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  • 1.
    Alström, Ulrica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Granath, Fredrik
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Tydén, Hans
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Platelet inhibition assessed with VerifyNow, flow cytometry and PlateletMapping in patients undergoing heart surgery2009In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 124, no 5, p. 572-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: A substantial number of patients with coronary artery disease undergo cardiac surgery within five days of discontinuing anti-platelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. The aims of this study were to describe the degree of platelet inhibition in patients with dual anti-platelet treatment scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and to investigate whether the measured platelet inhibition correlated to intra- and postoperative risk for bleeding and transfusion requirements. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty patients were included. Platelet inhibition was analysed with flow cytometry including phosphorylation status of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP-assay) and two bed-side analyzers, VerifyNow-System and PlateletMapping, a modified thrombelastograph. All 60 patients were analysed with VerifyNow and PlateletMapping, and 48 were analysed with flow cytometry and VASP-assay. RESULTS: There was a correlation between the ADP-receptor inhibition as measured by VASP-assay and VerifyNowP2Y(12) (r = -0.29, p<0.05), and between VASP-assay and the expression of P-selectin (r = 0.29, p<0.05) as measured by flow cytometry when platelets were stimulated with 5 microM ADP. VerifyNowP2Y(12) was the only measurement of platelet inhibition correlated to total blood loss (Spearman r = 0.29, p=0.03) and red blood cell transfusion (Spearman r = 0.43, p<0.01) requirements, although this might be confounded by aprotinin treatment. CONCLUSION: We found a modest agreement between the methods for preoperative platelet inhibition, though not for PlateletMapping-MA(ADP). There was a correlation between preoperative platelet inhibition measured by VerifyNowP2Y(12) and surgical blood loss or transfusion requirements. However, for the individual patient, preoperative use of VerifyNowP2Y(12) as an instrument to decide bleeding and transfusion risk does not seem helpful.

  • 2.
    Alström, Ulrica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Tydén, Hans
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    The platelet inhibiting effect of a clopidogrel bolus dose in patients on long-term acetylsalicylic acid treatment2007In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 353-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Addition of clopidogrel to patients treated with ASA has been shown to decrease the incidence of in-stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. However, it has also been reported that up to 30% of patients do not achieve adequate platelet inhibition from standard dosages of ASA and clopidogrel. There is a demand for reliable methods to measure the individual platelet inhibiting effect of this combination therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary aim of the present investigation was to compare three methods for evaluation of the platelet inhibiting effect of a clopidogrel bolus dose in patients on long-term acetylsalicylic acid treatment. Thirty patients presenting for coronary angiography/PCI were included. Two patients were excluded due to technical problems. All patients were on 75-100 mg ASA/day for at least 8 days. Blood samples were analysed before and 16 h after a 300 mg clopidogrel bolus dose. The platelet inhibiting effect was measured with (1) Whole blood flow cytometry (17 patients); (2) a bed-side test, Platelet Mapping assay for the thrombelastograph (28 patients); and (3) PFA (Platelet function analyser) -100 (26 patients). RESULTS: With flow cytometry, the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin (p=0.03) on their surface decreased significantly after the bolus dose of clopidogrel. There was also a reduction of platelets binding fibrinogen when stimulated with ADP. A significantly (p=0.002) increased platelet inhibition could also be demonstrated with Platelet Mapping. PFA-100 could not measure any significant platelet inhibiting effect of clopidogrel. CONCLUSION: A significant platelet inhibition could be demonstrated with flow cytometry and the Platelet Mapping assay, but not with PFA-100. However, levels of response for the individual patient with these three methods were inconsistent. Further studies are needed to evaluate how the results correlate to the clinical risk of thrombosis and bleeding.

  • 3.
    Aulin, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Hijazi, Ziad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Lankenau Inst Med Res, Wynnewood, PA USA.;Ctr Heart, Wynnewood, PA USA..
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Huber, Kurt
    Dept Internal Med Cardiol & Emergency Med 3, Vienna, Austria..
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceut Inc, Ridgefield, CT 06877 USA..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and risk for death and cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation2015In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 170, no 6, p. 1151-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Inflammation has been associated with cardiovascular disease and the burden of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study we evaluate inflammatory biomarkers and future cardiovascular events in AF patients in the RE-LY study. Methods Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 6,187), and fibrinogen (n = 4,893) were analyzed at randomization; outcomes were evaluated by Cox models and C-statistics. Results Adjusted for clinical risk factors IL-6 was independently associated with stroke or systemic embolism (P =.0041), major bleedings (P =.0001), vascular death (P<.0001), and a composite thromboembolic outcome (ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism and vascular death) (P<.0001). CRP was independently related to myocardial infarction (P =.0047), vascular death (P =.0004), and the composite thromboembolic outcome (P =.0001). When further adjusted for cardiac (troponin andN-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) and renal (cystatin-C) biomarkers on top of clinical risk factors IL-6 remained significantly related to vascular death (P<.0001), major bleeding (P<.0170) and the composite thromboembolic outcome (P<.0001), and CRP to myocardial infarction (.0104). Fibrinogen was not associated with any outcome. C-index for stroke or systemic embolism increased from 0.615 to 0.642 (P =.0017) when adding IL-6 to the clinically used CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc risk score with net reclassification improvement of 28%. Conclusion In patients with AF, IL-6 is related to higher risk of stroke and major bleeding, and both markers are related to higher risk of vascular death and the composite of thromboembolic events independent of clinical risk factors. Adjustment for cardiovascular biomarkers attenuated the prognostic value, although IL-6 remained related to mortality, the composite of thromboembolic events, and major bleeding, and CRP to myocardial infarction.

  • 4. Ballantyne, C.
    et al.
    Cushman, M.
    Psaty, B.
    Furberg, C.
    Khaw, K. T.
    Sandhu, M.
    Oldgren, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Rossi, G. P.
    Maiolino, G.
    Cesari, M.
    Lenzini, L.
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Rimm, E.
    Collins, R.
    Anderson, J.
    Koenig, W.
    Brenner, H.
    Rothenbacher, D.
    Berglund, G.
    Persson, M.
    Berger, P.
    Brilakis, E.
    McConnell, J. P.
    Koenig, W.
    Sacco, R.
    Elkind, M.
    Talmud, P.
    Rimm, E.
    Cannon, C. P.
    Packard, C.
    Barrett-Connor, E.
    Hofman, A.
    Kardys, I.
    Witteman, J. C.
    Criqui, M.
    Corsetti, J. P.
    Rainwater, D. L.
    Moss, A. J.
    Robins, S.
    Bloomfield, H.
    Collins, D.
    Packard, C.
    Wassertheil-Smoller, S.
    Ridker, P.
    Ballantyne, C.
    Cannon, C. P.
    Cushman, M.
    Danesh, J.
    Gu, D.
    Hofman, A.
    Nelson, J. J.
    Thompson, S.
    Zalewski, A.
    Zariffa, N.
    Di Angelantonio, E.
    Kaptoge, S.
    Thompson, A.
    Thompson, S.
    Walker, M.
    Watson, S.
    Wood, A
    Collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from observational studies of Lp-PLA2 and cardiovascular diseases2007In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 3-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A large number of observational epidemiological studies have reported generally positive associations between circulating mass and activity levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have been large enough to provide reliable estimates in different circumstances, such as in different subgroups (e.g., by age group, sex, or smoking status) or at different Lp-PLA2 levels. Moreover, most published studies have related disease risk only to baseline values of Lp-PLA2 markers (which can lead to substantial underestimation of any risk relationships because of within-person variability over time) and have used different approaches to adjustment for possible confounding factors. OBJECTIVES: By combination of data from individual participants from all relevant observational studies in a systematic 'meta-analysis', with correction for regression dilution (using available data on serial measurements of Lp-PLA2), the Lp-PLA2 Studies Collaboration will aim to characterize more precisely than has previously been possible the strength and shape of the age and sex-specific associations of plasma Lp-PLA2 with coronary heart disease (and, where data are sufficient, with other vascular diseases, such as ischaemic stroke). It will also help to determine to what extent such associations are independent of possible confounding factors and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity among studies, such as those related to assay methods and study design. It is anticipated that the present collaboration will serve as a framework to investigate related questions on Lp-PLA2 and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: A central database is being established containing data on circulating Lp-PLA2 values, sex and other potential confounding factors, age at baseline Lp-PLA2 measurement, age at event or at last follow-up, major vascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information about any repeat measurements of Lp-PLA2 and potential confounding factors has been sought to allow adjustment for possible confounding and correction for regression dilution. The analyses will involve age-specific regression models. Synthesis of the available observational studies of Lp-PLA2 will yield information on a total of about 15 000 cardiovascular disease endpoints.

  • 5.
    Batra, Gorav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Andell, P.
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Lund, Sweden..
    Erlinge, D.
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Lund, Sweden..
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lindhagen, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Spaak, J.
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers are associated with improved outcome but do not prevent new-onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction2016In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 37, no Suppl. 1, p. 1387-1387, article id Abstr. P6570Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Batra, Gorav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Friberg, Leif
    Erlinge, David
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Antithrombotic therapy after myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention2018In: European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 2055-6837, E-ISSN 2055-6845, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Optimal antithrombotic therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and atrial fibrillation is uncertain. In this study, we compared antithrombotic regimes with regard to a composite cardiovascular outcome of all-cause mortality, MI or ischaemic stroke, and major bleeds.

    Methods and results: Patients between October 2005 and December 2012 were identified in Swedish registries, n = 7116. Landmark 0-90 and 91-365 days of outcome were evaluated with Cox-regressions, with dual antiplatelet therapy as reference. At discharge, 16.2% received triple therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin), 1.9% aspirin plus warfarin, 7.3% clopidogrel plus warfarin, and 60.8% dual antiplatelets. For cardiovascular outcome, adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (HR) for triple therapy was 0.86 (0.70-1.07) for 0-90 days and 0.78 (0.58-1.05) for 91-365 days. A HR of 2.16 (1.48-3.13) and 1.61 (0.98-2.66) during 0-90 and 91-365 days, respectively, was observed for major bleeds. For aspirin plus warfarin, HR 0.82 (0.54-1.26) and 0.62 (0.48-0.79) was observed for cardiovascular outcome and 1.30 (0.60-2.85) and 1.01 (0.63-1.62) for major bleeds during 0-90 and 91-365 days, respectively. For clopidogrel plus warfarin, HR of 0.90 (0.68-1.19) and 0.68 (0.49-0.95) was observed for cardiovascular outcome and 1.28 (0.71-2.32) and 1.08 (0.57-2.04) for major bleeds during 0-90 and 91-365 days, respectively.

    Conclusion: Compared to dual antiplatelets, aspirin or clopidogrel plus warfarin therapy was associated with similar 0-90 days and lower 91-365 days of risk of the cardiovascular outcome, without higher risk of major bleeds. Triple therapy was associated with non-significant lower risk of cardiovascular outcome and higher risk of major bleeds.

  • 7.
    Batra, Gorav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lindhagen, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Andell, Pontus
    Lund Univ, Dept Cardiol, Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden.; Skane Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden..
    Erlinge, David
    Lund Univ, Dept Cardiol, Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden.; Skane Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden..
    James, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Spaak, Jonas
    Danderyd Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers are associated with improved outcome but do not prevent new-onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 3, article id e005165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Treatment with renin‐angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors might restrain the structural/electrical remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Limited evidence exists regarding the potential benefits of RAS inhibition post‐acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with AF. This study sought to assess the association between RAS inhibition and all‐cause mortality and new‐onset AF in patients with/without congestive heart failure (CHF) post‐AMI.

    Methods and Results Patients hospitalized for AMI between 2006 and 2012 were identified in Swedish registries. Patients were stratified in 4 subgroups; patients with CHF and AF (n=11 489); patients with CHF without AF (n=31 676); patients with AF without CHF (n=10 066); and patients without both CHF and AF (n=59 417). Patients exposed to RAS inhibition were compared to nontreated. Three‐year risk of all‐cause mortality and new‐onset AF was assessed using adjusted Cox regression analyses. At discharge, 83 291 (73.9%) patients received RAS inhibition. RAS inhibition was associated with lower 3‐year risk of all‐cause mortality in CHF patients with AF, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI 0.75 (0.70–0.81), CHF patients without AF, HR 0.65 (0.60–0.69), AF patients without CHF, HR 0.82 (0.75–0.90), and in patients without CHF and AF, HR 0.76 (0.72–0.81), respectively. RAS inhibition was not associated with lower 3‐year risk of new‐onset AF in patients without AF but with/without CHF; HR 0.96 (0.84–1.10) and 1.12 (1.02–1.22), respectively.

    Conclusions RAS inhibition post‐AMI was associated with lower risk of all‐cause mortality. In patients with/without CHF, RAS inhibition was not associated with lower incidence of new‐onset AF.

  • 8.
    Batra, Gorav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johanson, Per
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    All types of atrial fibrillation in the setting of myocardial infarction are associated with impaired outcome2016In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 102, no 12, p. 926-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate 90-day cardiovascular outcome in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) in relation to different subtypes of atrial fibrillation (AF) and MI. Methods We studied 155 071 hospital survivors of MI between 2000 and 2009 in Swedish registries. AF subtypes were defined according to history of AF and in-hospital ECG recordings. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with multivariable Cox models. Results AF was documented in 24 023 (15.5%) cases. The AF subtypes were new-onset AF with sinus rhythm at discharge (3.7%), new-onset AF with AF at discharge (3.9%), paroxysmal AF (4.9%) and chronic AF (3.0%). The event rate per 100 person-years for the composite cardiovascular outcome (all-cause mortality, MI or ischaemic stroke) was 90.9 in patients with any type of AF versus 45.2 in patients with sinus rhythm, adjusted hazard ratio with 95% CI (HR) 1.28 (1.19 to 1.37). There were no significant differences in the composite cardiovascular outcome between AF subtypes. AF was associated with higher risk of mortality, HR 1.59 (1.41 to 1.80), reinfarction, HR 1.14 (1.05 to 1.24), and ischaemic stroke, HR 2.29 (1.92 to 2.74), respectively. In subgroup analysis, AF was associated with a higher risk of composite cardiovascular outcome in the non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and STelevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort, HR 1.24 (1.13 to 1.36) and HR 1.34 (1.21 to 1.48), respectively, with p value for interaction= 0.23. Conclusions AF is common in the setting of MI and is associated with a higher risk of composite cardiovascular outcome and the individual components; mortality, reinfarction and ischaemic stroke, respectively. No major difference in outcome was observed between AF subtypes. No difference in outcome for AF was observed between the NSTEMI and STEMI cohort.

  • 9. Brambatti, Michela
    et al.
    Darius, Harald
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Clemens, Andreas
    Noack, Herbert H.
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Healey, Jeff S.
    Comparison of dabigatran versus warfarin in diabetic patients with atrial fibrillation: Results from the RE-LY trial2015In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 196, p. 127-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequent among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The RE-LY trial permits evaluation of patient characteristics, outcomes and the effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate among diabetic individuals. Methods: Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic patients and the relative efficacy of each dose of dabigatran (150 mg bid and 110 mg bid) versus warfarin was evaluated. Results: Of 18,113 patients in RE-LY, 4221 patients (23.3%) had DM. Patients with DM were younger (70.9 vs. 71.7 years), more likely to have hypertension (86.6% vs. 76.5%), coronary artery disease (37.4% vs. 24.9%) and peripheral vascular disease (5.6% vs. 3.2%); (all p < 0.01). Time in therapeutic range for warfarin-treated patients was 65% for diabetic versus 68% for non-diabetic patients (p < 0.001). Regardless of assigned treatment, stroke or systemic embolism was more common among patients with DM (1.9% per year vs. 1.3% per year, p < 0.001). DM was also associated with an increased risk of death (5.1% per year vs. 3.5% per year, p < 0.001) and major bleeding (4.2% per year vs. 3.0% per year, p < 0.001). The absolute reduction in stroke or systemic embolism with dabigatran compared to warfarin was greater among patients with DM than those without DM (dabigatran 110 mg: 0.59% per year vs. 0.05% per year; dabigatran 150 mg: 0.89% per year vs. 0.51% per year). Conclusions: Compared to non-DM patients, AF patients with DM derive a greater absolute risk reduction in embolic events when treated with dabigatran. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00262600.

  • 10.
    Cannon, Christopher P.
    et al.
    Baim Inst Clin Res, 930 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Heart & Vasc Ctr, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Bhatt, Deepak L.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Heart & Vasc Ctr, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lip, Gregory Y. H.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Ellis, Stephen G.
    Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Kimura, Takeshi
    Kyoto Univ, Dept Cardiovasc Med, Kyoto, Japan..
    Maeng, Michael
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Skejby, Denmark..
    Merkely, Bela
    Univ Heart & Vasc Ctr, Budapest, Hungary..
    Zeymer, Uwe
    Klinikum Stadt Ludwigshafen Rhein, Med Klin B, Ludwigshafen, Germany..
    Gropper, Savion
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Nordaby, Matias
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Kleine, Eva
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Harper, Ruth
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Bracknell, Berks, England..
    Manassie, Jenny
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Bracknell, Berks, England..
    Januzzi, James L.
    Baim Inst Clin Res, 930 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Div Cardiol, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    ten Berg, Jurrien M.
    St Antonius Hosp, Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    Steg, Gabriel
    Imperial Coll, London, England.;Univ Paris Diderot, French Alliance Cardiovasc Trials, F CRIN Network, DHU FIRE,INSERM,Unite 1148, Paris, France.;Hop Bichat Assistance Publ, Paris, France..
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Goethe Univ Frankfurt, Dept Med, Div Cardiol, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran after PCI in Atrial Fibrillation2017In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, no 16, p. 1513-1524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Triple antithrombotic therapy with warfarin plus two antiplatelet agents is the standard of care after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with atrial fibrillation, but this therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding.

    METHODS In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 2725 patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone PCI to triple therapy with warfarin plus a P2Y(12) inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) and aspirin (for 1 to 3 months) (triple-therapy group) or dual therapy with dabigatran (110 mg or 150 mg twice daily) plus a P2Y(12) inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) and no aspirin (110-mg and 150-mg dual-therapy groups). Outside the United States, elderly patients (>= 80 years of age; >= 70 years of age in Japan) were randomly assigned to the 110-mg dual-therapy group or the triple-therapy group. The primary end point was a major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event during follow-up (mean follow-up, 14 months). The trial also tested for the noninferiority of dual therapy with dabigatran (both doses combined) to triple therapy with warfarin with respect to the incidence of a composite efficacy end point of thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or systemic embolism), death, or unplanned revascularization.

    RESULTS The incidence of the primary end point was 15.4% in the 110-mg dual-therapy group as compared with 26.9% in the triple-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.63; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P<0.001 for superiority) and 20.2% in the 150-mg dual-therapy group as compared with 25.7% in the corresponding triple-therapy group, which did not include elderly patients outside the United States (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.88; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The incidence of the composite efficacy end point was 13.7% in the two dual-therapy groups combined as compared with 13.4% in the triple-therapy group (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.29; P=0.005 for noninferiority). The rate of serious adverse events did not differ significantly among the groups.

    CONCLUSIONS Among patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone PCI, the risk of bleeding was lower among those who received dual therapy with dabigatran and a P2Y(12) inhibitor than among those who received triple therapy with warfarin, a P2Y(12) inhibitor, and aspirin. Dual therapy was noninferior to triple therapy with respect to the risk of thromboembolic events.

  • 11.
    Cannon, Christopher P.
    et al.
    Harvard Clin Res Inst, 930 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Cardiovasc, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Gropper, Savion
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Bhatt, Deepak L.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Cardiovasc, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Ellis, Stephen G.
    Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Kimura, Takeshi
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Cardiovasc Med, Kyoto, Japan..
    Lip, Gregory Y. H.
    Univ Birmingham, City Hosp, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Steg, Ph. Gabriel
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hop Bichat, AP HP,Dept Hosp Univ FIRE,FACT,INSERM,U 1148, Paris, France.;ICMS Royal Brompton Hosp, NHLI Imperial Coll, London, England..
    ten Berg, Jurrien M.
    St Antonius Hosp, Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    Manassie, Jenny
    Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd, Div Med, Bracknell, Berks, England..
    Kreuzer, Jorg
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Fac Med, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blatchford, Jon
    Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd, Div Med, Bracknell, Berks, England..
    Massaro, Joseph M.
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Fac Med Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany..
    Ripoll, Ernesto Ferreiros
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Goethe Univ Frankfurt, Dept Cardiol, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Design and Rationale of the RE-DUAL PCI Trial: A Prospective, Randomized, Phase 3b Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Etexilate Versus Warfarin Triple Therapy in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Who Have Undergone Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Stenting2016In: Clinical Cardiology, ISSN 0160-9289, E-ISSN 1932-8737, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antithrombotic management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stenting is complicated by the need for anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention and dual antiplatelet therapy for prevention of stent thrombosis and coronary events. Triple antithrombotic therapy, typically comprising warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel, is associated with a high risk of bleeding. A modest-sized trial of oral anticoagulation with warfarin and clopidogrel without aspirin showed improvements in both bleeding and thrombotic events compared with triple therapy, but large trials are lacking. The RE-DUAL PCI trial (NCT 02164864) is a phase 3b, a strategy of prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. The main objective is to evaluate dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran etexilate (110 or 150 mg twice daily) and a P2Y12 inhibtor (either clopidogrel or ticagrelor) compared with triple antithrombotic therapy with warfarin, a P2Y12 inhibtor (either clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and low-dose aspirin (for 1 or 3 months, depending on stent type) in nonvalvular AF patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting. The primary endpoint is time to first International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding event or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event. Secondary endpoints are the composite of all cause death or thrombotic events (myocardial infarction, or stroke/systemic embolism) and unplanned revascularization; death or thrombotic events; individual outcome events; death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; and unplanned revascularization. A hierarchical procedure for multiple testing will be used. The plan is to randomize similar to 2500 patients at approximately 550 centers worldwide to try to identify new treatment strategies for this patient population.

  • 12.
    Cannon, Christopher P.
    et al.
    Baim Inst Clin Res, Boston, MA, USA.
    Lip, Gregory Y. H.
    Univ Birmingham, Birmingham, England.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran after PCI in Atrial Fibrillation: The authors reply2018In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 378, no 5, p. 485-486Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Christersson, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    The utility of coagulation activity for prediction of risk of mortality and cardiovascular events in guideline-treated myocardial infarction patients2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 224-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite improved treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), real-world patients still suffer substantial risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Little is known about coagulation activity shortly after MI and whether coagulation activity markers may identify patients at increased risk despite contemporary treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate D-dimer concentration and thrombin generation potential shortly after discharge after MI and evaluate if these markers could predict the risk of future cardiovascular and bleeding events.

    METHODS: Unselected MI patients (n = 421) were included in the observational REBUS study (NCT01102933) and followed for two years. D-dimer concentrations, thrombin peak, and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were analyzed at inclusion (3-5 days after MI) and at early follow-up (after 2-3 weeks).

    RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (17.8%) experienced the composite endpoint (all-cause death, MI, congestive heart failure, or all-cause stroke), and 31 patients (7.4%) experienced a clinically relevant bleeding event. D-dimer concentrations at early follow-up were associated with the composite endpoint (HR [per SD increase] 1.51 [95% CI 1.22-1.87]) and with clinically relevant bleeding (HR [per SD increase] 1.80 [95% CI 1.32-2.44]). Thrombin generation potential was not significantly associated with either the composite endpoint or with clinically relevant bleeding. Higher thrombin peak and ETP at early follow-up were both inversely associated with stroke (HR [per SD increase] 0.50 [95% CI 0.30-0.81] and 0.43 [95% CI 0.22-0.83], respectively).

    CONCLUSION: In unselected MI patients treated according to contemporary guidelines, D-dimer measurements may identify patients at increased risk of new cardiovascular and bleeding events. The inverse association of thrombin generation potential and risk of stroke has to be further investigated.

  • 14.
    Christersson, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Bylock, A.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Long-term treatment with ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, persistently reduces the coagulation activity after a myocardial infarction2005In: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 1538-7933, E-ISSN 1538-7836, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 2245-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the ESTEEM study, patients with a recent myocardial infarction were treated with aspirin and randomized to one of four doses (24-60 mg b.i.d) of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran or placebo for 6 months. Ximelagatran and aspirin reduced the risk of recurrent ischemic events compared with aspirin alone. In the present substudy we evaluated the different doses of ximelagatran on pharmacokinetics as measured by plasma concentration of the active compound melagatran and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and pharmacodynamics as related by markers for coagulation activity, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and D-dimer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma samples from 518 patients were collected before, during and after the treatment period. There was a linear dose-concentration relation at peak and trough and a linear relation between concentration and APTT (P < 0.001). F1 + 2 and D-dimer were decreased by 25% and 52% at 1 week (P < 0.001) in the ximelagatran groups compared with the placebo group and the reductions were maintained during the 6 months treatment. There were no differences detected in F1 + 2 or D-dimer levels between the different ximelagatran dosages. There was no correlation between the melagatran concentration and the change in F1 + 2 and D-dimer levels. After cessation of ximelagatran F1 + 2 and D-dimer levels returned to the initial levels. CONCLUSION: The dose of ximelagatran and APTT are linearly related to the plasma concentration of melagatran. Ximelagatran induces a sustained and stable reduction of thrombin generation and fibrin turnover without any relation to dose above 24 mg b.i.d. These properties indicate that long-term treatment with a low dose of ximelagatran may provide valuable depression of coagulation activity in aspirin treated post myocardial infarction patients.

  • 15.
    Christersson, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Bylock, Anders
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Early decrease in coagulation activity after myocardial infarction is associated with lower risk of new ischaemic events: observations from the ESTEEM: Reply2007In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 28, no 14, p. 1783-1783Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Christersson, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Bylock, Anders
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Early decrease in coagulation activity after myocardial infarction is associated with lower risk of new ischemic events: Observations from the ESTEEM trial2007In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 692-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Patients with a recent myocardial infarction have an increased risk of recurrent ischaemic events. In the ESTEEM trial, the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran reduced the risk of new ischaemic events when compared with placebo in aspirin treated post myocardial infarction patients. Ximelagatran persistently reduced markers of coagulation activity, i.e. prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and D-dimer levels. The aim of this substudy was to evaluate the levels of these markers and activated thromboplastin time (APTT) in relation to new ischaemic events or bleeding. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the substudy, 518 out of 1883 patients were included and within 14 days after a myocardial infarction randomized to ximelagatran or placebo for 6 months. The clinical endpoints death, myocardial infarction, severe recurrent ischaemia, ischaemic stroke, and bleeding were evaluated. The levels of F1 + 2, D-dimer, and APTT were analysed at randomization and in serial samples during the study. Ximelagatran treatment appeared to have a larger treatment effect in patients with F1 + 2 and D-dimer levels above the median at randomization with a reduction of ischaemic events from 18 to 9% (P = 0.03) for F1 + 2 and from 20 to 9% for D-dimer (P = 0.009). A reduction of D-dimer levels was found in 60% of the patients 1 week after randomization and these patients had less ischaemic events when compared with patients with unchanged or increased levels (P = 0.03) regardless of treatment. F1 + 2 and D-dimer levels were unrelated to bleeding risk. In the ximelagatran group, increased APTT was not related to ischaemic events but associated with a raised risk of bleeding. CONCLUSION: A reduction of initially high coagulation activity, as measured by the D-dimer level, in patients with recent myocardial infarction identifies patients with a decreased risk of new ischaemic events, regardless whether the reduction occurs spontaneously or is induced by pharmacological means. Patients with higher initial coagulation activity seemed to benefit most from long-term treatment with ximelagatran.

  • 17.
    Christersson, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Treatment with an Oral Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Decreases Platelet Activity but Increases Markers of Inflammation in Patients with Myocardial Infarction.2011In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 270, no 3, p. 215-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Thrombin has a role not only in the coagulation process but also in inflammatory responses. Oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) are currently being evaluated in patients with thromboembolic diseases. Objectives:  To investigate whether an oral DTI affects markers for platelet and inflammatory activity after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods:  A total of 518 patients with MI were randomly assigned to ximelagatran treatment (four different dose groups) in combination with aspirin, or aspirin alone for 6 months. The levels of soluble (s) P-selectin, soluble tissue factor, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-18 were analysed in serial blood samples.

    Results: sP-selectin concentration increased after 1 week and persisted at an elevated level for 6 months in all study groups (p<0.001). In the two highest ximelagatran dose groups, there was a reduced increase in sP-selectin compared to treatment with lower doses of ximelagatran and aspirin alone (p=0.01 and p=0.002, respectively). IL-18 levels did not change in the aspirin alone treatment group. By contrast, there was an elevation in IL-18 level in the lower and higher ximelagatran dose groups after 6 months (p=0.006 and p<0.001, respectively). Ximelagatran increased IL-10 levels (p=0.002) and reduced the decrease in CRP levels after 6 months compared to treatment with aspirin alone (p=0.002).

    Conclusion: A persistent elevation of platelet activity is found in patients with a recent MI after the cessation of acute antithrombotic treatment, and the addition of an oral DTI at higher doses decreases the activity. By contrast, long-term treatment with a DTI increases the levels of several markers of inflammation. Further studies with prolonged exposure of oral DTIs are needed for evaluation of the effect on inflammatory processes and to determine whether these agents influence clinical outcomes.

  • 18. Connolly, Stuart J.
    et al.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Eikelboom, John
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Parekh, Amit
    Pogue, Janice
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Themeles, Ellison
    Varrone, Jeanne
    Wang, Susan
    Alings, Marco
    Xavier, Denis
    Zhu, Jun
    Diaz, Rafael
    Lewis, Basil S.
    Darius, Harald
    Diener, Hans-Christoph
    Joyner, Campbell D.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation2009In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 361, no 12, p. 1139-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but increases the risk of hemorrhage and is difficult to use. Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. METHODS: In this noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 18,113 patients who had atrial fibrillation and a risk of stroke to receive, in a blinded fashion, fixed doses of dabigatran--110 mg or 150 mg twice daily--or, in an unblinded fashion, adjusted-dose warfarin. The median duration of the follow-up period was 2.0 years. The primary outcome was stroke or systemic embolism. RESULTS: Rates of the primary outcome were 1.69% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 1.53% per year in the group that received 110 mg of dabigatran (relative risk with dabigatran, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.11; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 1.11% per year in the group that received 150 mg of dabigatran (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.82; P<0.001 for superiority). The rate of major bleeding was 3.36% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 2.71% per year in the group receiving 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.003) and 3.11% per year in the group receiving 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.31). The rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.38% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 0.12% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001) and 0.10% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001). The mortality rate was 4.13% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 3.75% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.13) and 3.64% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.051). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation, dabigatran given at a dose of 110 mg was associated with rates of stroke and systemic embolism that were similar to those associated with warfarin, as well as lower rates of major hemorrhage. Dabigatran administered at a dose of 150 mg, as compared with warfarin, was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism but similar rates of major hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00262600.)

  • 19. Connolly, Stuart J.
    et al.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Pogue, Janice
    Eikelboom, John
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Randomized Comparison of the Effects of Two Doses of Dabigatran Etexilate on Clinical Outcomes Over 4.3 Years: Results of the Rely-Able Double-Blind Randomized Trial2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 126, no 23, p. 2793-2793Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Connolly, Stuart J.
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Eikelboom, John
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Pogue, Janice
    Alings, Marco
    Amerena, John V.
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Baumgartner, Iris
    Budaj, Andrzej J.
    Chen, Jyh-Hong
    Dans, Antonio L.
    Darius, Harald
    Di Pasquale, Giuseppe
    Ferreira, Jorge
    Flaker, Greg C.
    Flather, Marcus D.
    Franzosi, Maria Grazia
    Golitsyn, Sergey P.
    Halon, David A.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Huber, Kurt
    Jansky, Petr
    Kamensky, Gabriel
    Keltai, Matyas
    Kim, Sung Soon
    Lau, Chu-Pak
    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves
    Lewis, Basil S.
    Liu, Lisheng
    Nanas, John
    Omar, Razali
    Pais, Prem
    Pedersen, Knud E.
    Piegas, Leopoldo S.
    Raev, Dimitar
    Smith, Pal J.
    Talajic, Mario
    Tan, Ru San
    Tanomsup, Supachai
    Toivonen, Lauri
    Vinereanu, Dragos
    Xavier, Denis
    Zhu, Jun
    Wang, Susan Q.
    Duffy, Christine O.
    Themeles, Ellison
    Yusuf, Salim
    The Long-Term Multicenter Observational Study of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) Study2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 128, no 3, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During follow-up of between 1 and 3 years in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, 2 doses of dabigatran etexilate were shown to be effective and safe for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. There is a need for longer-term follow-up of patients on dabigatran and for further data comparing the 2 dabigatran doses. Methods and Results Patients randomly assigned to dabigatran in RE-LY were eligible for the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) trial if they had not permanently discontinued study medication at the time of their final RE-LY study visit. Enrolled patients continued to receive the double-blind dabigatran dose received in RE-LY, for up to 28 months of follow up after RE-LY (median follow-up, 2.3 years). There were 5851 patients enrolled, representing 48% of patients originally randomly assigned to receive dabigatran in RE-LY and 86% of RELY-ABLE-eligible patients. Rates of stroke or systemic embolism were 1.46% and 1.60%/y on dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice daily, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.20). Rates of major hemorrhage were 3.74% and 2.99%/y on dabigatran 150 and 110 mg (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53). Rates of death were 3.02% and 3.10%/y (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.19). Rates of hemorrhagic stroke were 0.13% and 0.14%/y. Conclusions During 2.3 years of continued treatment with dabigatran after RE-LY, there was a higher rate of major bleeding with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily in comparison with 110 mg, and similar rates of stroke and death. 

  • 21. Dans, Antonio L
    et al.
    Connolly, Stuart J
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yang, Sean
    Nakamya, Juliet
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Eikelboom, John W
    Reilly, Paul A
    Yusuf, Salim
    Concomitant Use of Antiplatelet Therapy with Dabigatran or Warfarin in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY®) Trial2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 127, no 5, p. 634-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    RE-LY showed that dabigatran etexilate 150 mg bid (DE150) was superior, and 110 mg bid (DE110) non-inferior to warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In this subgroup analysis, we assess the efficacy and safety of dabigatran in patients who did and didn't receive concomitant antiplatelets METHODS AND RESULTS: All comparisons used a cox proportional hazards model with adjustments made for risk factors for bleeding. A time dependent analysis was performed when comparing patients with concomitant antiplatelets to those without. 6952 of 18,113 patients (38.4%) received concomitant ASA or clopidogrel at some time during the study. DE110 was non-inferior to warfarin in reducing SSE, whether patients received antiplatelets (HR=0.93; 95%CI: 0.70-1.25) or not (HR=0.87; 95%CI: 0.66-1.15; interaction p=0.738). There were less major bleeds than warfarin in both subgroups (HR=0.82; 95%CI: 0.67-1.00 for patients who used antiplatelets; HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96 for patients who didn't; interaction p=0.794). DE 150 reduced the primary outcome of SSE compared to warfarin. This effect seemed attenuated among patients who used antiplatelets (HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.59-1.08) compared to those who didn't (HR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.38-0.72; p for interaction=0.058). Major bleeding was similar to warfarin regardless of antiplatelet use (HR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.76-1.12 for patients who used antiplatelets; HR=0.94, 95%CI: 0.78-1.15 for patients who didn't; p for interaction=0.875). In the time dependent analysis, concomitant use of a single antiplatelet seemed to increase the risk of major bleeding (HR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.42, 1.82). Dual antiplatelet seemed to increased this even more (HR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.79, 2.98). The absolute risks were lowest on DE110 compared to DE150 or warfarin.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Concomitant antiplatelet drugs appeared to increase the risk for major bleeding in RE-LY without affecting the advantages of dabigatran over warfarin. Choosing between DE110 and DE150 requires a careful assessment of characteristics that influence the balance between benefit and harm.

  • 22. Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Janzon, Magnus
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran compared with warfarin for patients with atrial fibrillation in Sweden2013In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    Patients with atrial fibrillation have a significantly increased risk of thromboembolic events such as ischaemic stroke, and patients are therefore recommended to be treated with anticoagulation treatment. The most commonly used anticoagulant consists of vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin. A new oral anticoagulation treatment, dabigatran, has recently been approved for stroke prevention among patients with atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran as preventive treatment of stroke and thromboembolic events compared with warfarin in 65-year-old patients with atrial fibrillation in Sweden.

    Methods and results

    A decision analytic simulation model was used to estimate the long-term (20-year) costs and effects of the different treatments. The outcome measures are the number of strokes prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Costs and effect data are adjusted to a Swedish setting. Patients below 80 years of age are assumed to start with dabigatran 150 mg twice a day and switch to 110 mg twice a day at the age of 80 years due to higher bleeding risk. The price of dabigatran in Sweden is €2.82 (Swedish kronor 25.39) per day for both doses. The cost per QALY gained for dabigatran compared with warfarin is estimated at €7742, increasing to €12 449 if dabigatran is compared with only well-controlled warfarin treatment.

    Conclusion

    Dabigatran is a cost-effective treatment in Sweden, as its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is below the normally accepted willingness to pay limit.

  • 23. Douketis, J D
    et al.
    Healey, J S
    Brueckmann, M
    Eikelboom, J W
    Ezekowitz, M D
    Fraessdorf, M
    Noack, H
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Reilly, P
    Spyropoulos, A C
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, S J
    Perioperative bridging anticoagulation during dabigatran or warfarin interruption among patients who had an elective surgery or procedure: Substudy of the RE-LY trial2015In: Thrombosis and Haemostasis, ISSN 0340-6245, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 625-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who require interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, the risks and benefits of perioperative bridging anticoagulation is uncertain. We accessed the database from RE-LY, a randomised trial comparing dabigatran with warfarin for stroke prevention in AF, to assess the potential benefits and risks of bridging. In patients who had a first interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, we compared the risk for major bleeding (MB), stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) and any thromboembolism (TE) in patients who were bridged or not bridged during the period of seven days before until 30 days after surgery/procedure. We used multivariable Cox regression to adjust for potential confounders. Bridging was used more during warfarin interruption than dabigatran interruption (27.5 % vs 15.4 %; p< 0.001). With dabigatran interruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.5 % vs. 1.8 %, P< 0.001) than those not bridged but bridged and not bridged groups did not differ for any TE (1.2 % vs 0.6 %, p=0.16) and SSE (0.5 % vs 0.3 %, p=0.46). With warfarin interruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.8 % vs 1.6 %, p< 0.001) and any TE (1.8 % vs 0.3 %, p=0.007) than those not bridged but bridged and not bridged groups did not differ for SSE (0.5 % vs 0.2 %, p=0.321). In conclusion, in patients who interrupted dabigatran or warfarin for a surgery/procedure in the RE-LY trial, use of bridging anticoagulation appeared to increase the risk for major bleeding irrespective of dabigatran or warfarin interruption.

  • 24.
    Douketis, James D.
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Healey, Jeff S.
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Brueckmann, Martina
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany.;Mannheim Univ Heidelberg, Fac Med, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fraessdorf, Mandy
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Spyropoulos, Alex C.
    Hofstra North Shore Long Isl Jewish Sch Med, Manhasset, NY USA..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Reilly, Paul
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceut, Ridgefield, CT USA..
    Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    Jefferson Med Coll, Wynnewood, PA USA..
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Yusuf, Salim
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Eikelboom, John W.
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Urgent surgery or procedures in patients taking dabigatran or warfarin: Analysis of perioperative outcomes from the RE-LY trial2016In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 139, p. 77-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is concern about the management of anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who require an urgent surgery/procedure, especially in those who are receiving a direct oral anticoagulant such as dabigatran. Methods: We accessed the database from RE-LY, a randomized trial comparing dabigatran (110 mg and 150 mg twice daily) with warfarin for stroke prevention in AF, to assess patients who had an urgent and elective surgery/procedure. We compared the risk for thromboembolism, major bleeding and mortality according to treatment allocation (dabigatran 110 mg or 150 mg, or warfarin) or surgery/procedure type (urgent or elective). Outcomes were assessed from day-7 to day 30 after a surgery/procedure. Results: 353 patients (2.0% of study population) had an urgent surgery/procedure and 4168 patients (23.1% of study population) had an elective surgery/procedure. In patients on dabigatran 110 mg, dabigatran 150 mg and warfarin who had an urgent surgery/procedure: rates of thromboembolism were 16.1%, 7.4%, and 10.5%; rates of major bleeding were 17.0%, 17.6%, and 22.9%; rates of mortality were 6.3%, 1.5%, and 2.9%, respectively (P > 0.50 for all comparisons). Rates of these outcomes were multi-fold higher in patients having an urgent rather than an elective surgery/procedure (P < 0.5 for all comparisons). Conclusion: In anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation who require an urgent surgery/procedure, the risks for thromboembolism, major bleeding and mortality did not differ depending on treatment with dabigatran or warfarin, but rates of these outcomes were multi-fold higher than in patients having an elective surgery/procedure.

  • 25.
    Eggers, K M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, J
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Berg, A
    Lindahl, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Analytical performance of a new point of care instrument for measurement of cardiac markers - an evaluation under clinical conditions2005In: Point of CareArticle in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 26.
    Eggers, Kai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Venge, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Risk prediction in chest pain patients by biochemical markers including estimates of renal function2008In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 128, no 2, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early risk stratification of patients with chest pain may be improved by combining cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) results and ECG findings with markers of left-ventricular dysfunction, inflammation or renal function. Methods: Serial measurements of cTnI were prospectively performed in 452 chest pain patients with a non-diagnostic ECG for AMI and admitted to the coronary care unit. NT-pro BNP, CRP, cystatin C and creatinine-clearance were retrospectively analyzed in admission samples. The prognostic value of these markers alone and in different combinations together with ECG findings was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression models. Results: During follow-up, 14 deaths and 21 myocardial (re)-infarctions occurred. Independent predictors for the combined endpoint of death or (re)-infarction were peak cTnI ≥0.1 μg/L within 24 h (OR 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]1.5-10.4), cystatin C ≥1.28 mg/L (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.9-16.3) and NT-pro BNP ≥550 ng/L (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.0-7.3). At 2 h from admission, a combination of cTnI ≥0.1 μg/L, an abnormal ECG and NT-pro BNP or cystatin C as a third variable resulted in a similar stratification of patients to different risk groups. Conclusion: cTnI, NT-pro BNP and cystatin C are strong risk predictors in patients with chest pain. For pragmatic reasons, a combination of cTnI ≥0.1 μg/L, ECG findings and a marker of renal function, preferably cystatin C, appears to be most appropriate for early risk stratification of these patients.

  • 27.
    Eggers, Kai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ellenius, Johan
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Groth, Torgny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Artificial neural network algorithms for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and prediction of infarct size in chest pain patients2007In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To prospectively validate artificial neural network (ANN)-algorithms for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction (AMI) and prediction of 'major infarct' size in patients with chest pain and without ECG changes diagnostic for AMI. Methods: Results of early and frequent Stratus CS measurements of troponin I (TnI) and myoglobin in 310 patients were used to validate four prespecified ANN-algorithms with use of cross-validation techniques. Two separate biochemical criteria for diagnosis of AMI were applied: TnI ≥ 0.1 μg/L within 24 h ('TnI 0.1 AMI') and TnI ≥ 0.4 μg/L within 24 h ('TnI 0.4 AMI'). To be considered clinically useful, the ANN-indications of AMI had to achieve a predefined positive predictive value (PPV) ≥ 78% and a negative predictive value (NPV) ≥ 94% at 2 h after admission. 'Major infarct' size was defined by peak levels of CK-MB within 24 h. Results: For the best performing ANN-algorithms, the PPV and NPV for the indication of 'TnI 0.1 AMI' were 87% (p = 0.009) and 99% (p = 0.0001) at 2 h, respectively. For the indication of 'TnI 0.4 AMI', the PPV and NPV were 90% (p = 0.006) and 99% (p = 0.0004), respectively. Another ANN-algorithm predicted 'major AMI' at 2 h with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 78%. Corresponding PPV and NPV were 73% and 97%, respectively. Conclusions: Specially designed ANN-algorithms allow diagnosis of AMI within 2 h of monitoring. These algorithms also allow early prediction of 'major AMI' size and could thus, be used as a valuable instrument for rapid assessment of chest pain patients.

  • 28.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Johnston, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Venge, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Myeloperoxidase is not useful for the early assessment of patients with chest pain2010In: Clinical Biochemistry, ISSN 0009-9120, E-ISSN 1873-2933, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 240-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been listed as a potentially useful risk marker in acute coronary syndrome. However, its clinical utility in patients with acute chest pain is not yet defined. DESIGN AND METHODS: MPO (Architect, Abbott Diagnostics) was measured in 120 healthy controls and 303 chest pain patients who had been admitted to the coronary care units of three Swedish hospitals. RESULTS: Chest pain patents had significantly higher median MPO levels compared to healthy controls (120.6 vs. 78. 9 pmol/L; p<0.001). However, MPO was not useful for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (c-statistics 0.61 [95% CI 0.54-0.67]), and Cox regression analysis revealed no independent association between MPO and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 [95% CI 0.8-2.0]) or the composite endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.1 [95% CI 0.8-1.5]) after a median follow-up of 4.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: MPO provided no clinically relevant information in the present population of chest pain patients.

  • 29.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Venge, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Pathophysiologic mechanisms of persistent cardiac troponin I elevation in stabilized patients after an episode of acute coronary syndrome2008In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 156, no 3, p. 588-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recently, a high prevalence of small persistent cardiac troponin I (cTnI) elevations has been reported in patients who had been stabilized after a recent episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We now have studied the associations of persistently elevated cTnI levels to cardiac performance, inflammation, coagulation, coronary status, and treatment strategy in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac troponin I was determined at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after randomization in 898 stabilized ACS patients from the FRagmin and Fast Revascularization during InStability in Coronary artery disease (FRISC) II trial and using the high-sensitive Access AccuTnI assay (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA). All patients were followed up for at least 5 years. Persistent cTnI elevation >0.01 microg/L at the 3 measurement instances was detected in 233 patients (26%). N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 6 months (OR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0-3.1), male sex (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.7), and randomization to an early invasive strategy (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7) independently predicted persistently elevated cTnI levels. Persistently cTnI-positive patients in the invasive cohort had significantly lower NT-proBNP levels compared to noninvasively treated patients, indicating that the mechanisms causing cTnI elevation in this group may be prognostically less harmful. No independent associations were found for markers of inflammation or coagulation. CONCLUSION: Persistent cTnI elevation occurs frequently late after an ACS. The NT-proBNP level at 6 months was the strongest predictor for elevated cTnI levels that thus appear to be predominantly related to impaired left ventricular function.

  • 30.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Nordenskjöld, Anna
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Risk prediction in patients with chest pain: early assessment by the combination of troponin I results and electrocardiographic findings2005In: Coronary Artery Disease, ISSN 0954-6928, E-ISSN 1473-5830, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 181-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of point of care troponin I (TnI) results in combination with findings from the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with chest pain. METHODS: Rapid measurements of TnI were performed in 191 consecutive patients with chest pain and a non-diagnostic ECG for myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Within 6 h from admission, maximum TnI elevations of > or = 0.07 microg/l and > or = 0.1 microg/l were noted in 59 and 39% of all patients, respectively. TnI elevations in the range of 0.07-0.09 microg/l were found in many patients with diagnoses other than acute coronary syndrome. By 6-month follow-up, cardiac death had occurred in 7.1 and 11% of patients with maximum TnI > or = 0.07 microg/l and > or = 0.1 microg/l, respectively and myocardial reinfarction was documented in 12 and 15%, respectively. ST-segment depression on the admission ECG was present in 16% of all patients and was the electrocardiographic abnormality with the highest risk (cardiac death 7.7%, myocardial reinfarction 15%). The combination of TnI > or = 0.1 microg/l and ST-segment depression or an abnormal admission ECG in general allowed the identification of patients at low, intermediate and high cardiac risk, 3 h after admission. CONCLUSION: A threshold of TnI > or = 0.1 microg/l corresponding to the 10% coefficient of variation is prognostically most suitable for prediction of cardiac events in patients with chest pain. The combination of TnI results and findings from the admission ECG improves prognostic assessment and allows early and reliable risk stratification in this patient population.

  • 31.
    Eggers, Kai M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Nordensköld, Anna
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Combining different biochemical markers of myocardial ischemia does not improve risk stratification in chest pain patients compared to troponin I alone2005In: Coronary Artery Disease, ISSN 0954-6928, E-ISSN 1473-5830, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 315-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Early evaluation of patients with chest pain is important not only for the detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but also for identification of patients at high risk for future cardiac events. A multimarker strategy applying results of early measurements of different biochemical markers of cardiac necrosis in combination may improve risk prediction in chest pain patients. METHODS: Rapid measurements of troponin I (TnI), creatine kinase MB and myoglobin were performed in 191 consecutive patients with chest pain and a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram for AMI. The prognostic value of these markers and different multimarker strategies was evaluated and compared. RESULTS: Ten (5.2%) patients died during follow-up, which for eight (4.2%) patients was due to cardiac causes. Myocardial reinfarctions occurred in 17 (6.8%) patients. TnI was most predictive for cardiac mortality (TnI>or=0.1 microg/l, 10.7% event rate compared with TnI<0.1 microg/l, 0%, P<0.001) and myocardial reinfarction (14.9% compared with 1.7%, P<0.001). The other markers and multimarker strategies had a lower capacity for predicting adverse events apart from myoglobin and the combination of TnI or myoglobin regarding the endpoint of total mortality. CONCLUSION: The combinations of different markers were prognostically non-superior compared to TnI, which thus, should be preferred as a biochemical marker for risk stratification in patients with chest pain.

  • 32.
    Eggers, Kai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Nordenskjöld, Anna
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Combining different biochemical markers of myocardial ischemia does not improve risk stratification in chest pain patients compared to troponin I alone.2005In: Coronary Artery Disease, ISSN 0954-6928, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 315-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Eggers, Kai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Nordenskjöld, Anna
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Diagnostic value of serial measurement of cardiac markers in patients with chest pain.: Limited value of adding myoglobin to troponin I for exclusion of myocardial infarction.2004In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, Vol. 148, no 4, p. 574-581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Eggers, Kai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Nordenskjöld, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Diagnostic value of serial measurement of cardiac markers in patients with chest pain: limited value of adding myoglobin to troponin I for exclusion of myocardial infarction2004In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 148, no 4, p. 574-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Despite improved laboratory assays for cardiac markers and a revised standard for definition of myocardial infarction (AMI), early detection of coronary ischemia in unselected patients with chest pain remains a difficult challenge.

    METHODS:

    Rapid measurements of troponin I (TnI), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and myoglobin were performed in 197 consecutive patients with chest pain and a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram for AMI. The early diagnostic performances of these markers and different multimarker strategies were evaluated and compared. Diagnosis of AMI was based on European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology criteria.

    RESULTS:

    At a given specificity of 95%, TnI yielded the highest sensitivity of all markers at all time points. A TnI cutoff corresponding to the 10% coefficient of variation (0.1 microg/L) demonstrated a cumulative sensitivity of 93% with a corresponding specificity of 81% at 2 hours. The sensitivity was considerably higher compared to CK-MB and myoglobin, even considering patients with a short delay until admission. Using the 99th percentile of TnI results as a cutoff (0.07 microg/L) produced a cumulative sensitivity of 98% at 2 hours, but its usefulness was limited due to low specificities. Multimarker strategies including TnI and/or myoglobin did not provide a superior overall diagnostic performance compared to TnI using the 0.1 microg/L cutoff.

    CONCLUSION:

    A TnI cutoff corresponding to the 10% coefficient of variation was most appropriate for early diagnosis of AMI. A lower TnI cutoff may be useful for very early exclusion of AMI. CK-MB and in particular myoglobin did not offer additional diagnostic value.

  • 35. Eikelboom, John W.
    et al.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Hart, Robert G.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Reilly, Paul
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yang, Sean
    Yusuf, Salim
    Balancing the Benefits and Risks of 2 Doses of Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin in Atrial Fibrillation2013In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 62, no 10, p. 900-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study sought to compare the net clinical benefit of dabigatran 110 mg bid and 150 mg bid with that of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Background In patients with AF, dabigatran 110 mg bid and 150 mg bid are associated with similar rates of death. However, the higher dose reduces ischemic stroke and increases bleeding compared with the lower dose. Therefore, there is uncertainty about how to evaluate the overall benefit of the 2 doses. Methods In 18,113 AF patients in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulant Therapy) trial, we used a previously developed method for integrating ischemic and bleeding events as "ischemic stroke equivalents" in order to compare a weighted benefit of 2 doses of dabigatran with each other, and with that of warfarin. Results Compared with warfarin, there was a significant decrease in ischemic stroke equivalents with both dabigatran doses: -0.92 per 100 patient years (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.74 to -0.21, p = 0.02) with dabigatran 110 mg bid and -1.08 (95% CI: -1.86 to -0.34, p = 0.01) with dabigatran 150 mg bid. There was no significant difference in ischemic stroke equivalents between the 2 doses: -0.16 (95% CI: -0.80 to 0.43) comparing dabigatran 150 mg bid with 110 bid. When including death in the weighted benefit calculations, the results were similar. Conclusions On a group level both doses of dabigatran as compared with warfarin have similar benefits when considering a weighted estimate including both efficacy and safety. The similar overall benefits of the 2 doses of dabigatran versus warfarin support individualizing the dose based on patient characteristics and physician and patient preferences. (Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulant Therapy [RE-LY] With Dabigatran Etexilate; NCT00262600)

  • 36. Eikelboom, John W.
    et al.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Healey, Jeff S.
    Yang, Sean
    Yusuf, Salim
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ezekowitz, Mike
    Alings, Marco
    Kaatz, Scott
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Diener, Hans-Christoph
    Franzosi, Maria Grazia
    Huber, Kurt
    Reilly, Paul
    Varrone, Jeanne
    Reply to Letters Regarding Article: "Risk of Bleeding With 2 Doses of Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin in Older and Younger Patients With Atrial Fibrillation : An Analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) Trial"2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 125, no 3, p. E293-E294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Eikelboom, John W.
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Ezekowitz, Mike
    Healey, Jeff S.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yang, Sean
    Alings, Marco
    Kaatz, Scott
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Diener, Hans-Christoph
    Franzosi, Maria Grazia
    Huber, Kurt
    Reilly, Paul
    Varrone, Jeanne
    Yusuf, Salim
    Risk of Bleeding With 2 Doses of Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin in Older and Younger Patients With Atrial Fibrillation An Analysis of the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) Trial2011In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 123, no 21, p. 2363-2372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice a day and warfarin are effective for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to compare their risks of bleeding in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Methods and Results-The RE-LY trial randomized 18 113 patients to receive dabigatran 110 or 150 mg twice a day or warfarin dose adjusted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for a median follow-up of 2.0 years. Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg twice a day was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (2.87% versus 3.57%; P=0.002), whereas dabigatran 150 mg twice a day was associated with a similar risk of major bleeding (3.31% versus 3.57%; P=0.32). There was a significant treatment-by-age interaction, such that dabigatran 110 mg twice a day compared with warfarin was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding in patients aged = 75 years (4.43% versus 4.37%; P=0.89; P for interaction = 75 years (5.10% versus 4.37%; P=0.07; P for interaction = 75 years, intracranial bleeding risk is lower but extracranial bleeding risk is similar or higher with both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin.

  • 38.
    Essebag, Vidal
    et al.
    McGill Univ, Hlth Ctr, 1650 Cedar Ave,Room E5-200, Montreal, PQ H3G 1A4, Canada.;Hop Sacre Coeur, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Proietti, Riccardo
    Swansea Univ, Cardiol Dept, Morriston Hosp, Swansea SA6 6NL, W Glam, Wales.;Luigi Sacco Hosp, Cardiol Dept, Milan, Italy..
    Birnie, David H.
    Univ Ottawa Heart Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Wang, Jia
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Douketis, James
    McMaster Univ, Dept Med, St Josephs Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Coutu, Benoit
    Ctr Hosp Univ Montre, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Parkash, Ratika
    Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Halifax, NS, Canada..
    Lip, Gregory Y. H.
    Univ Birmingham, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, City Hosp, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Hohnloser, Stefan H.
    Klinikum Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Moriarty, Andrew
    Craigavon Area Hosp, Portadown, Arm, North Ireland..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Thomas Jefferson Med Coll & Heart Ctr, Wynnewood, PA USA..
    Healey, Jeff S.
    McMaster Univ, Populat Hlth Res Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Short-term dabigatran interruption before cardiac rhythm device implantation: multi-centre experience from the RE-LY trial2017In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1630-1636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery is commonly performed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The current analysis was undertaken to compare peri-operative anticoagulation management, bleeding, and thrombotic events in AF patients treated with dabigatran vs. warfarin.

    Methods and results: This study included 611 patients treated with dabigatran vs. warfarin who underwent CIED surgery during the RE-LY trial. Among 201 warfarin-treated patients, warfarin was interrupted a median of 144 (inter-quartile range, IQR: 120-216) h, and 37 (18.4%) patients underwent heparin bridging. In dabigatran-treated patients (216 on 110 mg bid and 194 on 150 mg bid), the duration of dabigatran interruption was a median of 96 (IQR: 61-158) h. Pocket hematomas occurred in 9 (2.20%) patients on dabigatran and 8 (3.98%) patients on warfarin (P = 0.218). The occurrence of pocket hematomas was lower with dabigatran compared with warfarin with heparin bridging (RD: -8.62%, 95% CI: -24.15 to - 0.51%, P = 0.034) but not when compared with warfarin with no bridging (P = 0.880). Ischemic stroke occurred in 2 (0.3%) patients; one in the warfarin group (without bridging) and one in the dabigatran 150 mg bid group (P = 0.735).

    Conclusion: In patients treated with dabigatran undergoing CIED surgery, interruption of dabigatran is associated with similar or lower incidence of pocket hematoma, when compared with warfarin interruption without or with heparin bridging, respectively. Whether uninterrupted dabigatran can reduce pocket hematoma or ischemic stroke remains to be evaluated.

  • 39.
    Ezekowitz, M. D.
    et al.
    Thomas Jefferson Univ, Jefferson Med Coll, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA..
    Connolly, S. J.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Fraessdorf, M.
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Brueckmann, M.
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Kreuzer, J.
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Reilly, P.
    Boehringer Ingleheim Pharmaceut Inc, Ridgefield, CT USA..
    Yusuf, S.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Clinical outcomes of atrial fibrillation patients receiving NSAIDs in the RE-LY trial2015In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 36, no Suppl. 1, p. 862-862Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40. Ezekowitz, Michael D.
    et al.
    Connolly, Stuart
    Parekh, Amit
    Reilly, Paul A.
    Varrone, Jeanne
    Wang, Susan
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Themeles, Ellison
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Rationale and design of RE-LY: randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy, warfarin, compared with dabigatran2009In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 157, no 5, p. 805-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are effective for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) but are difficult to use. Dabigatran etexilate is a prodrug that is rapidly converted to the active direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. It is administered in a fixed dose without laboratory monitoring and is being compared with warfarin (international normalized ratio 2-3) in the RE-LY trial. Two doses of dabigatran (110 and 150 mg BID) are being evaluated. RE-LY is a phase 3, prospective, randomized, open-label multinational (44 countries) trial of patients with nonvalvular AF and at least 1 risk factor for stroke. Recruitment concluded with a total of 18,113 patients. Patients who were VKA-naive and experienced are included in balanced proportions. The primary outcome is stroke (including hemorrhagic) or systemic embolism. Safety outcomes are bleeding, liver function abnormalities, and other adverse events. Adjudication of end points is blinded to drug assignment. The trial is expected to accrue a minimum of 450 events with a minimum 1-year of follow-up. RE-LY is the largest AF stroke prevention trial yet undertaken. It is unique because it includes equal numbers of VKA-experienced and naive patients and evaluates 2 different dosages of dabigatran, which may allow tailoring of dosing to individual patient needs. The worldwide site distribution and broad range of stroke risk further increase the general applicability of the trial. Results are expected in 2009.

  • 41.
    Friberg, Leif
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences at Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation2017In: Open heart, ISSN 0168-2601, E-ISSN 2053-3624, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e000682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were in pivotal randomised controlled trials at least non-inferior to warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, but time in therapeutic range (TTR) for warfarin was lower (mean 55%-65%) than in Swedish general care where TTR is >70%. We compared efficacy and safety of NOACs and warfarin treatment for stroke prevention in Sweden.

    METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all non-selected oral anticoagulation naïve atrial fibrillation patients with first prescription for NOACs or warfarin between December 2011 and December 2014, excluding patients with mitral stenosis or mechanical valvular prosthesis. Data were obtained from cross-linked national registers, propensity scores were used as continuous covariates, and associations between treatment and outcomes were evaluated by multivariable Cox regressions.

    RESULTS: -VASc points (mean) 3.38 vs 3.24, p<0.001, in NOAC and warfarin groups, respectively. HRs (95% CI) for NOACs versus warfarin were 1.04 (0.91-1.19) for all-cause stroke or systemic embolism, 1.16 (1.00-1.35) for ischaemic stroke, 0.85 (0.76-0.96) for major bleeding, 1.22 (1.01-1.46) for gastrointestinal bleeding, 0.60 (0.47-0.76) for intracranial haemorrhage and 0.89 (0.81-0.96) for all-cause mortality.

    CONCLUSION: In this large non-selected anticoagulation naïve Swedish atrial fibrillation cohort, the risks for all-cause stroke or systemic embolism were similar with NOACs and warfarin, but NOACs were associated with significantly lower risks of all-cause mortality, major bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage but higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Better safety suggests NOACs as preferred treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation starting oral anticoagulation.

  • 42. Healey, Jeff S.
    et al.
    Eikelboom, John
    Douketis, James
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yang, Sean
    Themeles, Ellison
    Heidbuchle, Hein
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Reilly, Paul
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Periprocedural Bleeding and Thromboembolic Events With Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin Results From the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) Randomized Trial2012In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 343-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background-Dabigatran reduces ischemic stroke in comparison with warfarin; however, given the lack of antidote, there is concern that it might increase bleeding when surgery or invasive procedures are required.

    Methods and Results-The current analysis was undertaken to compare the periprocedural bleeding risk of patients in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial treated with dabigatran and warfarin. Bleeding rates were evaluated from 7 days before until 30 days after invasive procedures, considering only the first procedure for each patient. A total of 4591 patients underwent at least 1 invasive procedure: 24.7% of patients received dabigatran 110 mg, 25.4% received dabigatran 150 mg, and 25.9% received warfarin, P=0.34. Procedures included: pacemaker/defibrillator insertion (10.3%), dental procedures (10.0%), diagnostic procedures (10.0%), cataract removal (9.3%), colonoscopy (8.6%), and joint replacement (6.2%). Among patients assigned to either dabigatran dose, the last dose of study drug was given 49 (35-85) hours before the procedure on comparison with 114 (87-144) hours in patients receiving warfarin, P<0.001. There was no significant difference in the rates of periprocedural major bleeding between patients receiving dabigatran 110 mg (3.8%) or dabigatran 150 mg (5.1%) or warfarin (4.6%); dabigatran 110 mg versus warfarin: relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.17; P=0.28; dabigatran 150 mg versus warfarin: relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.49; P=0.58. Among patients having urgent surgery, major bleeding occurred in 17.8% with dabigatran 110 mg, 17.7% with dabigatran 150 mg, and 21.6% with warfarin: dabigatran 110 mg; relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.41; P=0.47; dabigatran 150 mg: relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.35; P=0.44.

    Conclusions-Dabigatran and warfarin were associated with similar rates of periprocedural bleeding, including patients having urgent surgery. Dabigatran facilitated a shorter interruption of oral anticoagulation.

  • 43. Healey, Jeff S.
    et al.
    Eikelboom, John
    Yang, Sean
    Themeles, Ellison
    Connolly, Stuart J.
    Yusuf, Salim
    Douketis, James
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Reilly, Paul
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    "Periprocedural Bleeding and Thromboembolic Events With Dabigatran Compared With Warfarin: Results From the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) Randomized Trial" Response2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 127, no 11, p. E506-E506Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Healey, Jeff S
    et al.
    Eikelboom, John
    Yang, Sean
    Themeles, Ellison
    Connolly, Stuart J
    Yusuf, Salim
    Douketis, James
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    Avezum, Alvaro
    Reilly, Paul
    Ezekowitz, Michael
    Response to letters regarding article: “Periprocedural bleeding and thromboembolic events with dabigatran compared with warfarin results from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) Randomized Trial"2013In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 127, no 11, article id e506Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hedberg, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Thuresson, M.
    Aarskog, P.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Bodegard, J.
    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid and gastrointestinal ulcers or bleeding - a cohort study of the effects of proton pump inhibitor use patterns2013In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 274, no 4, p. 371-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) usage patterns and risk of severe gastrointestinal events in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDA). Design and setting A nationwide cohort study in Sweden. Patients All Swedish residents 40years of age, without cancer and receiving LDA treatment (80% adherence for 365days between 2005 and 2009) were identified in the Swedish Prescription Register. Continuous PPI use was defined as >60 of 90days covered by daily PPI doses and further divided into high (80%) or moderate (<80) adherence. All other PPI use was defined as intermittent use. Main outcome measures The risk of a combined end-point of gastrointestinal ulcer or bleeding was analysed using Cox proportional hazard models. We also investigated risk of >45days of LDA treatment interruption. Results During a median follow-up of 2.5years, 7880 of 648807 (1.2%) LDA-treated patients experienced gastrointestinal events. In multivariable-adjusted models, both intermittent-PPI and no-PPI use were associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcers or bleeding compared with continuous PPI use with a high level of adherence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.83 (95% CI 1.66-2.02) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.23), respectively]. Amongst continuous PPI users, moderate adherence also increased the risk of gastrointestinal ulcers or bleeding [HR 1.22 (95% CI 1.07-1.40)]. The risk of LDA treatment interruption was higher with intermittent PPI use [HR 1.16 (95% CI 1.14-1.19)] than continuous PPI use with high adherence. Conclusions In this large cohort of LDA users, intermittent PPI use was associated with higher risk of gastrointestinal ulcers or bleeding and interrupted LDA treatment, compared with continuous PPI use.

  • 46.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    et al.
    Hasselt Univ, Dept Cardiol Arrhythmol, B-3500 Hasselt, Belgium.;Jessa Hosp, Ctr Heart, B-3500 Hasselt, Belgium..
    Verhamme, Peter
    Univ Leuven, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Louvain, Belgium..
    Alings, Marco
    Amphia Ziekenhuis, Dept Cardiol, Breda, Netherlands..
    Antz, Matthias
    Klinikum Oldenburg, Dept Cardiol, Oldenburg, Germany..
    Diener, Hans-Christoph
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Univ Hosp Essen, Dept Neurol, Essen, Germany..
    Hacke, Werner
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Neurol, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sinnaeve, Peter
    Univ Leuven, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Louvain, Belgium..
    Camm, A. John
    St Georges Univ, Clin Cardiol, London, England..
    Kirchhof, Paulus
    Univ Birmingham, Ctr Cardiovasc Sci, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Univ Munster, Dept Cardiol & Angiol, Munster, Germany..
    Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation2015In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1467-1507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current manuscript is an update of the original Practical Guide, published in June 2013[Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013; 15: 625-51; Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, HackeW, Oldgren J, et al. EHRA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary. Eur Heart J 2013; 34: 2094-106]. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Both physicians and patients have to learn how to use these drugs effectively and safely in clinical practice. Many unresolved questions on how to optimally use these drugs in specific clinical situations remain. The European Heart Rhythm Association set out to coordinate a unified way of informing physicians on the use of the different NOACs. A writing group defined what needs to be considered as 'non-valvular AF' and listed 15 topics of concrete clinical scenarios for which practical answers were formulated, based on available evidence. The 15 topics are (i) practical start-up and follow-up scheme for patients on NOACs; (ii) how to measure the anticoagulant effect of NOACs; (iii) drug-drug interactions and pharmacokinetics of NOACs; (iv) switching between anticoagulant regimens; (v) ensuring adherence of NOAC intake; (vi) how to deal with dosing errors; (vii) patients with chronic kidney disease; (viii) what to do if there is a (suspected) overdose without bleeding, or a clotting test is indicating a risk of bleeding?; (xi) management of bleeding complications; (x) patients undergoing a planned surgical intervention or ablation; (xi) patients undergoing an urgent surgical intervention; (xii) patients with AF and coronary artery disease; (xiii) cardioversion in a NOAC-treated patient; (xiv) patients presenting with acute stroke while onNOACs; and (xv) NOACs vs. VKAs in AF patients with a malignancy. Additional information and downloads of the text and anticoagulation cards in >16 languages can be found on an European Heart Rhythm Association web site (www.NOACforAF.eu).

  • 47.
    Heidbuchel, Hein
    et al.
    Hasselt Univ & Heart Ctr, Stadsomvaart 11, B-3500 Hasselt, Belgium..
    Verhamme, Peter
    Univ Leuven, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leuven, Belgium..
    Alings, Marco
    Amphia Ziekenhuis, Dept Cardiol, Breda, Netherlands..
    Antz, Matthias
    Klinikum Oldenburg, Dept Cardiol, Oldenburg, Germany..
    Diener, Hans-Christoph
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Univ Hosp Essen, Dept Neurol, Essen, Germany..
    Hacke, Werner
    Ruprecht Karls Univ Heidelberg, Dept Neurol, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sinnaeve, Peter
    Univ Leuven, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leuven, Belgium..
    Camm, A. John
    St Georges Univ, Clin Cardiol, London, England..
    Kirchhof, Paulus
    Univ Birmingham, Ctr Cardiovasc Sci, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Univ Munster, Dept Cardiol & Angiol, Munster, Germany..
    Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin-K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: Executive summary2017In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 38, no 27, p. 2137-2149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) published a Practical Guide on the use of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) (Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, European Heart Rhythm A. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. EHRA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary. Eur Heart J 2013;34:2094-2106). The document received widespread interest, not only from cardiologists but also from neurologists, geriatricians, and general practitioners, as became evident from the distribution of >350 000 copies of its pocket version (the EHRA Key Message Booklet) world-wide. Since 2013, numerous new studies have appeared on different aspects of NOAC therapy in AF patients. Therefore, EHRA updated the Practical Guide, including new information but also providing balanced guiding in the many areas where prospective data are still lacking. The outline of the original guide that addressed 15 clinical scenarios has been preserved, but all chapters have been rewritten. Main changes in the Update comprise a discussion on the definition of 'non-valvular AF' and eligibility for NOAC therapy, inclusion of finalized information on the recently approved edoxaban, tailored dosing information dependent on concomitant drugs, and/or clinical characteristics, an expanded chapter on neurologic scenarios (ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage under NOAC), an updated anticoagulation card and more specifics on start-up and follow-up issues. There are also many new flow charts, like on appropriate switching between anticoagulants (VKA to NOAC or vice versa), default scenarios for acute management of coronary interventions, step-down schemes for long-term combined antiplatelet-anticoagulant management in coronary heart disease, management of bleeding, and cardioversion under NOAC therapy. The Updated Guide is available in full in EP Europace (Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Diener HC, HackeW, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, Advisors. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2015;17:1467-1507), while additional resources can be found at the related ESC/EHRA website (www.NOACforAF.eu).

  • 48. Heidbuchel, Hein
    et al.
    Verhamme, Peter
    Alings, Marco
    Antz, Matthias
    Hacke, Werner
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Sinnaeve, Peter
    Camm, A John
    Kirchhof, Paulus
    Author reply: To PMID 236259422014In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 151-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Heidbuchel, Hein
    et al.
    Verhamme, Peter
    Alings, Marco
    Antz, Matthias
    Hacke, Werner
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Sinnaeve, Peter
    Camm, A John
    Kirchhof, Paulus
    Authors' response: from monitoring to vigilance about patient adherence to new oral anticoagulants2014In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 149-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Heidbuchel, Hein
    et al.
    Verhamme, Peter
    Alings, Marco
    Antz, Matthias
    Hacke, Werner
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Sinnaeve, Peter
    Camm, A. John
    Kirchhof, Paulus
    EHRA Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary2013In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 34, no 27, p. 2094-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Both physicians and patients will have to learn how to use these drugs effectively and safely in specific clinical situations. This text is an executive summary of a practical guide that the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has assembled to help physicians in the use of the different NOACs. The full text is being published in EP Europace. Practical answers have been formulated for 15 concrete clinical scenarios: (i) practical start-up and follow-up scheme for patients on NOACs; (ii) how to measure the anticoagulant effect of NOACs; (iii) drug-drug interactions and pharmacokinetics of NOACs; (iv) switching between anticoagulant regimens; (v) ensuring compliance of NOAC intake; (vi) how to deal with dosing errors; (vii) patients with chronic kidney disease; (viii) what to do if there is a (suspected) overdose without bleeding, or a clotting test is indicating a risk of bleeding?; (ix) management of bleeding complications; (x) patients undergoing a planned surgical intervention or ablation; (xi) patients undergoing an urgent surgical intervention; (xii) patients with AF and coronary artery disease; (xiii) cardioversion in a NOAC-treated patient; (xiv) patients presenting with acute stroke while on NOACs; (xv) NOACs vs. VKAs in AF patients with a malignancy. Since new information is becoming available at a rapid pace, an EHRA web site with the latest updated information accompanies the guide (www.NOACforAF.eu). It also contains links to the ESC AF Guidelines, a key message pocket booklet, print-ready files for a proposed universal NOAC anticoagulation card, and feedback possibilities.

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