesses below large scale coalescence to the opposite behavior for larger film thicknesses.

  • 26.
    Lansåker, Pia C
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gunnarsson, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Au thin films deposited on SnO2:In and glass: Substrate effects on the optical and electrical properties2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 6, p. 1930-1933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a detailed study on the optical and electrical properties of Au films made by sputter deposition onto glass substrates with and without transparent and electrically conducting layers of SnO2:In. The Au films had thicknesses up to 10.7 nm and hence spanned the range for thin film growth from discrete islands, via large scale coalescence and formation of a meandering conducting network, to the formation of a more or less "holey" film. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the SnO2:In films were considerably rougher than the glass itself, and this roughness influenced the Au film formation so that large scale coalescence set in at a somewhat larger thickness for films on SnO2:In than on glass. Measurements of spectral optical transmittance and reflectance and of electrical resistance gave a fully consistent picture that could be reconciled with impeded Au film formation on the SnO2:In layer; this led to pronounced "plateaus" in the near infrared optical spectra for Au films on SnO2:In and a concomitant change from such two-layer films having a lower resistance than the single gold film at thicknesses below large scale coalescence to the opposite behavior for larger film thicknesses. Our work highlights the importance of the substrate roughness for transparent conductors comprising coinage metal films backed by wide band gap transparent conducting oxides.

  • 27.
    Lansåker, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gunnarsson, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Au-based transparent conductors for windows applications: Effect of substrate material2010In: International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN 2229-5216, Vol. 75, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Liljeholm, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Reactive sputtering of SiO2–TiO2 thin film from composite Six/TiO2 targets2010In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 317-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coatings of SiO2–TiO2 films are frequently used in a number of optical thin film applications. In this work we present results from depositing films with variable Si/Ti ratios prepared by reactive sputtering. The different Si/Ti ratios were obtained by varying the target composition of composite single targets. Compared to co-sputtering this facilitates process control and composition uniformity of the films. Varying the oxygen supply during sputter deposition can result in films ranging from metallic/substoichiometric to stoichiometric oxides. Transmittance spectra of the different films are presented and the optical constants are determined from these spectra. Furthermore, the deposition process, films structure and composition of the films are discussed. The study shows that by choosing the right composition and working in the proper oxygen flow range, it is possible to tune the refractive index.

  • 29. Maestre, I. R
    et al.
    Molina, J. L
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Coronel, J. F
    A single-thin-film model for the angle dependent optical properties of coated glazings2007In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 81, no 8, p. 969-976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology for the manufacture of coated glazings with spectrally selective optical properties, such as low-e and solar-control glazings, has been developed in the last few decades. This is leading researchers to develop new optical and thermal models in order to ascertain glazing performance. These new models must accurately reproduce the optical properties for any incident solar angle by using the available experimental data, which often means only information for normal incident radiation. In this paper, a new model is presented that characterizes the angular dependence of coated glazings. To provide a simple, intuitive understanding, this model uses only one thin film to characterize optical performance. In addition an optimization algorithm has been developed to obtain the spectral optical properties of that equivalent film using spectral experimental data under normal incidence. Finally, the model is validated with experimental data and the results are compared with other known models.

  • 30.
    Magnus, Fridrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Moubah, Reda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Roos, Arne H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kruk, A.
    Kapaklis, Vassilios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Hase, T.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Andersson, Gabriella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Tunable giant magnetic anisotropy in amorphous SmCo thin films2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 16, p. 162402-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SmCo thin films have been grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature with a composition of 2-35 at.% Sm. Films with 5 at.% or higher Sm are amorphous and smooth. A giant tunable uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy is induced in the films which peaks in the composition range 11-22 at.% Sm. This cross-over behavior is not due to changes in the atomic moments but rather the local configuration changes. The excellent layer perfection combined with highly tunable magnetic properties make these films important for spintronics applications. 

  • 31. Nijnatten, P A van
    et al.
    Hutchins, M G
    Kilbey, N B
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Gelin, K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Geotti-Bianchini, F
    Polato, P
    Anderson, C
    Olive, F
    Köhl, M
    Spragg, R
    Turner, P
    Uncertainties in the determination of thermal emissivity by measurement of reflectance using Fourier transform spectrometers2006In: Thin Solid Films, no 502, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Nilsson, Annica M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, Jacob C
    Environmental Energy Technology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Method for more accurate transmittance measurements of low-angle scattering samples using an integrating sphere with an entry port beam diffuser2011In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 999-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For most integrating sphere measurements, the difference in light distribution between a specular reference beam and a diffused sample beam can result in significant errors. The problem becomes especially pronounced in integrating spheres that include a port for reflectance or diffuse transmittance measurements. The port is included in many standard spectrophotometers to facilitate a multipurpose instrument, however, absorption around the port edge can result in a detected signal that is too low. The absorption effect is especially apparent for low-angle scattering samples, because a significant portion of the light is scattered directly onto that edge. In this paper, a method for more accurate transmittance measurements of low-angle light-scattering samples is presented. The method uses a standard integrating sphere spectrophotometer, and the problem with increased absorption around the port edge is addressed by introducing a diffuser between the sample and the integrating sphere during both reference and sample scan. This reduces the discrepancy between the two scans and spreads the scattered light over a greater portion of the sphere wall. The problem with multiple reflections between the sample and diffuser is successfully addressed using a correction factor. The method is tested for two patterned glass samples with low-angle scattering and in both cases the transmittance accuracy is significantly improved.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, Annica M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, Jacob C
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA, USA.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Spectrophotometric measurements and ray tracing simulations of mirror light pipes to evaluate the color of the transmitted light2014In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 124, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tubular daylighting systems are designed to guide light to the building's core using a highly reflective pipe. The intensity of the transmitted light is essential for the performance of the system. For the qualitative perception of the provided illumination, the color of the delivered light is also an important aspect. For highly reflective mirror light pipes, spectral variations are generally assumed not to affect the color of the transmitted light. Here, spectrophotometric measurements and ray tracing simulations of mirror light pipes are used to verify this commonly made assumption. The characterization methods employ spectral evaluations for both direct and diffuse incident light. The color properties are evaluated for mirror light pipes with a length to diameter aspect ratio of up to 16, using the CIE chromaticity diagram and CIELAB coordinates. For the xy chromaticity diagram, a larger color shift was noted for different illuminants than as a result of the optical properties of the reflective material. Using the CIELAB coordinates, a small color shift was noted for light incident at low solar altitudes. Overall, highly reflective films with spectral variations of a few percent do not markedly affect the color of the transmitted light.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Annica M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Evaluation of optical and thermal properties of coatings for energy efficient windows2009In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 10, p. 3173-3177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past couple of decades a number of coated glazing products have appeared on the market, converting the window from an energy drain to a possible resource in the building's energy supply system. In this paper the light transmittance, total solar energy transmittance, and thermal transmittance of coated glazing currently available on the market and future dynamic electrochromic coatings are reviewed and their function in heating or cooling dominated climates discussed. Electrochromic coatings can switch between a transparent state and an absorbing or reflecting state when a small electrical potential is applied, and hence adapt their optical properties to the present condition. Energy balance calculations for the window component stress the importance of selecting the window depending on climate. In a heating dominated climate a low-e coating with a high g-value can result in a net energy gain on a south facing facade and thus be better than an ideal wall.

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Annica M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical and thermal properties of functional coatings for future high performance windows2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With modern society facing the task of reducing energy consumption in all areas of life, modern windows provide an enormous potential to reduce energy consumption for the heating, cooling and lighting of buildings. For future buildings and for the retrofitting of older buildings the window is more and more becoming an integral part of the building’s energy system. In this paper we present the optical properties for a selection of different window coatings and discuss their impact on the performance of the window. Special emphasis is put on switchable glazing. Optimum performance for switchable glazing is often a trade off between minimum energy consumption for cooling heating and lighting. This can sometimes be in conflict with occupancy preferences. As an example we show how different control strategies for electrochromic windows can influence the energy balance of the window, and that small variations in the control algorithm can lead to improvements. The results were obtained by using the WinSel window simulation tool.

     

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Annica M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wilson, Helen Rose
    Homogenisation or scattered transmitted light in an integrating sphere using a highly diffusing film on the entry port2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Nilsson, Annica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical characterization of a tubular daylighting system for evaluation of its suitability for Swedish climates2011In: CISBAT 2011: CleanTech for sustainable buildings from nano to urban scale, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nilsson, Annika M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical and thermal characterisation of functional coatings on glass and plastics for energy efficient windows and daylighting2008In: Proceedings, 2008, p. 355-360Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39. Nilsson, Johan
    et al.
    Brogren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Helgesson, Anna
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Biaxial model for the incidence angle dependence of the optical efficiency of photovoltaic systems with asymmetric reflectors2006In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 80, no 9, p. 1199-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical efficiency of concentrating solar thermal and photovoltaic systems with cylindrical geometries is asymmetrical about the optical axis. Biaxial models, based on projected incidence angles, are often used to estimate the annual performance of asymmetric concentrators. However, the use of projected angles tends to underestimate optical losses in the cover glass. In this work, a biaxial model for the incidence angle dependence of the optical efficiency, which uses the transverse projected incidence angle for determining the influence of the reflector and the real incidence angle to determine the influence of the glazing is proposed. The model gives an absolute value of the optical efficiency and it is valid for concentrating systems with translational symmetry, as well as for flat plate collectors and planar photovoltaic modules. The model is validated for a system with an east-west aligned parabolic reflector without a cover glass and it is shown that the dependence on the optical efficiency of the reflector on the longitudinal angle of incidence is negligible. The model is compared with the commonly used biaxial model and it is found that the difference is a couple of percentage points when the difference between the longitudinal projected incidence angle and the real incidence angle is large and the angle of incidence on the glass is high.

  • 40.
    Persson, Mari-Louise
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Switchable windows – a future alternative to air conditioning2005In: North Sun, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 41.
    Persson, Mari-Louise
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Wall, M
    Influence of Window Size on the Energy Balance of Low Energy Houses2005In: Energy and Buildings, Vol. 38, p. 181-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Persson, Mari-Louise
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wall, Maria
    Influence of window size on the energy balance of low energy houses2006In: Energy and Buildings, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 181-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Persson, M-L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Wall, M
    Influence of Window Size on the Energy Balance of Low Energy Houses2006In: Energy and Buildings, no 38, p. 181-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Roos, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Covalet, D
    Fanton, X
    Persson, M L
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Platzer, W
    Nielsen, T R
    Wilson, H R
    Zinzi, M
    Köhl, M
    Heck, M
    Chevalier, B
    Energy Performance of Switchable Glazing – IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme2005In: 10 DBMC Int. Conférence On Durability of Building Materials and Components, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Roos, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Persson, Mari-Louise
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Platzer, W
    Köhl, M
    Energy efficiency of switchable glazing in office buildings2005In: Glass Processing Days, 2005, p. 566-569Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 46.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Optical Properties and Measurements2004In: Performance and durability assessment: Optical Materials for Solar Thermal Systems, Elsevier, Oxford , 2004, p. 19-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Roos, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Nilsson, Annica M.
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