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  • 1.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Creativity Caged in Translation: A Neo-Institutional Perspective on Crisis Communication2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After early attempts to create universal models guiding managers in times of crisis - more recent attempts have focused on situational factors and the relationships between organizations and stakeholders in times of crises. Albeit this shift, structural conditions are often overlooked in the main bulk of research on crisis communication and if they are integrated they are defined as context and as such often excluded in the analysis. This is our point of departure for bringing neo-institutional theory into crisis communication research recognizing the importance of cultural, political, technological, and institutional environments of organizations. By this we shift focus from agency to structure and the social preconditions for organizational activities. However this is not to say that institutions are static or deterministic in the way they influence organizations and their behavior. On the contrary, institutions are open for innovations and interpretations. In this paper we put forward the concept of translation to illustrate and explain how organizations actively relate to and handle institutional pressure, thereby escaping the legal and moral/normative boundaries of institutions. Hereby we aim to contribute to the growing debate within the crisis communication field on new theoretical venues in understanding crisis communication as a practice but also as societal phenomenon. In our conclusion we suggest that the appliance of neo-institutional frameworks will help us understand the conditions under which crisis communication is carried out and in doing so allow researchers and practitioners to have a realistic stance on the limitations and possibility on communication in crises. Further, the framework will increase our abilities to understand the development of crisis communication, its institutionalization and the conditions for these developments.

  • 2.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Den medialiserade myndigheten: En analys av svenska myndigheters anpassningar till medielogiken2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport visar vi hur svenska myndigheter på olika sätt anpassar sig till medierna genom att utveckla metoder, strategier och förhållningssätt som gör det möjligt för dem att aktivt påverka vilken betydelse medierna ska ha i deras verksamheter. Baserat på två delstudier – en innehållsanalys av myndigheternas styrdokument för mediekontakter, och en observations- och intervjustudie av en myndighets mediearbete – kan vi konstatera att det finns stora skillnader i omfattning och typ av anpassning som myndigheter gör till mediernas preferenser, värderingar, rutiner och arbetssätt. Samtidigt som en majoritet av myndigheterna gör en sådan anpassning, kan vi också se att många myndigheter väljer att bortse från medierna i sina styrdokument eller helt väljer att inte upprätta några styrdokument för sin kommunikationsverksamhet. Våra

    studier visar också att när myndigheter tar till sig idén om att de ska anpassa sin

    verksamhet till mediernas normer, principer och arbetsrutiner så sker det genom en politisk process där olika delar av organisationen är involverad. Våra resultat pekar på att myndigheters nyhetsprodukter (rapporter, presentationer, mediematerial etc.), praktiker (mediekontakter, myndighetsutövning, planering, rådgivning etc.), professioner (hur olika yrkesgrupper förhåller sig till sina arbetsuppgifter särskilt i förhållande till medier) och organisering (myndigheters medieaktiviteter i relation till organisering av verksamheten i övrigt) påverkas olika beroende på förhandlingar och styrkeförhållanden mellan myndigheternas grupper av professionella. Så beroende på vilken fråga (t ex publicering av allmännyttiga forskningsresultat eller information till företag om nya regler kring en ny produktkategori); på vilken nivå frågan hanteras (t ex lokalt eller nationellt); och vilken spridning frågan kan tänkas få i medierna, så kommer olika intressen försöka påverka hur myndigheten ska agera i enskilda situationer. Därmed kommer vi till slutsatsen att dels finns skillnader i hur olika myndigheter förhåller sig till medier, men också att en och samma myndighet hanterar kommunikations- och medierelaterade frågor på olika sätt beroende på vilken del av verksamheten vi tittar på.

  • 3. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Diverging principles for strategic communication in government agencies2016In: International Journal of Strategic Communication, ISSN 1553-118X, E-ISSN 1553-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyze how public authorities deal with strategic communication and how it gets redefined and reformulated in relation to rules, norms and ideas permeating different contexts. Research on strategic communication tends to oversee such differences and what consequences they have for what it is that mobilizes the use of communication in various settings. Instead mainstream literature often stresses the commonalities and the idea of strategic communication as guided by one set of values. This limited focus tends to make the literature insensitive to the context where communication takes place, what aim it is set to fulfil, and what organization there is at hand.

    Informed by an increasing literature on organizational institutionalism we seek to challenge these assumptions. With a textual analysis of policies and strategy documents from 173 Swedish government agencies we examine what multiple and contradictory institutional conditions mean for how strategic communication is conceptualized. The results show that there are four frequent principles for strategic communication mobilized by the agencies. The results also show that a vast majority of the agencies are trying to handle conflicting principles when they form frameworks and strategies for their communication activities.

    We use the results as a point of departure for a critical discussion whether complex and pluralistic conditions are to be defined as problematic and necessary to be resolved (as mainstream literature would suggest) or as unavoidable and something authorities must be able to handle.

  • 4.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Justifications of communication in an inconsistent world: An analysis of corporate communication in Swedish governmental agencies2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we seek to illustrate how these challenges have been answered by examining how Swedish governmental agencies justify their work with communication and what understanding of communication this justifications rest upon. We give particularly attention to what higher common purpose communication is used for, specific aims, primary target groups/stakeholders, conceptualization and ideals of communication and the role of communicators. We use then these aspects of how communication are operationalized to discuss what set of values and preferences seem to dominate the strategy documents of the agencies – i.e. how is communication in the public sector conceptualized at the level of relating to overall value systems representing higher social orders. The paper introduces Boltanski and Thevenot’s conception of worths in order to provide an analytical tool by which we can examine how agencies in the Swedish public sector justify and handle - at the symbolical and discursive level - the communicative challenges they face. The empirical part builds on content analysis of gives an account of 357 steering documents from 173 Swedish governmental agencies and it gives an account of how the agencies present and justify their communication priorities and strategies. 

  • 5.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Med synlighet som ledstjärna: En analys av vilka principer som styr kommunikationsarbetet i nationella förvaltningsmyndigheter2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska myndigheter lägger stor vikt vid kommunikation. Många har särskilda kommunikationsavdelningar och i mer än 65 procent av organisationerna sitter kommunikationsdirektören, eller motsvarande, med i myndighetens ledningsgrupp. Som kollektiv är myndigheter bland de största köparna av tjänster från reklambyråer och kommunikationskonsulter, och informatörer anställda i offentlig sektor utgör en betydande majoritet av medlemmarna i branschorganisationen Sveriges kommunikatörer. Samtidigt vet vi relativt lite om hur myndigheter ser på, och förhåller sig till, sin kommunikation som ett medel för att genomföra sina uppdrag.

    Syftet med analysen som presenteras här är att kartlägga vilka principer som styr myndigheters kommunikationsarbete för att på så vis belysa och åtminstone delförklara de olika problem som det pekas på i myndigheters kommunikation. Vad vi söker svar på är fyra frågor:

    1. Vilka principer styr myndigheters kommunikationsarbete?
    2. Vad innebär olika principer för hur man ser på när, var, hur, med vem och varför myndigheter ska kommunicera?
    3. I vilken utsträckning och på vilket sätt står olika principer i konflikt med varandra sett utifrån ett kommunikationsperspektiv?
    4. I vilken utsträckning och på vilket sätt medvetandegörs och hanteras dessa konflikter i strategi- och styrdokument?

    Utgångspunkten är att myndigheters verksamheter – på samma sätt som andra typer av organisationer – utöver lagar, regler och förordningar, också styrs av normer och principer som beskriver vad som är rätt, vad som är fel, vad som är viktigt, vad man ska sträva efter och på så vis skapar mening i det arbete man utför. Principernas kraft ligger i att det är konstruerade på samhällsnivå och många gånger för givet tagna. Organisationer reflekterar inte över dem, de är självklara.

    Principerna förekommer på olika nivåer i samhället och de kan knytas till yrkesgrupper, sektorer och branscher men det är också fullt möjligt att peka ut ett mindre antal principer som fungerar i mycket bredare samhällssammanhang och som därför är allomfattande. I analysen utgår vi ifrån Boltanski och Thévenot (2006) som skiljer ut sex principer; kreativitet, tradition, ryktbarhet, det civila, marknaden och produktionen. Tidigare studier visar att en organisation ytterst sällan styrs utifrån en enda princip. Det är snarare regel än undantag att en och samma organisation tvingas hantera att olika principer ställs mot varandra.

    För att besvara frågorna har vi analyserat myndigheters styrdokument för kommunikation. Inledningsvis tillfrågades samtliga nationella förvaltningsmyndigheter enligt SCB:s förteckning (N=252) om de hade sådana dokument. 173 myndigheter återkom med totalt 357 dokument bland annat profilmanualer, kommunikationspolicys, kommunikationsstrategier med mera. Bakgrunden till valet av styrdokument som material är att det är texter av argumenterande karaktär där myndigheterna beskriver när, var, hur, med vem och varför man ska kommunicera. Vilket också på så vis synliggör – explicit eller implicit – vilka principer myndigheter tar utgångspunkt i för sitt kommunikationsarbete.

     

    Resultaten visar att det är fyra principer som framträder i myndigheternas dokument:

    • Ryktbarhetens principer (85 procent av myndigheterna) – att kommunikationen ska uttrycka myndighetens identitet, göra den synlig, påverka bilden av organisationen och skapa förtroende.
    • Produktionens principer (82 procent av myndigheterna) – att kommunikationen ska bidra till verksamhetens måluppfyllelse, vara välordnad, planerad och strategisk och koordinera verksamheten.
    • Det civilas principer (65 procent av myndigheterna) - att kommunikationen ska fungera som samhällsinformation, ge upplysning och service till medborgare, underlätta för journalisters granskning och faktasökande och redovisa resultat till uppdragsgivare. På så vis ska kommunikationen understödja samhällets demokratiska processer.
    • Marknadens principer (22 procent av myndigheterna) - att kommunikationen ska positionera myndigheten och generera försäljning och utbyten mellan myndigheten och kunder. I första hand en princip som framträder i dokumenten från universitet och högskolor.
    • Kreativitetens och traditionens principer förekommer inte i materialen från någon myndighet.

    Resultaten visar också att en betydande majoritet (84 procent) av myndigheterna söker stöd i mer än en princip och därför har att hantera olika typer av konflikter. I vissa fall är det högst påtagliga skillnader som också görs explicita som när det civilas ställs mot ryktbarhetens principer. Att vara fullständigt öppen och samtidigt sträva efter att presentera en uteslutande och tillrättalagd bild innebär stora svårigheter. Här finns många exempel på myndigheter som försöker upprätta en gräns för när anställda får kommunicera med omvärlden och vad de kan uttala sig om, samtidigt som de (ofta myndigheters ledning) försöker göra tydligt att detta inte inskränker meddelarskyddet eller offentlighetsprincipen.

    I andra fall är konflikterna mindre påtagliga - och ter sig sannolikt mindre bekymrande i praktiken - som när myndigheter ställer ryktbarhetens mot marknadens principer. I många sammanhang är ett starkt varumärke intimt förknippat med att stärka sin marknadsposition och på så vis bidra till en ökad försäljning (eller rekrytering av studenter).

  • 6. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Media at the center: Public relations in public administrations in the wake of managerialism2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper rests on an assumption that media is much more than a channel or type of organization and that we have to take media under consideration if we want to understand the conditions for public administrations and their public relations activities. This is very much due to the processes of mediatization; that is to say, the double-sided process through which media a) emerge as an autonomous institution with its own set of rationalities that other institutions adapt to; and b) become an integrated part of other institutions’. 

    A second assumption is that the extent to which public administrations adapt to media varies between different types of organizations, mostly as a consequence of an organization’s management structure. Public administrations governed by career managers are more eager to get media attention and control the media image of their organizations compared to administrations governed by field professionals. Circumstances that position public relations at the center of these organizations’ activities but with limited freedom of action.

    This raises a number of questions concerning circumstances, motives and consequences for public relations and in this paper we suggest three propositions for how we can understand the interplay between media in its institutional form, public administrations and public relations 1) public administrations are mediatized beyond discretion and influence of public relations; 2) media activities of public administrations are formalized and standardized beyond the scope of public relations and 3) media activities of public administrations are more autonomous than public relations.

  • 7. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Media at the center: Public relations in public administrations in the wake of managerialism. Mediatization of bureaucracy2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper rests on an assumption that media is much more than a channel or type of organization and that we have to take media under consideration if we want to understand

    the conditions for public administrations and their public relations activities. This is very much due to the processes of mediatization; that is to say, the double-sided process through which media a) emerge as an autonomous institution with its own set of rationalities that other institutions adapt to; and b) become an integrated part of other institutions’.

    A second assumption is that the extent to which public administrations adapt to media varies between different types of organizations, mostly as a consequence of an organization’s management structure. Public administrations governed by career managers are more eager to get media attention and control the media image of their organizations compared to administrations governed by field professionals. Circumstances that position public relations at the center of these organizations’ activities but with limited freedom of action.

    This raises a number of questions concerning circumstances, motives and consequences for public relations and in this paper we suggest three propositions for how we

    can understand the interplay between media in its institutional form, public administrations and public relations 1) public administrations are mediatized beyond discretion and influence of public relations; 2) media activities of public administrations are formalized and standardized beyond the scope of public relations and 3) media activities of public administrations are more autonomous than public relations. 

  • 8.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Much ado about media: Public relations in public agencies in the wake of managerialism2016In: Journal of Public Relations Research, ISSN 1062-726X, E-ISSN 1532-754X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 600-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper rests on an assumption that media is much more than a communication channel or type of organization and that we have to take media under consideration if we want to understand the conditions for public agencies and their public relations activities. This is very much due to the processes of mediatization; that is to say, the double-sided process through which media a) emerge as an autonomous institution with its own set of rationalities that other institutions adapt to; and b) become an integrated part of other institutions’. 

    A second assumption is that the extent to which public agencies adapt to media varies between different types of organizations, mostly as a consequence of an organization’s management structure. Public agencies governed by career managers are more eager to get media attention and control the media image of their organizations compared to agencies governed by field professionals. Circumstances that position public relations at the centre within agencies governed by career managers, but with limited freedom of action.

    This raises a number of questions concerning circumstances, motives and consequences for public relations and in this paper we suggest three propositions for how we can understand the interplay between media in its institutional form, public agencies and public relations 1) public relations professionals have limited control to what degree public agencies adapt to the media logic 2) public relations professionals have limited control over public agencies media activities due to their high level of formalization and standardization 3) public relations in public agencies is to an extensive degree limited to media activities.

  • 9. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Public Relations in the wake of managerialism: Why career managers of public administrations are more eager to control their own and their organization’s media activities compared to field professionals.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper rests on an assumption that media is much more than a channel or type of organization and that we have to take media under consideration if we want to understand the conditions for public administrations and their public relations activities. This is very much due to the processes of mediatization; that is to say, the double-sided process through which media a) emerge as an autonomous institution with its own set of rationalities that other institutions adapt to; and b) become an integrated part of other institutions’. 

    A second assumption is that the extent to which public administrations adapt to media varies between different types of organizations, mostly as a consequence of an organization’s management structure. Public administrations governed by career managers are more eager to get media attention and control the media image of their organizations compared to administrations governed by field professionals. Circumstances that position public relations at the center of these organizations’ activities but with limited freedom of action.

    This raises a number of questions concerning circumstances, motives and consequences for public relations and in this paper we suggest three propositions for how we can understand the interplay between media in its institutional form, public administrations and public relations 1) public administrations are mediatized beyond discretion and influence of public relations; 2) media activities of public administrations are formalized and standardized beyond the scope of public relations and 3) media activities of public administrations are more autonomous than public relations.

  • 10. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Public sector communication and media visibility and mediatization2017In: Handbook of Public Sector Communication / [ed] Vilma Luoma-aho & Maria José Canel, Boston: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Regler, normer och föreställningar.: Ett neoinstitutionellt perspektiv på strategisk kommunikation2011In: Strategisk kommunikation. Forskning och praktik: forskning och praktik / [ed] Falkheimer, Jesper & Heide, Mats, Malmö: Liber , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med detta kapitel är att introducera det neoinstitutionella perspektivetoch peka på hur det kan användas för att förstå strategisk kommunikation.Vi gör det genom att beskriva och diskutera hur regler, normer ochföreställningar bestämmer förutsättningarna för strategisk kommunikationoch hur vi kan förstå att det är likheter snarare än egenheter, särprägel ochavvikelser som utmärker kommunikationen när vi jämför organisationermed varandra. I detta knyter vi an till andra forskare som ställer sig kritiskatill hur forskningen om strategisk kommunikation tar sig uttryck.

  • 12.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Strategic communication as institutional work2014In: The Routledge Handbook of Strategic Communication / [ed] Derina Holtzhausen, Ansgar Zerfass, London: Routledge, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Informed by the insights from neo-institutional theory this paper seeks to discuss the problematic and often contradictory efforts of organisations to employ and follow the ideas of strategic behaviour in their communicative activities. In the first part of the paper we analyse strategic communication as determined and limited by structural conditions (i.e. rules, norms and cognitive categories) arguing that strategic behaviour of organizations is institutionally bounded. In the second part we re-address the notion of strategic communication as directed towards these institutional structures rather than specific organizational aims and goals. In this context we use the concept of institutional work performed as providing, promoting and co-opting through which organisations actively and strategically relate to and handle institutional pressures. Thereby, strategic communication of organizations is both subjected to prevailing institutional structures as well as it is constitutive for these structures.

  • 13. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The localities of mediatization: How organizations translate the ideas of media in everyday practices2017In: Dynamics of mediatization: Understanding cultural and social change’ enclosed / [ed] Stig Hjarvard, Göran Bolin, Andreas Hepp & Olivier Driessens, Boston: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rationale for this paper departures from the argument that current literature would benefit from more systematic studies of how mediatization unfolds in organizations (Jensen, 2013). We suggest a perspective where the media – similarly to other institutions– is dealt with in terms of rationalized ideas that are actively translated and transformed in and by organizations (Sahlin & Wedlin, 2008; Sevón & Czarniawska, 1996). This means that media can be addressed as locally negotiated in relations to other institutions that permeate contemporary organizations (Pallas & Fredriksson 2014). This also means that media can be better understood if it is examined as a set of elements - rather than as a monolithic logic - where each element is interpreted, made sense of and negotiated under their own specific conditions often with different outcomes depending on the actual institutional figurations (cf. Hepp & Hasebrink, 2014).

    Our previous studies (Fredriksson, Schillemans, & Pallas, 2015; Pallas & Fredriksson, 2013; Pallas, Fredriksson, & Wedlin, 2016) as well as work of others (Kunelius & Reunanen, 2012; Schillemans, 2012; Thorbjornsrud, Ustad Figenschou, & Ihlen, 2014) provide support for this claim. Among other things it is obvious that mediatization has to be seen as a set of rather disparate processes (Heusinkveld, Benders, & Hillebrand, 2013; Meyer & Höllerer, 2010); which in turn means that way in which mediatization unfolds in specific context will be characterized by great diversity and complexity (cf. Røvik, Andersson & Eriksson-Zetterquist 2008). This is especially likely in organizations that operate at the juncture of fragmented streams of interests (Levay & Waks, 2009) and in organizations that are populated by representatives of various professions (Suddaby & Viale, 2011).

    That said, the ideas of media are vague and imprecise in many ways and with an apparent shapelessness in contrast to other types of rationalized ideas (e.g. Service Management, Lean, Balanced Scorecards) accompanied by and supported by formal rules, standards and best practices (Morris & Lancaster, 2006; Mueller & Whittle, 2011). Consequently, the translations of the media are open for interests, values and preferences of different professions that in organizations embody the rationales of mediatization. Here, mediatization becomes a way of mobilizing meaning (Waldorff, 2013), as the various interpretations and understanding of media become subjected to various –and often conflicting– professional principles or frames (Kunelius & Reunanen, 2012).

  • 14.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Box 710, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Translated Inconsistency: Management Communication Under the Reign of Institutional Ambiguity2017In: Management Communication Quarterly, ISSN 0893-3189, E-ISSN 1552-6798, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 473-478Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15. Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Translating Public Relations: A discussion of what organizational institutionalism has to offer to research on public relations2016In: Handbook of Public Relations Theory and Methods / [ed] Coombs T. W., Holladay, S. J. & Dodd, M. D., Boston: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we will discuss what organizational institutionalism has to offer public relations as a field of research. One aim to show how it can shed new light on already established issues, such as legitimacy for organizations and the PR-profession and the role of public relations in times of public scrutiny. Another is to show how it can offer new insights and provide concepts, models and theories not already established in the field. Among other things we will show how organizational institutionalism can help us understand why organizations are eager to adapt popular models (such as integrated communication and relationship management) and why they play out differently in different organizations.

    An essential part of this discussion is to point out the critique organizational institutionalism has attracted for being over-deterministic in its view on social actors and their abilities to actively respond to and change institutionalized activities and ideas. Taking this critique seriously has served as a source of extensive theoretical advancement and among these developments the concept of translation is one of the more promising approaches especially if one wants to apply organizational institutionalism to public relations. Essential to this approach is that organizations actively select and transform general ideas and create something that suits their local context. Thus translation points out how public relations can be both an institutionally defined activity that follows taken-for-granted rules, norms and ideas about how to communicate and at the same time be a locally constructed activity that takes on different forms in different contexts. A translation approach thereby offers a toolbox that makes it possible for scholars to understand a) how and why public relations is practiced as it is b) what it is that motivates organizations to adapt certain strategies even though something else is perceived as best practice or more efficient and c) how this interplay with organizational as well as institutional conditions.

  • 16.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, JMG.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Wehmeier, Stefan
    Public Relations and Neo-institutional theory2013In: Public Relations Inquiry, ISSN 2046-147X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 183-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special section seeks to enrich research on the field by using neo-institutional theory to describe, explain and understand the activities, processes and dynamics of public relations. By this we open up for a wider understanding of public relations, its preconditions, its performances and its consequences for shaping the social. We argue that public relations could be analyzed as an institutionalized practice with certain set of governing mechanisms including taken-for-granted activities, rules, norms and ideas. Here neo-institutional theory is well situated as it is a tradition where communication is put at fore in the understanding of organizations, institutions and society. Another argument for this is recent developments where public relations and other forms of organizational communication have been examined as a major dimension of organizing in some of the more profound works among neo-institutional theorists.

    The article starts with a discussion of earlier work in the tradition of neo-institutional theory were  a lot of  attention was paid to the governing mechanisms of institutions and how they control the behaviour of actors. A perspective leading to some fundamental challenges where the primary objections were raised against the over-determinism neo-institutional researchers ascribed institutions. Taking these objectives seriously has served as a source of extensive theoretical and empirical puzzles characterizing many of the contemporary efforts – most of them explicitly emphasizing the role of communication and symbolical/rethorical means as essential in all institutional processes. Among these we find three streams we find relevant and fruitful for analyses of public relations: institutional logics, translation and institutional work. These themes are further developed in text and discussed in releationship to what implications they have on public relations research. How an employment of the logic can help us gain a more profound understanding of public relations and communication as an institutional practice. How public relations function as a carrier and translator of institutions. How public relations is used to challenge and re-shape the foundations on which social actors interact with each other. 

  • 17.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Thomas, Schillemans
    Utrecht University, School of Governance .
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Determinants of Organizational Mediatization: An Analysis of the Adaption of Swedish Government Agencies to News Media2015In: Public Administration, ISSN 0033-3298, E-ISSN 1467-9299, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 1049-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article seeks to explain why the media affect some governmental agencies more than others. We develop a measuring instrument for the mediatization of agencies; gauging how they adapt to the media. We analyse the effects of six potential explanations of mediatization: media pressure, organizational size and task, salience, geographic location, and management structure. The analysis is based on a comprehensive quantitative contents analysis of policy documents from all governmental agencies in Sweden. The results show that agencies' propensity to adapt to the media is mainly determined by their management structure rather than, as could have been expected, by media pressure. Organizations managed by career managers invest more in media management than those led by field-professionals. Our results suggest that agencies have substantial agency in terms of how they cope with the media and that mediatization refers to much more than passive adaptation by organizations.

  • 18.
    Grafström, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Grünberg, Jaan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Windell, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ekonominyhetens väg: Från kvartalsrapporter till ekonominyheter2006Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Grünberg, Jaan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Barbarians at the Gates?: Organizations Protecting and Promoting Their (Non)Technical Cores Through Institutional Boundary-Spanning2009In: Exploring the Worlds of Mercury and Minerva: Essays for Lars Engwall / [ed] Linda Wedlin, Kerstin Sahlin, Maria Grafström, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2009, p. 243-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Grünberg, Jaan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Beyond the news desk: the embeddedness of business news2013In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 216-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between the media and their corporate sources have become increasingly routinized and organized. In contrast to traditional perspectives on news making this article introduces an embeddedness perspective on business journalism and reports on the findings from a study of the way the major Swedish corporations and financial analysts contribute to and participate in the production of business news. Through a qualitative analysis of two cases we show that such production is organized and carried out in a stream of continuous and well-coordinated activities and structured interaction settings – that is, in a system of recursive mediation. Our analysis further illustrates how this system is maintained through the technological, relational and situational embeddedness of the activities and settings. Through our studies we show how news production has developed outside the journalistic domain. One implication of our findings is that the possibility of individual actors influencing the content of the news is likely to be limited. Instead, it is the actors’ ability to join the organizational and technological settings in which news material is generated that gives them the opportunity to actively participate in news production. 

  • 21.
    Grünberg, Jaan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Utanför nyhetsdesken: om nyhetsproduktion som interaktivt kretslopp2010In: Företag och medier / [ed] Lars Strannegård, Josef Pallas, Malmö: Liber , 2010, 1, p. 41-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22. Langer, Roy
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Negotiation of Corporate News: A Study of Source-Media Interaction2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has described the increasing number of corporate media relations experts and the professionalization of their work vis-à-vis media and focussed on providing normative and directive advice on how to interpret and address this development from a critical (concerned/societal) or an instrumental (organizational/professional oriented) perspective. By employing institutional thoughts on translation and editing, we propose a different research perspective on journalist-source interactions. Based on empirical field studies at a business news department at a major Danish broadsheet newspaper and on two separate corporate information departments at two Swedish companies, we argue that the relation between journalists and their sources is as much a relation of mutual dependency and negotiation as it is a relation of conflict, power and diverging interests. We also argue that corporate media work is not only a temporally and spatially dispersed set of dynamic and constantly re-negotiated activities, but also a routinized and highly organized process that is institutionally and organizationally rooted between the different actors. Hence, this paper seeks to contribute to further in-depth understanding of the negotiation of corporate and business news.

  • 23.
    Lövgren, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Blogging for Reputation: An analysis of how Swedish universities address different governing system via social media2013In: The Governance of Modern Universities / [ed] Lars Engwall, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities are exposed to a variety of external forces that influence the way they are managed and organized. In this paper we examine how these principles are given space in the way universities communicate. We do this by analyzing how the university management - in this case Swedish universities’ Vice-chancellors – describe, promote and explain their organizations via official blogs. The paper builds on a framework where university governance is understood as based on a relationship between state, profession and market, and as driven by three forms of social judgments - legitimacy, status and reputation. From a total of fourteen VC blogs, 1330 posts are analyzed according to three sets of arguments: 1) legitimacy arguments driven by political outcome; 2) status arguments driven by professional values and boundaries; and 3) reputation arguments driven by market consequences. The results reflect a dominance of reputation aspects, highlighting the centrality of market principles in communication and university governance. 

  • 24.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Deceptions of consistency: challenges for public sector communication2013In: Mercury, ISSN 2001-3272, Vol. 2, no 5-6, p. 40-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Public sector organizations are expected to behave as "proper organizations" and communicate accordingly. However, their very nature makes it practically impossible to implement and uphold consistency and coherency in what is to be communicated.

  • 25.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Divided we stand: Akademiska ledares idéer om vad vi har universitet till2016In: Det styrda universitet.:  Perspektiv på styrning, autonomi och reform av svenska lärosäten. / [ed] Linda Wedlin, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskussionen kring vad vi har universitet – och högre utbildning och forskning i allmänhet till – har alltid varit levande och aktuella. Demokratiska, politiska, kulturella, religiösa, sociala och ekonomiska överväganden och prioriteringar har tydligt präglat universitetets drygt tusenåriga historia. Därmed har frågor om dess syfte, utbyggnad, organisation och styrning också fått kantats av en bred skara varierande och konkurrerande viljor och perspektiv. Såväl svenska som internationella studier visar att synen på universitet kan i grunden kopplas till universitetens skiftande position, roll och förhållanden till olika historiska och samhälleliga arrangemang och förutsättningar. Universitetet existerar därmed i multipla och komplexa miljö där det råder otydlighet kring hur det ska förstå och hantera sin verksamhet och sin identitet. Men universitet är inte bara föremål och arena för andras idéer om dess syfte och organisering. Universitet är i högsta grad aktiva i mottagandet av de förväntningar och modeller som definierar dess verksamhet. Trots att många studier har tagit utgångspunkt i denna komplexitet vet vi relativt lite om hur olika föreställningar och idéer interagerar, och hur de kommer till uttryck när de internt formuleras och tolkas på en nivå – dekaner och prefekter – där de kan förväntas vara centrala för universitetens övergripande syfte, organisering och styrning.

    Utifrån 24 intervjuer med akademiska ledare (13 dekaner, 7 prefekter och 4 forskningsledare) vid Uppsala universitet (5), Göteborgs universitet (9) och Lunds universitet (10), och med stöd av en innehållsanalys av styr- och strategidokument från 29 svenska universitet och högskolor kommer jag här att illustrera hur idén om universitetet tar sin (varierande?) form där den kan antas vara vägledande för hur resten av universitetet ser på och förstår sina aktiviteter. Utifrån frågan ”Vad är ett universitet?” har dessa ledare ombetts att förklara hur de förstår och sedan även översätter och kommunicerar – både formellt och i sina dagliga interaktioner med kollegor, studenter, politiker, finansiärer m fl. – det ansvar och de prioriteringar som ställs på universitetet i allmänhet och deras egen organisation i synnerhet. Kapitlet söker därmed svar på frågan om det är möjligt att identifiera och formulera en sammanhållen och gemensam definition av universitet är och vad vi har det till. 

  • 26.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Informatörerna och medierna2010In: Företag och medier / [ed] Josef Pallas och Lars Stannegård, Malmö: Liber , 2010, 1, p. 209-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Mediability and Public Sector Organizations: a Case of Swedish Governmental Agency’s responses to mediatization2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to contribute to our understanding of how organizational members respond to and enact an ambiguous institutional practice. We use a case of mediatization – taken-for-granted values and norms for how to manage, organize and conduct media activities- and the way it gets maintained, challenged and re-constructed within the realm of specific organizational settings. By way of focusing on how mediatization gets contested and negotiated, the paper addresses media activities of organizations as mediability – an active and skillful process through which organizational members translate mediatization rationales into activities of their organizations. In empirical terms, the paper addresses how one of the major Swedish Governmental Agencies reasons about and understands its activities and responsibilities in different contexts where media are brought to fore; and how these understandings of media influence the agency’s communication. The study rests on observational data collected between April and June 2012 and 19 interviews with representatives from the agency.

    The results show that mediability reflects a process that, despite its institutional embeddedness, unfolds unevenly as its different aspects (news products, practices, professional values and organizational structures and forms) are strategically contested and continuously re-negotiated between different professions involved in the media activities of the agency. Mediatization remains thereby in a constant contestation both at the level of individual organizations as well as in its institutional form. With respect to its uneven influences on different aspects of an organization’s communication activities, the notion of mediability as non-conclusive process paves the way for a more context-sensitive analysis of organizational responses to institutional ambiguity. 

  • 28.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Mediatization2015In: The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Mass Media and Society / [ed] Debra Merskin & J. Geoffrey Golson, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Mediatization & Corporate Reputation2016In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Corporate Reputation / [ed] Craig E. Carroll, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediatization as a theoretical, analytical and empirical concept has over the last couple of decades made a serious and influential entry in a number of disciplines and academic fields. The notion of mediatization has been picked up, used and developed in areas such as media and communication science, public relations, journalism, psychology, sociology, business administration, religion, political science and many others. By way of describing the processes and changes that come with an increased used and importance of (mass) media, scholars on mediatization contribute to our understanding of how different parts of our societies - and actors within these –communicate and organize their activities. Mediatization reflects thus both cultural, institutional as well as material perspectives on the changing patterns of interactions. In relation to the main theme of the encyclopedia this chapter focuses on how mediatization can relate to the challenges in re-conceptualizing corporate reputation as an institutional – as in opposition to organization specific - process. 

  • 30.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Talking Organizations 2: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Corporate Press-releases at Two Major Swedish Corporations2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on data coming from a research project examining relationships between large Swedish corporations and business media. The project focuses both on analyzing content of corporate press material like press releases and public statements as well as on production processes and actors involved in initiating, creating and distributing such material. The study examines content in press releases from the 13 largest publicly listed corporations in Sweden. Three of the main questions raised in my research bring up issues concerning: 1) temporal consistency in the content of corporate press releases; 2) consistency in the type and number of organizational actors appearing in corporate texts; and 3) relationships between content topics and organizational members (actors) that are cited in the texts. This course paper will hopefully bring more insight into these questions. XXXX and YYYY and their press releases from 1996-2004 have been used here in order to test some of the hypothesis based on the above raised outline.

  • 31.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Talking Organizations: A Narrative Analysis of Corporate Press Releases - an Institutional View2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Studying content and form of corporate presentations contributes to our understanding of organizations and their self-representations in institutional settings. The paper reports a study of how large organizations are portrayed and presented in their public statements, based on the analysis of press releases from thirteen largest corporations listed on Swedish stock exchange during 2002.

    An analysis of five central narrative elements (Theme, Scene, Actor, Narrator and Narrative time) shows that the studied organizations tend to focus on four central themes in their press releases. Sales stories focus on new and successful businesses and orders, while Product stories emphasize development and presentation/introduction of new products. These two types of stories relate to corporate strength and growth. The two other salient themes identified in the material were Financial stories, i.e. statements on financial results, investment activities, etc., and Organizational stories, concerning structural and managerial changes. These stories create a sense of traditional self-representations of organizations, promoting t an image of an independent, unique and wealthy organization. At the same time, the results indicate similarities between press releases from companies acting in comparable environments (industry, technology, etc.), supporting the idea of viewing institutions as affecting content and form of corporate expressiveness.

  • 32.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Talking Organizations: Corporate Media Work and Negotiations of Local Practice2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary business organizations are becoming increasingly medialized. The present thesis builds on the assumption that the media play an important part in shaping relations between organizations and their environments, and that we need to know more about the way organizations respond to and influence the media and the production of news. Following a close examination of thirteen major Swedish corporations and their media activities it has been suggested that business organizations are actively involved not only in direct media work, i.e. activities concerned with news coverage, but also in influencing the organizational and professional settings in which the production of news occurs. This involvement on the part of the companies embraced the production of media texts, the development of various relationships with the media, organizational arrangements for their Corporate Communications departments, and the professionalization of company-media interaction.This corporate involvement has been perceived as being exercised via a set of purposeful negotiations whereby the companies contribute to the co-shaping of the short-term conditions for the coverage of news regarding their conduct, as well as other general settings consisting the routines, norms and expectations that shape their long-term interactions with the media. It has been concluded that more attention should be paid to company-media activities identified as a negotiated local practice. This practice constitutes a formal behavioural frame of reference for the interacting actors, as it allows for the possibility of mutual adjustments and professional improvisations. Thus, with its suggestion for bridging between institutional expectations and locally developed solutions, the notion of negotiated local practices gives us a more comprehensive understanding of the way individual organizations interact with and co-shape their environments.

  • 33.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The coherent multiversity2014In: INCONSISTENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION / [ed] Anne Ellerup Nielsen, Josef Pallas, Lars T. Christiansen, Lee Edwards, Peter Winkler, Lisabon: ECREA , 2014, p. 1-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion about what we have universities for - and higher education and research in general  - is neither new nor settled. Democratic, political, cultural, religious, social and economic considerations and priorities have clearly characterized the university's more than millennial history. Thereby, questions about its purpose, development, structuring and control have been subjected to a wide group of diverse and competing wills and perspective. Both Swedish and international studies show that the perception of universities can be fundamentally linked to the university's shifting position, role and relationships to various historical and societal events and conditions (Maassen & Olsen, 2007). The University exists – can be argued – in a multiple and complex environment characterized by a lack of clarity about how to understand and manage its activities and its identity (Välimaa, Stensaker, & Sarrico, 2012). But the university is not only an object and arena for other actors’ ideas about its purpose and organization. The university is highly active in the reception of the expectations and models that define its activities (Sahlin, 2012). Although many studies (see, for example, Etzkowitz, 2005; Krücken Kosmützky, & Dry, 2007; Sundqvist, 2010) have this complexity as an starting point, we know relatively little about how different beliefs and ideas about university interact, and how they are expressed when they internally get formulated and interpreted inside university organizations on a level (of university presidents, deans and heads of departments) where they can be expected to have a central and performative role for how universities are organized, managed and presented (de Boer & Goedegebuure, 2009). Based on 24 interviews with academic leaders (13 deans, seven heads of departments and 4 research leaders) at Uppsala University (5), University of Gothenburg (9) and Lund University (10), and with a support of a content analysis of strategy documents from 29 Swedish universities and colleges, the paper seeks to illustrate how the idea of ​​the university takes its (diverse?) form in a context where it can be assumed to be indicative of how university organizations understand their own activities. 

  • 34.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The course of media literacy: or when is time to fire the PR-consultant2014In: Mercury Magazine, ISSN 2001-3272, Vol. 6, p. 60-63Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Josef Pallas is not convinced by the PR-industry’s alleged merits. He is therefore preoccupied with finding an answer to the question: when is it time to fire the PR-consultant?

  • 35.
    Pallas, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Translating media(tization) into organizational contexts.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has conceptualized the adaptation of organizations to media and its logic, or mediatization, as a full-fledged institutional process through which different parts of society –and organizations within it– are transformed. How does mediatization occur, and what does it entail? This paper presents results from a case study of media activities in a Swedish governmental agency. By investigating a) how media logic get manifested and interpreted in the studied agency, and b) how different professional groups inside the organization make sense of and translate such media logic, we are aiming to understand the mechanisms underlying the mediatization process, and its ensuing results.

    Theoretically we do this by re-visiting the notion of translation, focusing on how institutional ideas (rather than logics) get interpreted, enacted and – as a result – transformed as they enter organizations, and how this influences the organizations in which ideas become embedded. Our study puts here emphasis on diverse character of ideas, and we suggest that media logic is not one coherent thing but rather a vague idea consisting of a number of elements, and that these elements are interpreted and enacted differently inside the organization. In particular, we theorize the role of professional value systems in translation processes by showing how these value systems are mobilized in relation to different elements of the translated logic.

  • 36.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bartlett, Jeniffer
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Accreditations & Certifications2016In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Corporate Reputation / [ed] Craig E. Carroll, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of literature on for example non-state governance, market construction, accounting and management in general refers to the notion of accreditations and certifications as crucial for the mechanisms through which organizations and organizational practices gain acceptance and appreciation within their relevant fields or contexts. Accreditations as well as certifications might operate both through legal and informal requirements on organizations to meet standards of acceptable behavior (accreditations) or quality of specific activities or products (certifications). As both concepts seek to capture the processes trough which third parties (i.e. certification and accreditation agents/bodies) evaluate and thereby also monitor different aspects of organizational life; and as they both influence an organization’s ability to operate within a given social context in similarly there is no reason to uphold theoretical distinction between these two.

     

    Accreditation and certifications are usually seen as an expression of what Michael Power described as audit society where different forms of measurement have become an integrated part of how we organize and manage a wide range of uncertainties and risks in areas such as politics, economy and sustainability. The production, circulation and use of accreditations and certifications function not only as tools by which individual organizations can be assessed, evaluated and governed. In more general terms these tools create stability and predictability in a given area of the social life by signaling what characteristics of an organization are crucial and attractive; and how to assure that these characteristics are achieved, upheld and communicated. Accreditations and certifications are involved in forming both individual as well collective perceptions about organizations in terms of their identities, goals, structures and activities.

     In the following we start by addressing the way in which accreditations and certifications are produced and diffused. In the second part of this entry we pay a closer attention to how these forms of evaluations influence the way organizations are perceived (and eventually also acted upon) by their constituencies – i.e. the role of accreditations and certifications for organizations’ legitimacy, reputation and status. 

  • 37.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Bartlett, Jennifer L.
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Reputation and Legitimacy: Accreditation and Rankings to Assess Organizations2013In: Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation / [ed] Craig Carroll, New York: Wiley-Blackwell , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key perspective on reputation is that of assessment. Much of the communication literature focuses on the influence organizations have on impression formation. In this chapter, however, we suggest that in order to understand reputation assessment, it is also important to understand the related concept of legitimacy. We address two approaches to understanding reputation in this chapter: accreditation and ranking. Accreditation alludes to concepts of legitimacy in which firms may acquire credibility by meeting formalized standards of certification. Ranking deals with categorizing and rating organizational reputations so that they may be assessed relative to one another.The chapter explores the various ways in which the mechanisms of accreditation and ranking operate and the role of social actors in developing and applying them. Ranking systems that provide the mechanism for comparing organizations and assessing their relative value are also explored.

  • 38.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Corporate Media Work and Micro-Dynamics of Mediatization2013In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent analysis of interactions and relations between media, individuals and organisations is commonly based on the notion of mediatization. Research in journalism and media studies, political studies as well as business studies have explored mediatization as prevailing transformation influencing communication activities of individuals as well as organisations.

    In the field of organisational studies an increasing interest has been paid to the mediatised settings in which organisations conduct their activities. But despite the growing interest we still lack a sufficient understanding of the inner dynamics of these processes. Contemporary research often focuses on the effects of mediatization and, therefore, relatively little is known about how agents are involved in the creation, maintenance, re-shaping and interruption of the institutional properties of mediatization. In this article we seek to examine the dynamics of mediatization and how it is shaped, reproduced and reshaped through activities of individual corporations. Thus, Mediatization is not only “out there”, it will be argued, coming to expression through actors’ more or less passive and explicit adaptation to the dominant perceptions and understanding of the way the media operate.

    The aim of the article is to show how mediatization evokes processes of skilful and purposeful activities of actors involved in the creation, maintenance and disturbance of the shared rules, norms and practices that guide organisations in their effort to deal with media-related issues. The article, thereby, goes beyond examining the media activities of individual organisations as a result of mediatization, and focuses on these activities as a constituent of the processes in which mediatization is re-constructed and enacted (cf. Hartman 2009). The analysis rests on a study of thirteen Swedish publically listed corporations and their media activities. The material was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews and participant observations. 

  • 39.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Determinants of Mediatization: An Analysis of the Adaptation of Swedish Government Agencies to News Media2014In: Rethinking the Mediatization of Politics / [ed] Nick Couldry, Andreas Hepp, London: ECREA , 2014, p. 1-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to explain why mediatization affects some governmental agencies more than others. An important dimension of our paper is to develop a measuring instrument for mediatization, and identify the salient driving forces behind variable levels of mediatization. To make sure that our analysis is comprehensive and productive strategy documents from all governmental agencies in Sweden (n=238) have been surveyed. 

    The results show that agencies’ tendency to adapt to mediatization is mainly determined by the type management structures the agencies are set to apply. Single-director agencies and board agencies were significantly more mediatized compared to council agencies even when control variables - such as media coverage of the agencies, size, geographic location, and extend of political salience - were included in the analysis. Our results suggest that agencies - similarly to other political actors - might have substantial agency in terms of how they cope with mediatization pressures.

  • 40.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Media Enactments: Where to Look for Inspiration in Mediatization Studies2014In: Organizations and the Media: Organizing in a Mediatized World / [ed] Josef Pallas, Stefan Jonsson, Lars Strannegård, New York: Routledge, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to contribute to our understandings of micro-foundations of mediatization and how organizations organize and perform their media work. We seek to challenge and enrich the common conceptualization of mediatization as a structural influence where the media institution is seen as more or less autonomous vis-á-vis other institutions. By going beyond investigating media activities of individual organizations as a result of mediatization, we show how these activities functions as a constituent of the processes in which mediatization is re-constructed and enacted. Hence we pledge for an understanding of mediatization as a process that is perpetually re-invented, re-shaped and re-defined in on-going interactions between those representing it, being exposed to it and managing it – that is to say, organizations and the media.

  • 41.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Providing, promoting and co-opting: Corporate media work in a mediatized society2011In: Journal of Communication Management, ISSN 1363-254X, E-ISSN 1478-0852, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 165-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual framework for the institutionalpreconditions for media work and how organizations establish these conditions.Design/methodology/approach – The work concurs with the stream of scholars who use socialtheory as their starting-point to understand and make sense of public relations as a societalphenomenon. Based on earlier empirical analysis and theoretical arguments this paper supports thenotion of corporate media work as being much more complex and extensive than was earlierrecognized. Vital to this is mediatization, a concept describing how media are transformed from beinga mediator between institutions to becoming an institution in themselves.Findings – The paper outlines three different ideal types of strategies of corporate media work:providing, promoting, and co-opting, resting on different aims and functions.Originality/value – Organizational media work redefines, reshapes and structures the economic,political and social positions of organizations. Therefore scholars will be helped by a more developedframework to categorize and understand corporate media work in a mediatized society.

  • 42.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Responses to mediatization: A case of Swedish governmental agency2014In: Reconceptualizing Contemporary Public Services Organizations / [ed] Christine Teelken, Ewan Ferlie, Jean-Louis Denis, Rotterdam, 2014, p. 1-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to contribute to our understanding of how organizational members respond to and enact to an ambiguous and contradictory institutional contexts. We use a case of mediatization –taken-for-granted values and norms for how to manage, organize and conduct media activities- and the way it gets maintained, challenged and re-constructed within the realm of specific organizational settings. By way of focusing on how mediatization get contested and negotiated, the paper addresses media activities of organizations as mediability – an active and skillful process through which organizational members translate mediatization rationales into activities of their organizations. In empirical terms, the paper addresses how one of the major Swedish Governmental Agencies reasons about and understands its activities and responsibilities in different contexts where media are brought to fore; and how these understandings of media influence the agency’s communication. The study rests on observational data collected between April and June 2012 and 19 interviews with representatives from the agency. The results show that mediability reflects a process that, despite its institutional embeddedness, unfolds unevenly as its different aspects (news products, practices, professional values and organizational structures and forms) are strategically contested and continuously re-negotiated between different professions involved in the media activities of the agency. Mediatization remains thereby in a constant contestation both at the level of individual organizations (implementation) as well as in its institutional form (conceptual enactment). With respect to its uneven influences on different aspects of an organization’s communication activities, the notion of mediability as non-conclusive process paves the way for a more context-sensitive analysis of organizational responses to institutional plurality.

  • 43.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Creativity Caged in Translation: A Neo-Institutional Perspective on Crisis Communication2014In: Revista Académica de Relaciones Internacionales, ISSN 1699-3950, E-ISSN 1699-3950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After early attempts to create universal models guiding managers in times of crisis - more recent attempts have focused on situational factors and the relationships between organizations and stakeholders in times of crises. Albeit this shift, structural conditions are often overlooked and if they are integrated they are defined as context and as such often excluded in the analysis.

    This is our point of departure for bringing neo-institutional theory into crisis communication recognizing the importance of cultural, political, technological, and institutional environments of organizations. By this we shift focus from agency to structure and the social preconditions for organizational activities. However this is not to say that institutions are static or deterministic in the way they influence organizations and their behavior. On the contrary, institutions are open for strategic innovations and interpretations. In this paper we put forward the concept of translation to illustrate and explain how organizations actively relate to and handle institutional pressure, escaping thereby the legal and moral/normative boundaries of institutions. Hereby we aim to contribute to the growing debate within the crisis communication field on new theoretical venues in understanding crisis communication as a practice but also as societal phenomenon.

    In our conclusion we suggest that the appliance of neo-institutional frameworks will help us understand the conditions under which crisis communication is carried out and in doing so allow researchers and practitioners to have a realistic stance on the limitations and possibility on communication in crises. Further, the framework will increase our abilities to understand the development of crisis communication, its institutionalization and the conditions for these developments.

  • 44.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Journalism Media & Commun, Media & Commun Studies, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wedlin, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Translating institutional logic: When the media logic meets professions2016In: Organization Studies, ISSN 0170-8406, E-ISSN 1741-3044, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 1661-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a case study of media activities in a Swedish governmental agency where we illustrate a) how the media logic is translated and become embedded in the studied agency, and b) how different professional groups inside the organization shape the translation process. Theoretically we do this by re-visiting the notion of translation. Translation theory focuses on the local enactment and embeddedness of institutional models, ideals and practices. Institutional logics literature, on the other hand, focus on the creation and flow of field-level meaning systems. By combining these two theoretical perspectives we are able to form a framework for understanding the local embeddedness and enactment of field-level institutional logics.

    The result of our study suggests that institutional logics –once they become introduced in a given context– consist of four elements that are interpreted and enacted differently inside organizations. We identify three local, profession-based value systems that shape the translation of media logics, and use this finding to theorize the role of professional value systems in shaping local translation processes.

  • 45.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    JMG, Göteborgs universitet.
    Wehmeier, Stefan
    Public Relations and Neo-institutional theory2015In: Strategic Communication: SAGE Benchmarks in Communication / [ed] R. L. Heath and A. Gregory, London: Routledge, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special section seeks to enrich research on public relations by using neoinstitutional

    theory to describe, explain and understand the activities, processes and dynamics

    the practice. By this we open up for a wider understanding of public relations, its

    preconditions, its performances and its consequences for shaping the social. We argue that

    public relations could be analysed as an institutionalized practice with certain set of governing

    mechanisms including taken-for-granted activities, rules, norms and ideas. One argument for

    this is the is importance neo-institutional theory gives communication in the understanding of

    organizations, institutions and society. Another argument is recent developments where public

    relations and other forms of organizational communication have been examined as a major

    dimension of organizing in some of the more profound works among neo-institutional

    theorists.

  • 46.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Grafström, Maria
    Negotiation of Business News2007In: Mediating Business: The Expansion of Business Journalism in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Kjaer, P. & Slaatta, T., Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How is the expansion of business journalism reflected in and handled by contemporary business corporations? According to The Swedish Public Relations Association the Swedish private sector together with governmental authorities and municipalities2 invested more than 36 billions SEK in information and public relations activities in 2005 (SPRA and PRECIS 2005). In terms of personnel resources, the information and public relations sector includes almost fifteen thousand professionals and nearly fifty percent of those are assumed to work in private business (Larsson 2005:131). These communicators are mostly organized in information and PR-departments that have witnessed a rapid growth in both size and organisational status. Research shows that more than seventy percent of the information and communication directors are standing members of senior management teams (cf. Cornelisen 2004; Larsson 2005). At the same time, the use of communication and media experts in corporations and corporate efforts to train and educate its employees in media management have increased (cf. Engwall 2005; Larsson 2005).

    Against this background, it becomes relevant to consider the nature of the relationship between business sources and business journalists. In this chapter, we therefore focus on this relationship and examine the interaction between media and sources through the concept of negotiation – conceptualised as a reciprocal process of interaction embedded in a field of practice. We apply this concept to the area of business news production which is an empirical field that has been largely neglected by researchers interested in media-source relations. More specifically, we focus on interactions between corporate communicators and business journalists.

  • 47.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Ihlen, Øyvind
    Mediatization of Corporations2014In: Mediatization of Communication / [ed] Knut Lundby, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The corporate institution has received little attention among scholars working with the notion of mediatization. In this chapter we discuss how the media is an important site not only for contestation about the corporate role in society, but also for promotion of products and services, and for influencing public policy and knowledge about business in general. We argue that the mediatization of the corporate institution can be observed by looking at the attention devoted to media coverage and the resources that are poured into public relations. Management is often made available to the press and the timing of the media often influences corporate activities. The tools of media relations are themselves examples of mediatization as they are not only adapted to the logic of the news media. They are also designed with an ambition to become a natural part of all aspects of corporate activities.

  • 48.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Strannegård, Lars
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Media and Organizations: Images, Practices and Organizing2014In: Organizations and the Media: Organizing in a mediatized world. Routledge / [ed] Pallas, J., S. Johnsson & L. Strannegård, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     One of the truisms of current day society is the ubiquity of media. We have witnessed expansion of news coverage focusing on different types of organizations, their activities, their products or services, and not least the behaviorof their representatives and employees. Ranging from political and business organizations to actors within the non-profit sector, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and public sector organi zations the interest of the media does not leave many areas of our life unexplored. As a result of the expansion of interactive technologies and new media platforms even the smallest of matters can gain global attentiveness and consequences. Against this backdrop, it is natural to question where this development is leading. Does the rise of media herald a change in the governance of organizations?

  • 49.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Strannegård, Lars
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Ett medialiserat näringsliv2010In: Företag och medier / [ed] Josef Pallas och Lars Strannegård, Malmö: Liber , 2010, 1, p. 6-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Pallas, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Strannegård, LarsHandelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Företag och Medier2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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