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  • 1.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hallsson, Lara R.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male Courtship Pheromones Affect Female Behaviour in the Swordtail Characin ( Corynopoma riisei)2014In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 120, no 5, 463-470 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheromones constitute an important cue used by both males and females during courtship. Here, we investigate the effect of male pheromones on female behaviour in the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei), a species of fish where males have a caudal pheromone gland which has been suggested to affect female behaviour during courtship. We subjected female C.riisei to male courtship pheromones and investigated the effect on both female behaviour and brain serotonergic activity levels compared to a control group. While no difference in serotonergic activity was found, the pheromone-treated females showed lower stress levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, pheromone-treated females increased locomotor activity over time, while a decrease in locomotor activity was observed in the control group. These results suggest that the male courtship pheromones may serve to reduce female stress and increase female activity, possibly to aid males in gaining access to females and facilitating sperm transfer.

  • 2. Backstrom, Tobias
    et al.
    Heynen, Martina
    Brannas, Eva
    Nilsson, Jan
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Social stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr2015In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 291, 103-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pigmentation often signals status and in general melanin-based pigmentation is indicative of aggression and stress resilience in vertebrates. This is evident in the salmonids Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) where more melanin spotted individuals are more stress resilient. However, in the salmonid Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) it seems as if it is carotenoid-based pigmentation that signals aggression and stress resilience. In our study, social stress effects on carotenoid-based spots, and behavioural and physiological stress responses were investigated. Socially stressed individuals have more spots, and behavioural stress responses were associated with spots. Some of the results concerning physiological stress responses, such as plasma cortisol levels and monoaminergic activity, are associated with spottiness. Further, the earlier proposed lateralization of spots, with left side connected to stress responsiveness and right side to aggression, is to some extent validated although not conclusively. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that more stressed charr have more carotenoid spots, and for the first time monoaminergic activity is shown to be connected with carotenoid pigmentation.

  • 3.
    Backström, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Heynen, Martina
    Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Brännäs, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Umea, Sweden..
    Anaesthesia and handling stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr2017In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 100, no 5, 471-480 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress responsiveness differs between individuals and is often categorized into different stress coping styles. Using these stress coping styles for selection in fish farming could be beneficial, since stress is one main factor affecting welfare. In Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) carotenoid pigmentation is associated with stress responsiveness and stress coping styles. Thus this could be an important tool to use for selection of stress resilient charr. However, anaesthetics seem to affect carotenoid pigmentation, and it would be better if the method for selection could be implemented during normal maintenance, which usually includes anaesthetics. Therefore, this study investigated how the use of anaesthetics affected carotenoid pigmentation, i.e. number of spots, over time compared to no-anaesthetic treatment. Additionally, the stress indicators monoamines and glucocorticoids were investigated. The results indicate that the anaesthetic MS-222 affects number of spots on the right side. This anaesthetic also increased dopaminergic activity in the telencephalon. Both brain dopaminergic and serotonergic activity was associated with spottiness. Further, behaviour during anaesthetization was associated with spots on the left side, but not the right side. Repetition of the same treatment seemed to affect spot numbers on the right side. In conclusion, this study shows that inducing stress in charr affects the carotenoid spots. Thus, it is possible to use anaesthetics when evaluating spottiness although careful planning is needed.

  • 4. Basic, D.
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Schjolden, J.
    Krogdahl, A.
    Hoglund, E.
    Context-dependent responses to novelty in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), selected for high and low post-stress cortisol responsiveness2012In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 105, no 5, 1175-1181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies in a rainbow trout model, selectively bred for high (HR) and low (LR) post stress plasma cortisol levels, have yielded data that are indicative of contrasting stress coping styles. Fish from the HR line have been suggested to display a more diverse behavioral repertoire in challenging situations than the LR counterpart. The present study addressed whether such variation in behavioral flexibility traits was evident in different experimental settings using these selection lines. The fish were subjected to three sets of challenges (novel object test, resident-intruder test and confinement stressor test), all which were repeated a week later. Introducing a novel object evoked a divergent behavioral response in association with feeding: fish from the LR line displayed consistently suppressed feed intake while the HR fish remained unaffected. This observation was found to be repeatable along with attack latency and movement activity from the resident-intruder and confinement stressor tests. These results indicate that the behavioral responses in this animal model are context-dependent and shed new light on the expression of behavioral flexibility.

  • 5. Basic, Dean
    et al.
    Krogdahl, Ashild
    Schjolden, Joachim
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Vindas, Marco A.
    Hillestad, Marie
    Mayer, Ian
    Skjerve, Eystein
    Höglund, Erik
    Short- and long-term effects of dietary L-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2013In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 388, 8-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp) is the immediate precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Supplementing Trp through diet has been shown to suppress the neuroendocrine stress response in vertebrates including teleosts. In salmonid fish, adjusting to the social environment as well as habituation to seawater involves the neuroendocrine stress response, suggesting that such environmental factors may modulate the stress-reducing effects of Trp. To date, studies that have investigated the neuroendocrine effects of dietary Trp have only been conducted in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a salmonid species, under conditions featuring social isolation in the freshwater environment. Here, we address the effects of dietary Trp on post-stress plasma cortisol and hypothalamic monoamines in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), reared at densities relevant for aquaculture. Fish were given feed containing 1, 2, 3 or 4 times the Trp content in normal feed for one week. Subsequently, the fish were reintroduced to feed containing the lowest Trp level, corresponding to standard commercial feed for a number of days prior to exposure to an acute confinement stressor. Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10 days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2 days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed among these fish at 10 days after Trp treatment. The overall effects of dietary Trp were more pronounced in dopamine (DA) neurochemistry compared to 5-HT in the hypothalamus. The results demonstrate both short-and long-term effects of elevated dietary Trp on the neuroendocrine stress response. These findings suggest that hypothalamic DA may be more involved than 5-HT in the stress reducing effects of Trp in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon, reared at densities relevant for aquaculture.

  • 6. Basic, Dean
    et al.
    Schjolden, Joachim
    Krogdahl, Ashild
    von Krogh, Kristine
    Hillestad, Marie
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Mayer, Ian
    Skjerve, Eystein
    Hoglund, Erik
    Changes in regional brain monoaminergic activity and temporary down-regulation in stress response from dietary supplementation with L-tryptophan in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 12, 2166-2174 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain monoamines serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) both play an integrative role in behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to challenges, and comparative models suggest common mechanisms for dietary modulation of transmission by these signal substances in vertebrates. Previous studies in teleosts demonstrate that 7 d of dietary administration with L-tryptophan (Trp), the direct precursor of 5-HT, suppresses the endocrine stress response. The present study investigated how long the suppressive effects of a Trp-enriched feed regimen, at doses corresponding to two, three or four times the Trp levels in commercial feed, last in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when the fish are reintroduced to a diet with standard amino acid composition. We also wanted to determine whether Trp supplementation induced changes in brain monoaminergic neurochemistry in those forebrain structures innervated by DA- and 5-HTergic neurons, by measuring regional activity of DA and 5-HT in the lateral pallial regions (Dl) of the telencephalon and nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) of the hypothalamus. Dietary Trp resulted in a dose-dependent suppression in plasma cortisol among fish exposed to confinement stress on the first day following experimental diet; however, such an effect was not observed at 2 or 6 d after Trp treatment. Feeding the fish with moderate Trp doses also evoked a general increase in DA and 5-HT-ergic activity, suggesting that these neural circuits within the NLT and Dl may be indirectly involved in regulating the acute stress response.

  • 7. Bell, Alison M.
    et al.
    Backström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Huntingford, Felicity A.
    Pottinger, Tom G.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Variable neuroendocrine responses to ecologically-relevant challenges in sticklebacks2007In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 91, no 1, 15-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable neuroendocrine responses to ecologically-relevant challenges in sticklebacks. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2006. Here, we compare the behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine responses of individual sticklebacks exposed to either an unfamiliar conspecific or to a predator. We found that the two stressors elicited a similar hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal response as assessed by whole-body concentrations of cortisol, but produced quite different patterns of change in brain monoamine and monoamine metabolite content as assessed by concentrations of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and the monoamine metabolites 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). For example, relative to baseline levels, NE levels were elevated in individuals exposed to a predator but were lower in individuals confronted by a challenging conspecific. Levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in specific regions of the brain showed extremely close links with behavioral characteristics. Frequency of attacking a conspecific and inspecting a predator were both positively correlated with concentrations of NE. However, whereas serotonin was negatively correlated with frequency of attacking a conspecific, it was positively associated with predator inspection. The data indicate that the qualitative and quantitative nature of the neuroendocrine stress response of sticklebacks varies according to the nature of the stressor, and that interindividual variation in behavioural responses to challenge are reflected by neuroendocrine differences.

  • 8.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Backström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Developmental Exposure to Fluoxetine Modulates the Serotonin System in Hypothalamus2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1, e55053- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLU, Prozac (R)) is commonly prescribed for depression in pregnant women. This results in SSRI exposure of the developing fetus. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding the impact of SSRI exposure during development. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its cross-talk with sex hormone function, we investigated effects of developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of FLU (3 and 30 nM (measured)) on brain neurotransmitter levels, gonadal differentiation, aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and the thyroid system, using the Xenopus tropicalis model. Tadpoles were chronically exposed (8 weeks) until metamorphosis. At metamorphosis brains were cryosectioned and levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were measured in discrete regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and the reticular formation) of the cryosections using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to 30 nM FLU increased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hypothalamus compared with controls. FLU exposure did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid histology, gonadal sex differentiation, or aromatase activity implying that the effect on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the hypothalamus region was specific. The FLU concentration that impacted the serotonin system is lower than the concentration measured in umbilical cord serum, suggesting that the serotonin system of the developing brain is highly sensitive to in utero exposure to FLU. To our knowledge this is the first study showing effects of developmental FLU exposure on brain neurochemistry. Given that SSRIs are present in the aquatic environment the current results warrant further investigation into the neurobehavioral effects of SSRIs in aquatic wildlife.

  • 9.
    Brelin, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. populationsbiologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Divergent stress coping styles in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2005In: ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TRENDS IN COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NEUROBIOLOGY, Vol. 1040, 239-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct stress coping styles, proactive and reactive, have been stated in various animal studies. This divergence in coping has also been indicated in salmonid fish. Here, we test the hypothesis that divergent stress coping styles are identifiable in a sea-ranched brown trout population. To that end, we used a series of tests on individual juvenile brown trout, with each test including a common key aspect of the two different coping styles. Using a clustering method (SAS: PROC FASTCLUS), two groups that clearly differed both in blood chemistry (noradrenalin and adrenalin levels) following confinement and in behavior during hypoxia were identified.

  • 10.
    Cocco, Arianna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Rönnberg, A. M. Carolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Jin, Zhe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    André, Goncalo Igreja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Univ Western Australia, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia..
    Vossen, Laura E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bhandage, Amol K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Birnir, Bryndis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Characterization of the gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling system in the zebrafish (danio rerio hamilton) central nervous system by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction2017In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 343, 300-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the vertebrate brain, inhibition is largely mediated by raminobutyric acid (GABA). This neurotransmitter comprises a signaling machinery of GABA(A), GABA(B) receptors, transporters, glutamate decarboxylases (gads) and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (abat), and associated proteins. Chloride is intimately related to GABAA receptor conductance, GABA uptake, and GADs activity. The response of target neurons to GABA stimuli is shaped by chloride-cation co-transporters (CCCs), which strictly control Cl- gradient across plasma membranes. This research profiled the expression of forty genes involved in GABA signaling in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain, grouped brain regions and retinas. Primer pairs were developed for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The mRNA levels of the zebrafish GABA system share similarities with that of mammals, and confirm previous studies in non-mammalian species. Proposed GABAA receptors are alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2), alpha(1)beta(2)delta, alpha(2b)beta(3), alpha(2b)beta(3)delta, alpha(4)beta(2)gamma(2), alpha(4)beta(2)gamma, alpha(6b)beta(2)gamma(2) and alpha(6b)beta(2)delta. Regional brain differences were documented. Retinal hetero- or homomeric rho-composed GABAA receptors could exist, accompanying alpha(1)beta(y)gamma(2), alpha(1)beta(y)delta, alpha(6a)beta(y)gamma(2,) alpha(6a)beta(y)delta. Expression patterns of alpha(6a) and alpha(6b) were opposite, with the former being more abundant in retinas, the latter in brains. Given the stoichiometry alpha(6w)beta(y)gamma(z), alpha(6a-) or alpha(6b)-containing receptors likely have different regulatory mechanisms. Different gene isoforms could originate after the rounds of genome duplication during teleost evolution. This research depicts that one isoform is generally more abundantly expressed than the other. Such observations also apply to GABAB receptors, GABA transporters, GABA-related enzymes, CCCs and GABAA receptor associated proteins, whose presence further strengthens the proof of a GABA system in zebrafish.

  • 11.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Geographic variation in corticosterone response to chronic predator stress in tadpoles2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 6, 1066-1076 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid hormones, which elevate during stress. We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to maintain higher growth under stressful conditions. Southern tadpoles had higher CORT content in response to predators after 1 day of exposure, whereas there was no increase in CORT in the northern populations. Two weeks later, there were no predator-induced CORT elevations. Artificially elevated CORT levels strongly decreased growth, development and survival in both northern and southern tadpoles. We suggest that the lower CORT response in high-latitude populations can be connected with avoidance of CORT-mediated reduction in growth and development, but also discuss other possible explanations.

  • 12.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Lagman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Sundström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Boldness predicts social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 8, e23565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance.

  • 13.
    Dahlbom, S. Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Backström, Tobias
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö .
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Aggression and monoamines: Effects of sex and social rank in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2012In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 228, no 2, 333-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social defeat is a common model for studies on depression. However, such models are most often used to study aggression in males and sex differences in depression may therefore be overseen. This study investigated the potential of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for male and female aggression. In addition, effects on the brain serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems after agonistic interaction are well studied in many species, but not in zebrafish. We wanted to explore whether the zebrafish follows the same patterns as many other species. Therefore, the effects of agonistic interaction on brain monoaminergic activity were studied in adult male and female wild-type zebrafish. The fish interacted in pairs with one of the same sex for five days during which agonistic behaviour was quantified daily. Clear dominant/subordinate relationships developed in all pairs, both in males and females. The frequency of aggressive acts increased over time but did not differ between male and female pairs. Further, we found that dyadic agonistic interaction resulted in elevated brain serotonergic activity in subordinate zebrafish, as indicated by elevated hindbrain 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid to serotonin ratios (5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) ratios). We also observed a sex difference in forebrain dopamine levels and forebrain 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios, with females displaying higher concentrations of dopamine but lower 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios than males. These results suggest that zebrafish is a suitable model for studies on female aggression and sex differences in brain monoaminergic neurotransmission.

  • 14.
    Elofsson, Ulf OE
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Mayer, L
    Damsgard, B
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Intermale competition in sexually mature arctic charr: Effects on brain monoamines, endocrine stress responses, sex hormone levels, and behavior2000In: GENERAL AND COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, ISSN 0016-6480, Vol. 118, no 3, 450-460 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexually mature Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) males were allowed to interact in pairs for 4 days in the absence of females. Agonistic behavior was quantified, and at the end of the experiment, plasma levels of glucose, cortisol, testosterone (T), 11-k

  • 15.
    Elofsson, Ulf OE
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Nilsson, Göran E
    Relationships between sex and the size and number of forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone-immunoreactive neurones in the ballan wrasse (Labrus berggylta), a protogynous hermaphrodite1999In: JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, ISSN 0021-9967, Vol. 410, no 1, 158-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first to examine the brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cell population phenotype in a protogynous and monandric sequentially hermaphroditic fish. Male ballan wrasse (Labrus berggylta) had on average higher numbers of GnRH-immun

  • 16. Fraser, Thomas William Kenneth
    et al.
    Vindas, Marco Antonio
    Fjelldal, Per Gunnar
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Overli, Oyvind
    Skjaeraasen, Jon-Egil
    Hansen, Tom Jonny
    Mayer, Ian
    Increased reactivity and monoamine dysregulation following stress in triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2015In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 185, 125-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial triploid salmonids are sterile and therefore commercially bred to prevent genetic interactions between wild and domestic fish strains. The full biological effects of having an extra chromosome set are largely unknown, but triploids are considered to be more sensitive to sub-optimal environmental conditions and to be stressed by the presence of diploid conspecifics. Brain serotonergic and dopaminergic activity are known to regulate the stress response in vertebrates, but monoamine systems in diploid and triploid fish have yet to be compared. Here we study monoamine neurochemistry in the telencephalon and brain stem of juvenile diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to stress (unstressed vs stressed individuals) and holding (separate- vs mixed-ploidy) conditions. Both diploids and triploids showed an increase in serotonergic activity following stress, but the increase was significantly greater in the telencephalon of triploids compared to diploids. Furthermore, while telencephalic dopaminergic activity was significantly increased in diploids following stress, there was no response in triploids. Holding conditions had a significant effect on dopaminergic activity in the brain stem of diploids only, with lower values in mixed- compared to separate-ploidy conditions. These results suggest artificially produced triploids experience increased reactivity and monoaminergic dysregulation following stress that may impede their welfare and performance.

  • 17.
    Höglund, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Blam, PHM
    Winberg, S
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of environmental background colour and social interaction in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).2002In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 205, 2535-2543. p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Höglund, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Blam, PHM
    Winberg, S
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of 5-HT1A receptors on ACTH and cortisol secretion in a teleost fish, the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).2002In: Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 324, 193-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Höglund, Erik
    et al.
    Bakke, Marit J
    Överli, Öyvind
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Nilsson, Göran E
    Suppression of aggressive behaviour in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) by L-tryptophan supplementation2005In: AQUACULTURE, Vol. 249, no 1-4, 525-531 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive interactions and cannibalism of juvenile Atlantic cod may cause substantial production losses under conditions of intensive rearing. In other teleosts, chronically increased brain concentrations and turnover of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are associated with suppressed aggression. Further, dietary supplementation with the serotonin precursor, L-tryptophan (TRP) suppresses aggression in juvenile rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) and reduces cannibalism in juvenile grouper (Epinephelus coioides). In the present study, the behavioural effect of dietary TRP supplementation was observed in pairs of juvenile Atlantic cod subjected to repeated encounters for 10 days. After 3 days, one group was given TRP-supplemented feed (28 g/kg). A significant (P < 0.01) decrease in aggressive acts (from 40 +/- 2.7/ 10 min to 17 +/- 2.0/10 min, mean +/- standard error of mean) was seen after changing to TRP-supplemented feed. The mean number of aggressive acts was also significantly (P<0.05) lower in the TRP-treated group (17 +/- 2.0/10 min) compared to a control group not receiving TRP treatment (29 3.3/10 min). A second experiment examined the effect of TRP-supplemented feed (28 g/kg) on the activity of central 5-HT, quantified as the concentration ratio between the 5-HT metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HT. In this experiment, the TRP-treated group ([5-HIAA]/[5-HT]=0.56 +/- 0.04) showed elevated values (P<0.038) compared with the control group ([5-HIAA]/[5-HT]=0.43 +/- 0.03). In conclusion, this study shows that juvenile Atlantic cod are highly aggressive and that supplementing the feed with TRP affects central 5-HT signalling systems and reduces this behaviour. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Höglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Balm, PHM
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Skin darkening, a potential social signal in subordinate Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): The regulatory role of brain monoamines and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides2000In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 203, no 11, 1711-1721 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic charr were allowed to interact in groups of three for 5 days. Skin darkness was quantified by measuring the mean brightness of individual fish before and after social interaction. Brain levels of monoamines and monoamine metabolites and plasma conc

  • 21.
    Höglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Limnology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Stress-induced changes in brain serotonergic activity, plasma cortisol and aggressive behavior in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is counteracted by L-DOPA2001In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 74, no 3, 381-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) were tested for aggressive behavior using intruder tests, before and after 2 days of dyadic social interaction. Following social interaction, half of the dominant and half of the subordinate fish were given l-DOPA (10 mg/kg, orally), whereas the remaining dominant and subordinate fish were given vehicle. One hour following drug treatment, the fish were tested for aggressive behavior again in a third and final intruder test, after which blood plasma and brain tissue were sampled for analysis of plasma cortisol concentrations and brain levels of monoamines and monoamine metabolites. Subordinate fish showed a reduction in the number of attacks launched against the intruder, as well as an increase in attack latency, as compared to prior to dyadic social interactions. Social subordination also resulted in an elevation of brain serotonergic activity. Fish receiving l-DOPA prior to the final intruder test showed shorter attack latency than vehicle controls. Drug treatment was a stressful experience and vehicle controls showed elevated plasma cortisol levels and longer attack latency as compared to before treatment. l-DOPA-treated fish showed lower plasma levels of cortisol and lower serotonergic activity in certain brain areas than vehicle controls. These results suggest that l-DOPA counteracts the stress-induced inhibition of aggressive behavior, and at the same time inhibits stress-induced effects on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol concentrations.

  • 22.
    Höglund, Erik
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Water Res NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Agder, Ctr Coastal Res, Postboks 422, N-4604 Kristiansand, Norway..
    Overli, Oyvind
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Agr Sci, POB 1432, As, Norway..
    Andersson, Madelene Å.
    Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Silva, Patricia
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Agr Sci, POB 1432, As, Norway.;Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Laursen, Danielle Caroline
    Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Moltesen, Maria M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, North Sea Ctr, Danish Inst Fisheries Res, Dept Marine Ecol & Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol & Evolut, Univ Pk 15,Bldg 3,4th Floor, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Krogdahl, Åshild
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Basic Sci & Aquat Med, POB 8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway..
    Schjolden, Joachim
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Agr Sci, POB 1432, As, Norway..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Vindas, Marco A.
    Uni Res AS, Uni Environm, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Mayer, Ian
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Prod Anim Clin Sci, POB 8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway..
    Hillestad, Marie
    BioMar AS, Nordre Gate 11, N-7011 Trondheim, Norway..
    Dietary L-tryptophan leaves a lasting impression on the brain and the stress response2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 117, no 10, 1351-1357 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary Trp treatment may result in long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness, including changes in plasma cortisol levels and 5-HT neurochemistry in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of Atlantic salmon. Fish were fed diets containing one, two or three times the Trp content in normal feed for 1 week. Subsequently, fish were reintroduced to control feed and were exposed to acute crowding stress for 1 h, 8 and 21 d post Trp treatment. Generally, acute crowding resulted in lower plasma cortisol levels in fish treated with 3xTrp compared with 1xTrp- and 2xTrp-treated fish. The same general pattern was reflected in telencephalic 5-HTergic turnover, for which 3xTrp-treated fish showed decreased values compared with 2xTrp-treated fish. These long-term effects on post-stress plasma cortisol levels and concomitant 5-HT turnover in the telencephalon lends further support to the fact that the extrahypothalamic control of the neuroendocrine stress response is conserved within the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, they indicate that trophic/structural effects in the brain underlie the effects of dietary Trp treatment on stress reactivity.

  • 23. Höglund, Erik
    et al.
    Weltzien, FA
    Schjolden, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Ursin, Holger
    Döving, Kjell B
    Avoidance behavior and brain monoamines in fish2005In: BRAIN RESEARCH, Vol. 1032, no 1-2, 104-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crucian carp performs a typical avoidance behavior when exposed to olfactory cues from injured skin of conspecifics. They swim rapidly to the bottom and hide in available material. This work examines the effects of skin extract exposure and availability of hiding material on this behavior, and concomitant changes in brain monoaminergic activity in crucian carp. Individual fish were exposed to skin extract in aquaria with or without hiding material. Exposure to skin extract resulted in the expected avoidance behavior consisting of rapid movement towards the bottom of the aquarium. This lasted for 1-2 min. Activity then decreased below the level observed before exposure, suggesting a "freezing" type of avoidance behavior. This behavior was independent of availability of hiding material.

    Brain dopaminergic activity increased in telencephalon and decreased in the brain stem following skin extract exposure, again independent of availability of hiding material. However, fish kept in aquaria without hiding material showed an elevation of serotonergic activity in the brain stem and the optic tectum compared to fish with available hiding material. Absence of hiding material increased serotonergic activity also without exposure to skin extract. In aquaria with hiding material, the fish stirred up a cloud of fine sediments and showed a more pronounced decrease in locomotor activity in agreement with this being a more efficient freezing or immobile avoidance behavior. These results show that basic components of avoidance behavior and related brain changes are present in the fish brain, in accordance with the common phylogenetic roots of avoidance behavior in all vertebrates. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Joachim, Schjolden
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Stoskhus, Argaudas
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Does individual variation in stress responses and agonistic behavior reflect divergent stress coping strategies in juvenile rainbow trout?2005In: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY, Vol. 78, no 5, 715-723 p.Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Individual rainbow trout were transferred to visual isolation in experimental aquaria. As a measure of the speed of acclimation, individual food intake was quantified during the first 6 d following transfer. Following acclimation, aggression was quantified by subjecting the fish to three resident-intruder tests, with 30 d of recovery between the tests. Moreover, between the resident-intruder tests (i.e., two times) the fish were exposed to an unfamiliar environment and their cortisol response was measured. The results of this study show that individuals of juvenile rainbow trout differ distinctly in their response to changes in their environment, and that this diversity in behavior is reflected by consistent behavioral traits displayed by individual fish. These traits have proven to be consistent not only over time but also across situations, revealing two distinct behavioral profiles, in the same manner as shown in studies on proactive and reactive mammals. Our results also show that the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, when exposed to a stressor, is a consistent physiological trait in juvenile rainbow trout. We found that difference in HPI axis reactivity is linked to the different behavioral profiles. However, HPI axis reactivity could not be linked directly to the singular behavioral traits measured. In other words, we did not find that the consistent behavioral traits shown by the fish were associated with a difference in HPI axis reactivity in the same manner as the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis does in mammals. Taken together, our results show that stress coping strategies akin to what has been described as reactive and proactive stress coping in mammals appear to exist in juvenile rainbow trout.

  • 25. Jobling, M
    et al.
    Koskela, J
    Winberg, S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Feeding and growth of whitefish fed restricted and abundant rations: influences on growth heterogeneity and brain serotonergic activity1999In: JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, ISSN 0022-1112, Vol. 54, no 2, 437-449 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus, is a schooling species, and it was hypothesized that, when faced with feed restriction, the behaviours associated with a schooling habit would lead to there being less heterogeneity in feeding and growth than has been o

  • 26. Johansson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Björnsson, Björn Thrandur
    Growth hormone-induced stimulation of swimming and feeding behaviour of rainbow trout is abolished by the D-1 dopamine antagonist SCH233902005In: GENERAL AND COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol. 141, no 1, 58-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of GH on various types of behaviour in fish are well documented although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In rainbow trout, an involvement of the brain dopaminergic system in mediating the behavioural effects of GH has been indicated, as GH can alter the brain doparninergic activity. To further examine the role of the dopaminergic system in the mediation of GH effects on locomotion and foraging, GH- and sham-implanted juvenile rainbow trout were injected with the selective D, dopamine antagonist SCH23390 or vehicle. Swimming and feeding activity was then studied by direct observation. Brains were thereafter sampled and analysed for the content of serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites in the hypothalamus, optic tecturn, cerebellum, telencephalon, and brain stem. GH increased swimming activity as well as feed intake, effects which were abolished by SCH23390. By itself, the antagonist did not affect behaviour, nor did it affect the brain monoamines. In contrast, treatment with GH, with or without SCH23390, decreased the content of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in the optic tecturn and the cerebellum, as well as the serotomin content (5-HT) in the optic tectum. It is concluded that the D-1 dopamine receptor of the dopaminergic system appears to be of importance in the mediation of the effects of GH on behaviour. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 27. Johansson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Jönsson, Elisabeth
    Hall, David
    Björnsson, Björn Thrandur
    Peripherally administered growth hormone increases brain dopaminergic activity and swimming in rainbow trout.2004In: Horm Behav, ISSN 0018-506X, Vol. 46, no 4, 436-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Johnsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande Fysiologi.
    Sloman, Katherine A
    Social Interactions2006In: Behaviour and Physiology of Fish, Elsevier, Amsterdam , 2006, 151-197 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29. Jönsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Johansson, Viktoria
    Björnsson, Björn Thrandur
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Central nervous system actions of growth hormone on brain monoamine levels and behavior of juvenile rainbow trout.2003In: Horm Behav, ISSN 0018-506X, Vol. 43, no 3, 367-74 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 30.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lievens, Eva J. P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Bundsen, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Semenova, Svetlana
    Sundvik, Maria
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Panula, Pertti
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Artificial Selection on Relative Brain Size Reveals a Positive Genetic Correlation Between Brain Size and Proactive Personality in the Guppy2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 4, 1139-1149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a "reactive" personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a "proactive" personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration.

  • 31. Larsen, Martin H.
    et al.
    Johnsson, Jorgen I.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    Hammenstig, David
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Midwood, Jonathan D.
    Aarestrup, Kim
    Hoglund, Erik
    Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, e0119127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature.

  • 32. Larson, Earl T
    et al.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Mayer, Ian
    Lepage, Olivier
    Summers, Cliff H
    Överli, öyvind
    Social stress affects circulating melatonin levels in rainbow trout.2004In: Gen Comp Endocrinol, ISSN 0016-6480, Vol. 136, no 3, 322-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lepage, O
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Overli, O
    Petersson, E
    Jarvi, T
    Winberg, S
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Differential stress coping in wild and domesticated sea trout2000In: BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND EVOLUTION, ISSN 0006-8977, Vol. 56, no 5, 259-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offspring of wild and sea-ranched [domesticated) sea trout (Salmo trutta) originating from the same river, were reared under identical hatchery conditions from the time of fertilization. At one year of age individual fish were exposed to two standardized

  • 34. Lepage, O
    et al.
    Tottmar, O
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Winberg, S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Elevated dietary intake of L-tryptophan counteracts the stress-induced elevation of plasma cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).2002In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 205, 3679-3687 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Larson, Earl T
    Mayer, Ian
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Serotonin, but not melatonin, plays a role in shaping dorninant-subordinate relationships and aggression in rainbow trout2005In: HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR, Vol. 48, no 2, 233-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the effects of elevated dietary L-tryptophan (Trp) on aggressive behavior and stress responsiveness in rainbow trout are mediated by circulating melatonin and central serotonin (5-HT), respectively. Isolated rainbow trout were paired for I It a day for 7 days in order to create fish with experience of being dominant and subordinate. Following this week, the fish were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder test after which they were subjected to one of four treatments: (1) tryptophan, (2) the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, (3) melatonin, and (4) no treatment (controls). After 7 days of treatment, the fish were subjected to a second resident-intruder test. Trp-supplemented feed resulted in a suppression of aggressive behavior in fish with experience of being dominant. Moreover, fish fed Trp-supplemented feed, regardless of social experience, also displayed lower plasma cortisol levels than controls. These effects of elevated dietary Trp were closely mimicked by citalopram treatment, whereas exogenous melatonin had no effect on either aggressive behavior or plasma cortisol. Thus, the effect of elevated dietary Trp on aggressive behavior and stress responses does not appear to be mediated by melatonin even though elevated dietary intake of Trp resulted in an increase in plasma melatonin concentrations.

  • 36.
    Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Larson, Earl T
    Mayer, Ian
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Tryptophan affects both gastrointestinal melatonin production and interrenal activity in stressed and nonstressed rainbow trout2005In: Tryptophan affects both gastrointestinal melatonin production and interrenal activity in stressed and nonstressed rainbow trout, Vol. 38, no 4, 264-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that elevated dietary levels of l-tryptophan (Trp) result in elevated plasma levels of melatonin and that this increase in plasma melatonin concentration is caused by elevated melatonin production and secretion by the gastro-intestinal-tract (GIT). Feeding juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Trp-supplemented feed for 7 days resulted in elevated daytime plasma levels of melatonin and reduced poststress plasma cortisol concentrations. Nighttime plasma melatonin concentrations were, however, not affected by elevated dietary Trp. Moreover, stress caused a reduction in daytime plasma levels of melatonin in fish fed Trp-supplemented feed, an effect that was counteracted by treatment with an alpha-receptor antagonist. These results clearly suggest that elevated dietary intake of Trp results in an increase in the GIT production of melatonin in rainbow trout. A suggestion that was further supported by the results from an in vitro experiment demonstrating that addition of Trp to the incubation medium stimulates melatonin production and release by incubated rainbow trout GIT. The results from this study led us to suggest a possible mechanism for melatonin in mediating the effects of elevated dietary Trp on poststress plasma cortisol concentrations and aggressive behavior in rainbow trout.

  • 37. Lepage, Olivier
    et al.
    Va­lchez, Inmaculada Molina
    Pottinger, Tom G
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Time-course of the effect of dietary L-tryptophan on plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.2003In: J Exp Biol, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 206, no Pt 20, 3589-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Magnhagen, C.
    et al.
    Backstrom, T.
    Overli, O.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Nilsson, J.
    Vindas, M. A.
    Brännäs, E.
    Behavioural responses in a net restraint test predict interrenal reactivity in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus2015In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 87, no 1, 88-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a 1 min net restraint test was evaluated as a method to predict stress-coping style in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, by investigating the relationship between behaviour during the test and levels of plasma cortisol sampled after 30 min confinement. In two separate groups of S. alpinus, general linearized model revealed significant correlations between cortisol levels and principal component scores extracted from principal component analysis, combining measures of activity in the tests. With the use of glmulti, the model selection ruled out any effects of size, sex and order of capture on interrenal reactivity. In general, S. alpinus that were more active in the net restraint test also had low levels of circulating cortisol, suggesting a proactive coping style. The results from two repeated runs were not correlated, but both runs, performed eight days apart, show a negative correlation between post-stress cortisol level and activity in the net. The lack of consistency could be explained by different treatments before each run and individual differences in behavioural plasticity. The net restraint test is thus predictive of stress-coping style in S. alpinus, and has the benefit of being less time-consuming than the commonly used confinement stress test.

  • 39. Meager, Justin J.
    et al.
    Ferno, Anders
    Skjaeraasen, Jon Egil
    Jarvi, Torbjorn
    Rodewald, Petra
    Sverdrup, Gisle
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Mayer, Ian
    Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua2012In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 106, no 4, 462-470 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gad us morhua L), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours.

  • 40.
    Moltesen, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol & Evolut, Univ Pk 15,Bldg 3,4th Floor, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.;Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Sect Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Laursen, Danielle Caroline
    Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Sect Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Andersson, Madelene Aberg
    Lund Univ, Dept Expt Med Sci, Chem Biol & Therapeut, POB 188, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Hoglund, Erik
    Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Sect Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark.;NIVA, Norwegian Inst Water Res, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Effects of acute and chronic stress on telencephalic neurochemistry and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2016In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 219, no 24, 3907-3914 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By filtering relevant sensory inputs and initiating stress responses, the brain is an essential organ in stress coping and adaptation. However, exposure to chronic or repeated stress can lead to allostatic overload, where neuroendocrinal and behavioral reactions to stress become maladaptive. This work examines forebrain mechanisms involved in allostatic processes in teleost fishes. Plasma cortisol, forebrain serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurochemistry, and mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF-binding protein (CRFBP), CRF receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptors (GR1 and GR2) and serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptors (5-HT1A alpha and 5-HT1A beta) were investigated at 1 h before and 0, 1 and 4 h after acute stress, in two groups of rainbow trout held in densities of 25 and 140 kg m(-3) for 28 days. Generally, being held at 140 kg m(-3) resulted in a less pronounced cortisol response. This effect was also reflected in lower forebrain 5-HTergic turnover, but not in mRNA levels in any of the investigated genes. This lends further support to reports that allostatic load causes fish to be incapable of mounting a proper cortisol response to an acute stressor, and suggests that changes in forebrain 5-HT metabolism are involved in allostatic processes in fish. Independent of rearing densities, mRNA levels of 5-HT1A alpha and MR were downregulated 4 h post-stress compared with values 1 h post-stress, suggesting that these receptors are under feedback control and take part in the downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis after exposure to an acute stressor.

  • 41.
    Moltesen, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol & Evolut, Univ Pk 15,Bldg 3,4th Floor, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.;Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Aquaculture Sect, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Vindas, Marco Antonio
    Uni Res, Uni Res Environm, Integrat Fish Biol, POB 7803, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Ebbesson, Lars
    Uni Res, Uni Res Environm, Integrat Fish Biol, POB 7803, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    de Lourdes Ruiz-Gomez, Maria
    Univ Autonoma Estado Mexico, Inst Literario Ctr 100, Fac Ciencias, Toluca 50000, Mexico..
    Skov, Peter Vilhelm
    Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Aquaculture Sect, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Dabelsteen, Torben
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol & Evolut, Univ Pk 15,Bldg 3,4th Floor, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Overli, Oyvind
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Aquacultural Sci, POB 5003, NO-1432 As, Norway..
    Höglund, Erik
    Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Aquaculture Sect, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark.;Norsk Inst vannforskning, Niva Reg South, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Cognitive appraisal of aversive stimulus differs between individuals with contrasting stress coping styles; evidences from selected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains2016In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 153, no 13-14, 1567-1587 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In animals, personality variations in response to stress and energy demands have been established. Cognitive processing of negative stimuli correlates with stress response patterns. Still, the relative contribution of cognitive appraisal or physiological demands to the behavioural output needs to be clarified. In this study we utilized reactive (high-responsive, HR) and proactive (low-responsive, LR) rainbow trout strains to investigate how contrasting reactions to hypoxia are related to individual variation in metabolism and/or cognition. The HR-LR strains did not differ in standard metabolic rate or hypoxia tolerance. HR trout displayed more pronounced avoidance to a signal cue after being conditioned with hypoxia, suggesting that they experienced this stimulus more aversive than LR trout. Together with differences in forebrain c-fos activation patterns in dorsomedial pallium, these results suggest cognitive differences between the strains. These results demonstrate that differences in personality/stress coping style can be related to contrasts in cognition, which are independent of metabolic differences.

  • 42.
    Noonin, Chadanat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Circadian regulation of melanization and prokineticin homologues is conserved in the brain of freshwater crayfish and zebrafish2013In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 40, no 2, 218-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circadian clock is important to living organisms to adjust to the external environment. This clock has been extensively studied in mammals, and prokineticin 2 (Prok2) acts as one of the messenger between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. In this study, expression profiles of Prok1 and Prok2 were investigated in a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, zebrafish, and the expression was compared to the Prok homologues, astakines (Ast1 and Ast2) in crayfish. These transcripts exhibited circadian oscillation in the brain, and Ast1 had similar pattern to Prok2. In addition, the expression of tyrosinase, an enzyme which expression is regulated by E-box elements like in Prok2, was also examined in zebrafish brain and was compared with the expression of prophenoloxidase (proPO), the melanization enzyme, in crayfish brain. Interestingly, the expressions of both Tyr and proPO displayed circadian rhythm in a similar pattern to Prok2 and Ast1, respectively. Therefore, this study shows that circadian oscillation of prokineticin homologues and enzymes involved in melanization are conserved.

  • 43.
    Overli, O
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Harris, CA
    Winberg, S
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Short-term effects of fights for social dominance and the establishment of dominant-subordinate relationships on brain monoamines and cortisol in rainbow trout1999In: BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND EVOLUTION, ISSN 0006-8977, Vol. 54, no 5, 263-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report changes in brain serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity, along with plasma cortisol concentrations, occurring during the initial 24-h period following the establishment of dominant-subordinate relationships in pairs of rainbow tro

  • 44.
    Overli, O
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Pall, M
    Borg, B
    Jobling, M
    Winberg, S
    Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Effects of Schistocephalus solidus infection on brain monoaminergic activity in female three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus2001In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ISSN 0962-8452, Vol. 268, no 1474, 1411-1415 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is an intermediate host of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. Changes in predator avoidance, foraging and shoaling behaviour have been reported in sticklebacks infested with S. solidus, but the mechan

  • 45.
    Rosengren, Malin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Johnsson, Jörgen I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sandblom, Erik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Sundell, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    High risk no gain-metabolic performance of hatchery reared Atlantic salmon smolts, effects of nest emergence time, hypoxia avoidance behaviour and size2017In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 175, 104-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When animals are reared for conservational releases it is paramount to avoid reducing genetic and phenotypic variation over time. This requires an understanding of how diverging behavioural and physiological traits affect performance both in captivity and after release. In Atlantic salmon, emergence time from the spawning gravel has been linked to certain behavioural and physiological characteristics and to the concept of stress coping styles. Early emerging fry has for example been shown to be bolder and more aggressive and to have higher standard metabolic rates compared to late emerging fry. The first aim was therefore to examine if emergence latency affect the behavioural stress coping response also beyond the fry and parr stage. This was done using a hypoxia avoidance test, where an active behavioural avoidance response can be related to higher risk taking. No behavioural differences were found between the two emergence fractions either at the parr or pre-smolt stage, instead smaller individuals were more prone to express an "active" hypoxia avoidance response. Further, an individual expressing a "passive" response as parr were also more prone to express this behaviour at the pre-smolt stage. While there are some previous studies showing that early emerging individuals with a bolder personality may be favored within a hatchery setting it is not known to what extent these early differences persist to affect performance after release. The second aim was therefore to compare the physiological performance at the time of release as smolts using the two subgroups; 1) early emerging fish showing active hypoxia avoidance (Early + Bold) and 2) late emerging fish showing a passive hypoxia response (Late + Shy). The Early + Bold group showed a higher red blood cell swelling, suggesting a higher adrenergic output during stress, whereas there was no difference in post-stress plasma cortisol or physiological smolt status. While there was no difference in standard metabolic rate between the groups, the Early + Bold group exhibited a lower maximum metabolic rate and aerobic scope following strenuous swimming. In captivity this may have no clear negative effects, but in the wild, a more risk prone behavioural profile linked to a lower aerobic capacity to escape from e.g. a predator attack, could clearly be disadvantageous.

  • 46.
    Schjolden, Joachim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Backström, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Pulman, Kim G.T.
    Pottinger, Tom G.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Divergence in behavioural responses to stress in two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with contrasting stress responsiveness2005In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 48, no 5, 537-544 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to establish whether two lines of rainbow trout divergent for their plasma cortisol response to a standardized stressor would show consistent differences in their behavioural response to a range of challenging situations. Our results show that the high- and low-responding (HR and LR) lines of rainbow trout did not differ in the aggression shown towards an intruder or in their response to the introduction of a novel object to their home environment. However, there was a difference in behaviour between the two selection lines when they were exposed to two unfamiliar environments. These results suggest that the behaviour of the HR and LR fish differs when they are challenged in unfamiliar environments, while their behaviour does not differ when they are challenged in their home environment. These observations are in agreement with studies on mammals that show that individuals with reactive coping styles perform similarly to proactive animals when they are challenged in a familiar environment, while they show different behaviour when they are challenged in unfamiliar environments. Thus, these results provide further evidence that the HR and LR selection lines of rainbow trout exemplify the two different coping styles described in mammals.

  • 47.
    Schjolden, Joachim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Pulman, Kim
    Metcalfe, Niel
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Divergence in locomotor activity between two strains of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with contrasting stress responsiveness2006In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 68, no 3, 920-924 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with a low cortisol response to stress showed higer locomotor activity compared to individuals with a high cortisol response.

  • 48. Schjolden, Joachim
    et al.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Larson, Earl T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Melanocortin peptides affect the motivation to feed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2009In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 160, no 2, 134-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the effects of one melanocortin receptor (MCR) agonist and two antagonists on food intake in juvenile rainbow trout. Baseline food intake was established prior to 1 microl intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) of the non-specific agonist MTII, the MC4R antagonist HS024 and the MC3/4R antagonist SHU9119 at concentrations of 0.3, 1 or 3 nM. Saline-injected fish and untreated fish served as controls. Changes in food intake were observed 1h after the ICV injections. Our results showed that treatment with MTII significantly decreased food intake at 3 nM compared to control, HS024 significantly increased food intake at 3 nM compared to control and saline-treated fish, and SHU9119 significantly increased food intake at 3 nM compared to saline-treated fish. In conclusion, our study provides further evidence, and hence strengthens the hypothesis, that MC4R participates in the control of energy balance in fish in the same manner as in mammals. Our findings that HS024 is more potent than SHU9119 in increasing food intake suggest that the effects of melanocortin on energy balance in rainbow trout are mainly regulated by activation of MC4R. Hence, HS024 seems an excellent tool as a MC4R antagonist in rainbow trout.

  • 49.
    Schjolden, Joachim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Genetically determined variation in stress responsiveness in rainbow trout: behavior and neurobiology2007In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 70, no 4, 227-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that the diversity in stressors, their intensity, predictability and the context in which they are experienced, will result in behavioral and physiological responses just as diverse. In addition, stress responses are characterized by individual variations where the physiological and behavioral reactions are associated in such a manner that distinct stress coping styles encompassing suites of correlated traits can be identified. These are often referred to as proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Proactive coping is characterized by more aggression, higher general activity and higher sympathetic activation, whereas reactive coping is characterized by immobility, lack of initiative and a higher parasympathetic/hypothalamic activation. Stable coping styles appear to coexist within populations, and these strategies appear to be largely innate. Moreover, the physiological and behavioral traits of coping styles appear to be heritable. These stress coping styles have proven to play a major role in competitive ability and subsequent social position in different species of vertebrates. However, there are also studies showing that social position can affect parameters encompassing the stress coping style of individuals. In this regard it is important, but not always easy, to distinguish between causes and effects of behavioral and physiological responses to stressors. The question raised is to what extent and rigidness stress coping styles are guided by genetic factors.

  • 50.
    Sebire, Marion
    et al.
    Cefas Weymouth Lab, Weymouth DT4 8UB, Dorset, England..
    Davis, Jessica Elphinstone
    Cefas Weymouth Lab, Weymouth DT4 8UB, Dorset, England..
    Hatfield, Robert
    Cefas Weymouth Lab, Weymouth DT4 8UB, Dorset, England..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Katsiadaki, Ioanna
    Cefas Weymouth Lab, Weymouth DT4 8UB, Dorset, England..
    Prozac affects stickleback nest quality without altering androgen, spiggin or aggression levels during a 21-day breeding test2015In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 168, 78-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, and their presence in the aquatic environment may present a threat to non-target aquatic organisms. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (Prozac) has been reported to affect diverse behaviours (feeding, aggression, and reproduction) and also the endocrine system (steroid biosynthesis pathway) in fish. To investigate these claims further, and in particular effects on androgen synthesis, male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to fluoxetine at 0, 3.2, 10 and 32 mu g/L in a flow-through system for 21 days. Their sex was determined prior to exposure using a non-invasive method to collect DNA for determining the genetic sex, reported here for the first time. This was necessary as the exposure required males of a non-breeding status which had not developed secondary characteristics. Post exposure a number of biochemical (serotonin, steroid and spiggin levels) and apical (aggressive behaviour) endpoints were measured. No effects were detected on morphometric parameters, spiggin or androgen (11-ketotestosterone) levels. However, all fluoxetine-exposed male fish had higher cortisol levels in comparison to the control fish, although this effect only persisted throughout the whole exposure duration at the highest concentration (32 mu g/L). In addition, the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT (serotonin metabolite/serotonin) was significantly lower in the brains of males exposed to fluoxetine at all concentrations tested. Although we found no differences in the number of nests built by the males, the quality of the nests produced by the fluoxetine-exposed males was generally inferior consisting only of a basic, rudimentary structure. Males exposed to 32 mu g/L of fluoxetine displayed a delayed response to a simulated threat (rival male via own mirror image) and were less aggressive (number of bites and attacks) toward their mirror image, but these differences were not statistically significant. In summary, fluoxetine exposure resulted in reduced serotonergic activity in the male three-spined stickleback brain suggesting that the mechanism of action between humans and fish is at least partially conserved. Furthermore, this study provided additional evidence of cross-talk between the serotonergic and stress axes as demonstrated by the perturbations in cortisol levels. This potentially complex interaction at brain level may be responsible for the effects observed on nest quality, an endpoint with serious ecological consequences for this species. Finally, despite our hypothesis (an effect on steroid biosynthesis, based on limited literature evidence), we observed no effects of fluoxetine exposure (at the concentrations and duration employed) on male stickleback androgen levels.

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  • rtf