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  • 1.
    Amcoff, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mohall, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Waxell, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Detaljhandelns förändrade geografi2015Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    John, Östh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Travel-to-School Distances in Sweden 2000-2006: Changing School Geography with Equality Implications2012In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    John, Östh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Travel-to-school distances in Sweden 2000-2006: changing school geography with equality implications2012In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 23, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty years ago the Swedish school system underwent serious change in that students were given the right to choose their school, though those living near each school had priority. Since then, there has been a new geographical debate concerning where students live and go to school and possible implications of this on student educational achievement and educational equality, as well as on students' daily lives. In studies of changes in the school system, travel distances to school have so far been less studied in the Swedish context. In this paper we will analyze the changes in distance to school for 15-year-olds, from 2000 to 2006, in order to identify who, and in which context, is traveling shorter/longer distances, and thus performing a school choice. We use register data from the database PLACE, Uppsala University. The focus is not on effects on achievement, nor school composition, but instead on the difference in ability/possibility of using school choice as measured by distance. A time-geography approach concerning variation in constraints between students is used. School choice may be a matter of preference for certain schools, but importantly, it might also be a matter of time and space restrictions for families with fewer resources: that is, with less spatial capital and a limited opportunity structure. Results show that travel to school distances have increased since the year 2000. Foreign-born students are traveling shorter distances, except for those with highly educated parents. Shorter distances are also travelled by students from families with social assistance and for visible minorities in areas where such minorities exist. 

  • 4.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    School and neighbourhood effects in Swedish regions - Inequalities in educational results in PISA2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Ethnic segregation and performance inequality in the Swedish school system: a regional perspective2010In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 2674-2686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is today an immigrant country with more than 14% foreign born. An increasing share of the immigrants comes from non-European countries. This implies that Sweden has been transformed from an ethnically homogenous country into a country with a large visible minority. In this paper we survey the effect of this change on school segregation. Building on Schelling's model for residential segregation, we argue that establishment of a visible minority has triggered a process of school segregation that in some respects can be compared with the developments in the United States. In order to test the validity of a Schelling-type process in Swedish schools we compare segregation levels in regions with different shares of visible minority students.We use data from the PISA 2003 survey in combination with register data on the ethnic composition of student population in different parts of Sweden. We find that school segregation is higher in regions with a large visible-minority population.We also find that, controlling for student background, there are smaller differences in performance across schools in regions with low shares of minority students.

  • 6.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1209-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

  • 7.
    Blind, Ina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Univ Barcelona, IEB, CESifo, Barcelona, Spain; VATT, Helsinki, Finland.
    Engström, Gustav
    Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Beijer Inst, POB 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden;Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Global Econ Dynam & Biosphere, POB 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Construction of Register-based Commuting Measures2018In: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 292-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early empirical studies in labour and urban economics addressing the role of commuting (on, e.g., wages and locational choice) have typically been confined to the use of survey data. Researchers are, however, increasingly getting access to large register databases with detailed information on where individuals live and work. A variety of methods have thus emerged to exploit the geocoded characteristic of the data to calculate commuting measures that go beyond simple Euclidean metrics. These methods involve new techniques that make use of geographic information system (GIS) routing software or application programming interfaces provided by third-party developers. This article provides (i) a brief survey of the small but emerging literature that uses geocoded register data to calculate different commuting measures, (ii) an example on how register-based commuting measures can be constructed along with descriptive evidence on how different commuting measures compare for different socio-economic groups using rich Swedish register data, (iii) a discussion of the pros and cons of different methods and measures, and (iv) a discussion of the potential of using mobile phone data to further improve registerbased commuting measures.

  • 8.
    Clark, William A. V.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Geog, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Anderson, Eva
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Human Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Human Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    A Multiscalar Analysis of Neighborhood Composition in Los Angeles, 2000-2010: A Location-Based Approach to Segregation and Diversity2015In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 1260-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There continues to be cross-disciplinary interest in the patterns, extent, and changing contexts of segregation and spatial inequality more generally. The changes are clearly context dependent but at the same time there are broad generalizations that arise from the processes of residential sorting and selection. A major question in U.S. segregation research is how the growth of Asian and Hispanic populations is influencing patterns of segregation and diversity at the neighborhood level. In this article we use a variant of a nearest neighbor approach to map, graph, and evaluate patterns of race and ethnicity at varying scales. We show that using a multiscalar approach to segregation can provide a detailed and more complete picture of segregation. The research confirms work from other studies that segregation is decreasing between some groups and increasing between others, and the patterns, and processes can be described as dynamic diversity. In a series of maps of ethnic clusters and population homogeneity we show how metropolitan areas, represented in this case by Los Angeles, now display patterns of complex living arrangements with multiple groups inhabiting both local neighborhoods and wider community spheres.

  • 9.
    Clark, William. A.
    et al.
    University of California, Los Angeles.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Uppsala Universitet.
    Measuring isolation across space and over time with new tools:: Evidence from Californian metropolitan regions2018In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1038-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of segregation continue to explore analytic tools to engage with patterns of separation within cities. In recent work, scale has emerged as an important dimension of understanding segregation - simply put, separation is strongly affected by the scale which is used in the measurement process. Levels of segregation are also influenced by the time in which the analysis takes place. We outline an approach to separation which has four dimensions - (1) using bespoke neighborhoods - who do you meet at varying scales, (2) measuring the size of the change in separation over time, (3) estimating the rate of change in separation across space and time and (4) visualizing the change, mapping changing levels of contact. The themes are explored using data from the diverse, multi ethnic neighborhoods in Californian metropolitan areas. The result of a bespoke neighborhood approach to segregation provides a more complete demonstration of the pattern of ethnic segregation. We know that there are declining overall levels of segregation, but while levels are decreasing for Whites they are increasing for Hispanics and Asians but at different rates depending on local contexts. Viewing assimilation in a multi-scalar visual context expands our understanding of segregation and assimilation.

  • 10.
    Geurs, Karst T.
    et al.
    Univ Twente, Fac Engn Technol, Ctr Transport Studies, POB 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    John, Östh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Advances in the Measurement of Transport Impedance in Accessibility Modelling2016In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 294-299Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hedman, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Manley, David
    University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences.
    van Ham, Maarten
    Delft University of Technology, OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, The Netherlands .
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Cumulative Exposure to Disadvantage and the Intergenerational Transmission of Neighbourhood Effects2012Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hedman, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Manley, David
    van Ham, Maarten
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Cumulative exposure to disadvantage and the intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood effects2015In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 195-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of neighbourhood effects typically investigate the instantaneous effect of point-in-time measures of neighbourhood poverty on individual outcomes. It has been suggested that it is not solely the current neighbourhood, but also the neighbourhood history of an individual that is important in determining an individual's outcomes. Using a population of parental home-leavers in Stockholm, Sweden, this study investigates the effects of two temporal dimensions of exposure to neighbourhood environments on personal income later in life: the parental neighbourhood at the time of leaving the home and the cumulative exposure to poverty neighbourhoods in the subsequent 17 years. Using unique longitudinal Swedish register data and bespoke individual neighbourhoods, we are the first to employ a hybrid model, which combines both random and fixed effects approaches in a study of neighbourhood effects. We find independent and non-trivial effects on income of the parental neighbourhood and cumulative exposure to poverty concentration neighbourhoods.

  • 13.
    John, Östh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Super-local spatial variations in fertility2015In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    John, Östh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Super-local spatial variations in fertilityIn: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    John, Östh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Clark, William. A.
    UCLA.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Measuring the scale of segregation using k-nearest neighbor aggregates2015In: Geographical Analysis, ISSN 0016-7363, E-ISSN 1538-4632, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly all segregation measures use some form of administrative unit (usually tracts in the United States) as the base for the calculation of segregation indices, and most of the commonly used measures are aspatial. The spatial measures that have been proposed are often not easily computed, although there have been significant advances in the past decade. We provide a measure that is individually based (either persons or very small administrative units) and a technique for constructing neighborhoods that does not require administrative units. We show that the spatial distribution of different population groups within an urban area can be efficiently analyzed with segregation measures that use population count-based definitions of neighborhood scale. We provide a variant of a k-nearest neighbor approach and a statistic spatial isolation and a methodology (EquiPop) to map, graph, and evaluate the likelihood of individuals meeting other similar race individuals or of meeting individuals of a different ethnicity. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated in an application of the method to data for Los Angeles and three metropolitan areas in Sweden. This comparative approach is important as we wish to show how the technique can be used across different cultural contexts. The analysis shows how the scale (very small neighborhoods, larger communities, or cities) influences the segregation outcomes. Even if microscale segregation is strong, there may still be much more mixing at macroscales.

  • 16.
    John, Östh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå Universitet.
    Do changes in GDP influence commuting distances?: A study of swedish commuting patterns between 1990 and 20062012In: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 443-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have analysed the relationships between individuals' commuting distances and individual characteristics, discrimination, societal structure and planning. Largely left unexplored, however, are the long-term relationships between changes in the economic cycle and the effects on individual commuting distances. Using regression analyses, this study focuses on the relationship between changes in GDP and commuters' response reflected in commuting distances. The empirical data consist of records of almost 12 million Swedish commuting events between 1990 and 2006. Results of the analyses indicate that changes in GDP growth rate have an impact on commuting distances, especially for younger workers, the recently unemployed and commuters in metropolitan areas.

  • 17.
    John, Östh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lyhagen, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Reggiani, Aura
    Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy..
    A new way of determining distance decay parameters in spatial interaction models with application to job accessibility analysis in Sweden2016In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 344-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore and compare various techniques for the calculation of distance decay parameters which are estimated using statistical methods with half-life decay parameters which are derived mathematically. Half-life models appear to be a valid alternative to traditional spatial interaction models, especially in the presence of spatially highly disaggregate data. Our results indicate that Half-life models are more accurate for the construction of decay parameters than are unconstrained spatial interaction models in 'medium' sized datasets but not as accurate as doubly-constrained models. However, using highly detailed and disaggregate datasets Half-life models may be viable alternatives to doubly-constrained spatial interaction models as the latter will be difficult to estimate when the number of origins and destinations increase. In addition, Half-life models rise in accuracy with increasing degrees of disaggregation due to reductions of systematic errors between observed individual level commuting distance and modelled distances between origins and destinations.

    In sum, our findings are as follows. First, since unconstrained and doubly-constrained spatial interaction models become increasingly difficult to estimate and/or less accurate to use compared to Half-life models as the spatial disaggregation increases choice of decay parameter estimation model should be considered in relation to level of disaggregation. Secondly, Half-life models are not affected by the systematic errors observed in the statistically derived models. Finally, using Half-life models for the estimation of decay parameters is simple which may make it easy to employ among practitioners lacking skills or computer means for the estimation of more complex statistically derived models.

  • 18.
    John, Östh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Analysing segregation with individualized neighbourhoods defined by population size2014In: Social-spatial segregation Concepts: processes and outcomes / [ed] Christopher D. Lloyd, Ian G. Shuttleworth, David W. Wong, Policy Press, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    John, Östh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach.2013In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 406-424Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    John, Östh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Reggiani, Aura
    University of Bologna, Iatly.
    Galiazzo, Giacomo
    University of Bologna, Iatly.
    Spatial Economic Resilience and Accessibility: A Joint Perspective2015In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 49, p. 148-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most studies of economic resilience, much effort is attributed to the development of factors and measures representing economic and related resilience. In this context, a great deal of attention is devoted to the role of regions and to their abilities to withstand an economic shock. Usually, however, less attention is given to the size, distribution and interaction of the regions containing the underlying statistics used in the calculation of resilience factors. In this article, we argue that more attention should be devoted to choosing spatial units to increase the potential of resilience measures. In particular, we consider a smaller spatial unit, such as the municipality level, to better visualize resilience's variations. In addition, by complementing measures of resilience with a measure of accessibility, we try to depict the municipality's economic functioning. We have carried out experiments with reference to the system of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. Our municipality-level analyses reveal that (a) proxies of resilience and accessibility, in general, are positively and significantly correlated and that the municipalities estimated to be most resilient and accessible are also the major economic centers in Sweden, and (b) classifying the municipality position in ranks of proxies for resilience and accessibility is more useful for the classification of municipalities with differential resilience than classifying municipalities using proxies for resilience alone. For example, whereas high proxy values for resilience and high accessibility municipalities often are both job- and population-rich, municipalities with low resilience estimates and high accessibility indices can typically be depicted as suburban and commuting municipalities in metropolitan areas. While municipalities with estimates of poor resilience and poor accessibility can in general be used to categorize remote municipalities experiencing population loss, estimated low resilience and high accessibility are characteristics of municipalities increasing in population. This analysis combining estimates of resilience and accessibility can be considered a suitable tool for providing a more complete insight into the economic investigation and measurement of resilience.

  • 21.
    Jokinen, Johanna C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Rural roots in the urban landscape: The urban spatial organization of rural-to-urban migrants in Bolivia2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid process of urbanization has been leading the direction of Latin American development over decades. However, the pattern of urbanization has been changing over the recent years, which can be seen as increasing rural-urban connections and growing importance of small towns and intermediate cities. This has also resulted in livelihood diversification in rural and peri-urban sites, which might include off-farm income generating activities and temporal labor migration. Over the last decades, an increasing flow of rural-to-urban migrants have transformed the urban as well as rural landscapes in Bolivia. The aim of this study is to identify national and transnational migration patterns in the Bolivian case study and to understand links between changing migration flows and population structure of urban space. Using a unique database containing records of thousands of migrations from rural areas to the major city of Cochabamba, we are able to analyze to what extent socio-economic backgrounds, earlier residence locations, ethnic belongings, and previous migration experiences determines type and location of residence areas chosen by migrants.

  • 22.
    Jokinen, Johanna C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Rural roots in the urban landscape: The urban spatial organization of rural-to-urban migrants in Bolivia2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid process of urbanization has been leading the direction of Latin American development over decades. However, the pattern of urbanization has been changing over the recent years, which can be seen as increasing rural-urban connections and growing importance of small towns and intermediate cities. This has also resulted in livelihood diversification in rural and peri-urban sites, which might include off-farm income generating activities and temporal labor migration. Over the last decades, an increasing flow of rural-to-urban immigrants have transformed the urban as well as rural landscapes in Bolivia. The aim of this study is to identify national and transnational migration patterns in the Bolivian case study and to understand links between changing migration flows and structure of urban space. Using a unique database containing records of thousands of migrations from rural areas to the major city of Cochabamba, we are able to analyze to what extent socio-economic backgrounds, earlier residence locations, ethnic belongings, and previous migration experiences determines type and location of residence areas chosen by migrants.

  • 23.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Andersson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Riots and segregation in Sweden2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24. Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Andersson, Eva
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Segregation and Urban Unrest in Sweden2013In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 1031-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, Sweden experienced a wave of urban unrest concentrated in areas with large foreign-born populations. This episode was seen by many as reflecting a trend towards increased ethnically based residential segregation, in line with scholarly literatures that correlate inequality and rising segregation with increases in unrest or rebellion. In this paper, we analyze the empirical connection between ethnic residential segregation and episodes of urban unrest in Sweden. Unrest is measured by the number of car burnings reported to police between 2002 and 2009. We find a positive and statistically significant link between residential segregation and car burnings at the scale of municipalities and metropolitan districts. Unrest/rebellion is also correlated with high proportion of young adults and social welfare assistance.

  • 25.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Human & Econ Geog, Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, CIRCLE, Lund, Sweden.
    Kallstrom, John
    Lund Univ, CIRCLE, Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Econ, Lund, Sweden.
    Koster, Sierdjan
    Univ Groningen, Dept Econ Geog, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Interregional migration of business owners: who moves and how does moving affect firm performance?2019In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 503-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business owners play an important role in driving regional economic growth, and policy-makers seek to attract and retain such entrepreneurs by most means available. This paper analyses migration patterns, the factors that influence the propensity to move and assesses the relationship between firm performance and individual migration both before and after the move. The results show that (1) known explaining variables of migration propensity also hold for business owners; (2) owners with more substantial firms in terms of turnover and employees are more geographically anchored; and (3) a simultaneous move of residence and firm has an unclear impact on firm performance.

  • 26.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    et al.
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm .
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    van Ham, Maarten
    Geography, University of St Andrews.
    The Globalisation of Marriage Fields: The Swedish Case2010In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 1119-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marriage fields - the geographical areas where people meet to partner - traditionally tend to be relatively small and local. Increasing international travel and the use of the internet have broadened the geographical opportunity structure of potential partners.This increases the chances of meeting a partner from abroad, possibly resulting in a rise in international marriage migration. This paper uses unique longitudinal population data for the whole of Sweden to explore the globalisation of Swedish marriage fields. The results show an increase of ‘marriage migrants’ in Sweden between 1990 and 2004,although absolute numbers remain relatively low. The paper yields two new insights notpreviously recorded in the literature. First, we found a substantial proportion of allmarriage migrants in Sweden to be males, while most existing literature on marriage migration focuses almost exclusively on females. Second, the pattern of geographical origins of marriage migrants is highly gendered, with male and female marriage migrants in Sweden originating from different regions in the world. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie male and female marriage migration.

  • 27. Olofsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Förtidspensionering av unga: en fråga om utsortering efter utbildningsnivå och socioekonomisk bakgrund?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att diskutera och analysera förekomsten av förtidspension och aktivitetsersättning bland unga och unga vuxna i Sverige.1 Utvecklingen i Sverige speglas utifrån ett internationellt perspektiv. En övergripande fråga i rapporten är om de senaste årens ökning av antalet unga med aktivitetsersättning kan relateras till socioekonomiska bakgrundsfaktorer och förhållanden på arbetsmarknaden. 

  • 28.
    Turk, Umut
    et al.
    Abdullah Gul Univ, Dept Econ, Sumer Campus, TR-38030 Kayseri, Turkey.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    How much does geography contribute?: Measuring inequality of opportunities using a bespoke neighbourhood approach2019In: Journal of Geographical Systems, ISSN 1435-5930, E-ISSN 1435-5949, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 295-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent an individual is successful in a variety of outcomes is the result of multiple factors such as (but not limited to) parental background, level of education, discrimination and business cycles. Factors like these also indicate that the success in life can be attributable to factors that both take individual-level merits into account but also to structural factors such as discrimination and contextual effects. Over the last decades, a growing interest in decomposing and categorising factors that affect the life chances of individuals has led to the formation of inequality of opportunity as a research field. This paper builds upon this growing literature, which amounts to quantify the contribution of factors that lie beyond the control of individuals to the total inequality observed in different spheres of life. Using rich Swedish longitudinal register data, we are able to follow individuals over time and their educational attainment during upbringing and later labour market outcomes. In difference from other inequality of opportunity studies, we make use of an egocentric neighbourhood approach to integrate the socio-economic composition of the parental neighbourhood in an inequality model and illustrate its contribution to the total inequality in both outcomes quantitatively. Using multilevel regression analyses, we show that the parental neighbourhood is highly influential in educational attainment and remains so for market outcomes even years after exposure.

  • 29. van Ham, Maarten
    et al.
    Hedman, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Manley, David
    Coulter, Rory
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood poverty: an analysis of neighbourhood histories of individuals2014In: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, ISSN 0020-2754, E-ISSN 1475-5661, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 402-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which socioeconomic (dis) advantage is transmitted between generations is receiving increasing attention from academics and policymakers. However, few studies have investigated whether there is a spatial dimension to this intergenerational transmission of (dis) advantage. Drawing on the concept of neighbourhood biographies, this study contends that there are links between the places individuals live with their parents and their subsequent neighbourhood experiences as independent adults. Using individual-level register data tracking the whole Stockholm population from 1990 to 2008, and bespoke neighbourhoods, this study is the first to use sequencing techniques to construct individual neighbourhood histories. Through visualisation methods and ordered logit models, we demonstrate that the socioeconomic composition of the neighbourhood children lived in before they left the parental home is strongly related to the status of the neighbourhood they live in 5, 12 and 18 years later. Children living with their parents in high poverty concentration neighbourhoods are very likely to end up in similar neighbourhoods much later in life. The parental neighbourhood is also important in predicting the cumulative exposure to poverty concentration neighbourhoods over a long period of early adulthood. Ethnic minorities were found to have the longest cumulative exposure to poverty concentration neighbourhoods. These findings imply that for some groups, disadvantage is both inherited and highly persistent.

  • 30.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    John, Östh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The City as a Single Gay Male Magnet?: The City as a Single Gay Male Magnet? Gay and Lesbian Geographical Concentration in Sweden2014In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 739-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, an increasing number of studies on the geographies of gay and lesbian couples have been carried out, stressing the urban significance, tolerance, and amenities. In this study, it is argued that former studies have only mapped a fraction of the gay and lesbian population, that is, the couples, and present a new method for retrieving information from the Internet to map gay and lesbian singles and couples. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between gay and lesbian singles and couples and that the urban significance is much stronger for singles than for couples. In the conclusion, it is suggested that a life course perspective could explain this where gay and lesbian singles tend to concentrate in cities, but when they have found a partner and decide to move together, the city is less important. Finally, a recommendation reconsidering partnership data is made as it can be problematical to generalise such data for a gay and lesbian population.

  • 31. Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Zenou, Yves
    How important is access to jobs?: Old question – improved answer2006Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of job proximity on individual employment and earnings. The analysis exploits a Swedish refugee dispersal policy to get exogenous variation in individual locations. Using very detailed data on the exact location of all residences and workplaces in Sweden, we find that having been placed in a location with poor job access in 1990–91 adversely affected employment in 1999. Doubling the number of jobs in the initial location in 1990–91 is associ-ated with 2.9 percentage points higher employment probability in 1999. The analysis suggests that residential sorting leads to underestimation of the impact of job access.

  • 32.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Zenou, Yves
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University.
    How important is access to jobs?: Old question—improved answer2010In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 389-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of job proximity on individual employment and earnings. The analysis exploits a Swedish refugee dispersal policy to obtain exogenous variation in individual locations. Using very detailed data on the exact location of all residences and workplaces in Sweden, we find that having been placed in a location with poor job access in 1990–1991 adversely affected employment in 1999. Doubling the number of jobs in the initial location in 1990–1991 is associated with 2.9 percentage points higher employment probability in 1999. Considering that the 1999 employment rate was 43% among the refugees, this is a considerable effect. The analysis suggests that residential sorting leads to underestimation of the impact of job access.

  • 33. Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Zenou, Yves
    Hur viktig är närheten till jobb för chanserna på arbetsmarknaden?2006Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport undersöker om tillgången på jobb i närområdet påverkar indivi-ders sysselsättning och förvärvsinkomst. Analysen bygger på mycket detalje-rade geografiska uppgifter om bostäder och arbetsplatser för hela Sveriges be-folkning. Studien visar att en stor mängd jobb i förhållande till antalet boende inom en cirkel med fem kilometers radie runt individens bostad, har en tydlig positiv inverkan på chansen att vara i arbete. Resultaten pekar också på att man riskerar att underskatta denna effekt om man inte tar hänsyn till det faktum att personer kan anpassa valet av bostadsort efter jobbtillgången.

  • 34.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Featured graphic. Superlocal spatial variations in fertility2015In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1019-1022Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Home, Job and Space: Mapping and Modeling the Labor Market2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How does space affect individuals’ outcome on the labor market? And how do we measure it? Beyond the notion of the labor market as a system of supply and demand, lays a society of individuals and workplaces, whose relationships are undeniably complex. This thesis aims to shed some new light on how to investigate and analyze the complex labor market relationships from a spatial perspective.

    In this thesis, five self-contained articles describe the spatial relationship between individuals and workplaces. In the first article, the official delineation of local labor market areas is tested against the delineation of labor markets for different subgroups. Differences in the regionalization are discussed from the subgroups’ and municipals’ perspective.

    In the second article, two sources of bias in the computation of local labor market areas, and suggestions how to reduce them, are presented.

    In the third article the spatial mismatch hypothesis is tested and confirmed on a refugee population in Sweden.

    In articles four and five, a new model for the estimation of job accessibility is introduced and evaluated. The model, ELMO, is created to answer to the need for a new accessibility measure to be used in spatial mismatch related research. The usability of the model is validated through empirical tests, were the ELMO-model excels in comparison to the accessibility models it is tested against.

    List of papers
    1. Homogeneous Regions and Heterogeneous Populations: Creating and Analyzing Labor Market Regions for Subgroups in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Homogeneous Regions and Heterogeneous Populations: Creating and Analyzing Labor Market Regions for Subgroups in Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95391 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Rethinking the Computation of Labor Market Regions: Consequences of Population Selection Bias and Suggested Solutions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rethinking the Computation of Labor Market Regions: Consequences of Population Selection Bias and Suggested Solutions
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95392 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved
    3. How important is access to jobs?: Old question—improved answer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How important is access to jobs?: Old question—improved answer
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 389-422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of job proximity on individual employment and earnings. The analysis exploits a Swedish refugee dispersal policy to obtain exogenous variation in individual locations. Using very detailed data on the exact location of all residences and workplaces in Sweden, we find that having been placed in a location with poor job access in 1990–1991 adversely affected employment in 1999. Doubling the number of jobs in the initial location in 1990–1991 is associated with 2.9 percentage points higher employment probability in 1999. Considering that the 1999 employment rate was 43% among the refugees, this is a considerable effect. The analysis suggests that residential sorting leads to underestimation of the impact of job access.

    Keywords
    Job access, endogenous location, natural experiment, spatial mismatch
    National Category
    Human Geography Economics
    Research subject
    Social and Economic Geography; Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126422 (URN)10.1093/jeg/lbp040 (DOI)000276745000003 ()
    Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2010-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Modeling Job Accessibility: Introducing a new model of potential job accessibility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Job Accessibility: Introducing a new model of potential job accessibility
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95394 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved
    5. Job Accessibility and Space: Examining the functionality of job access models used in mismatch related hypotheses
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job Accessibility and Space: Examining the functionality of job access models used in mismatch related hypotheses
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95395 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2011-11-16Bibliographically approved
  • 36.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Homogeneous Regions and Heterogeneous Populations: Creating and Analyzing Labor Market Regions for Subgroups in SwedenManuscript (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Introducing a Method for the Computation of Doubly Constrained Accessibility Models in Larger Datasets2011In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 581-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For four decades, the spatial mismatch hypothesis has been used as a scientific framework for the understanding of spatially related mismatch issues on the labor market. Over time, the mismatch studies have encompassed a wider array of hypotheses including issues of gender and class. However, the validity of the hypotheses is sometimes contested, and almost always is the validity of the hypotheses questioned regarding the models of accessibility used to depict the labor market situation. In this article, ELMO, a new method for the computation of doubly constrained accessibility, is introduced and tested against other commonly used models of accessibility. Using a unique dataset containing coordinates and additional employment related data on all inhabitants and all jobs in a Swedish local labor market, the new method accomplishes to retain the doubly constrained nature even though over 20,000 jobs are included and over 24,000 employable individuals are included. The detailed nature of the model proves to be beneficiary to other models of accessibility, especially for use in mismatch related hypotheses.

  • 38.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Job Accessibility and Space: Examining the functionality of job access models used in mismatch related hypothesesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Modeling Job Accessibility: Introducing a new model of potential job accessibilityManuscript (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Rethinking the Computation of Labor Market Regions: Consequences of Population Selection Bias and Suggested SolutionsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Utbildningsvägen - vart leder den?: Om ungdomar, yrkesutbildning och försörjning2007In: Utbildningsvägen - vart leder den?: Om ungdomar, yrkesutbildning och försörjning, SNS-förlag, Stockholm , 2007Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Variation in mortality among migrants from Islamic countries: Do religious holidays and socio-economic situation affect mortality rates?2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 2, article id e2092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of migrants to Sweden from the Middle East and the Horn of Africa has increased strongly over the last decades. Many of these migrants come as refugees from regions of conflict, with limited social and financial resources, and many of the migrants face discrimination on labour market. Most newly arrived migrants find their homes in poor suburbs in the outskirts of the metropolitan regions in Sweden. In this paper, the mortality rates for all immigrants from predominately Islamic countries that officially resided in Sweden at any time between 1991 and 2010 are analysed using Cox proportional hazard regressions. The research questions in this paper focus on finding the associations between mortality rate and socio-economic situations as well as the relationship between seasonal variations in religious activity and mortality. This large-scale longitudinal study reveals that for men, especially men between 16 and 55years of age, mortality rates are significantly lowered during Ramadan. Other factors affecting mortality rates include being a recent immigrant, civil, employment, and educational status as well as residing in immigrant dense areas.

  • 43.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Andersson, Eva
    Malmberg, Bo
    School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach2013In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 407-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, structural changes to the school system, including the introduction of independent schools, have increased school choice alternatives in Sweden. Consequently, a large share of today's students attend a school other than the one closest to home. Since the compulsory school system is designed to be free of charge and to offer the same standard of education everywhere, increasing school choice- hypothetically-should not increase the between-school variation in grades. In reality, however, between-school variation in grades has increased in recent years. The aim of this paper is to test whether increasing between-school variance can be explained by changes in residential patterns, or if it must be attributed to structural change. Using a counterfactual approach, the students' variations in grades are compared between observed schools of graduation and hypothetical schools of graduation. The multilevel results indicate that school choice seems to increase between-school variation of grades.

  • 44.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Andersson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    School Choice and Increasing Performance Differnce: A Counterfactual Approach2010Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Dolciotti, Martina
    Reggiani, Aura
    Univ Bologna, Dept Econ, Bologna, Italy.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Tinbergen Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Poznan, Poland.
    Social Capital, Resilience and Accessibility in Urban Systems: A Study on Sweden2018In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 313-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial systems appear to exhibit often a complex pattern of socio-economic development, in terms of (un)employment, income, mobility, ethnic composition, and urbanisation rates. Their evolution is co-determined by such factors as: market proximity, labour and housing market developments, public amenities, use of and access to transport systems, socio-economic composition of the population, etc. In addition, a sine qua non for sustaining urban economic growth is the local or regional presence of individual and collective cognitive assets that favour knowledge acquisition and transfer, education, innovation, and creativity. In this context, social capital and spatial accessibility are critical factors. The present paper aims to provide an operational framework for mapping out and understanding the mechanisms which drive spatial systems from the perspective of the resilience of urban areas, in the light of their social capital in combination with accessibility. Particular attention is therefore given to the essential role of social capital and transport accessibility in shaping both the economic development of cities and the spatial pattern in the evolution of cities, in terms of, inter alia, education, age, ethnic composition, (un)employment, and socio-economic poverty. For our quantitative analysis of the Swedish urban system, a quantile regression model is introduced and applied in order to study which urban-economic factors in Sweden determine the different levels of social capital, which are seen here as the fundamental component of the resilience capacity of urban areas.

  • 46.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Amcoff, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ander, Love
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Hedberg, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Arbetsmarknad i förändring: en analys av regionala branschförändringaröver tid och dess betydelse för framtidaarbetsmiljöarbete2011Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Department of Economic History.
    Yrkesutbildning och socialpolitik2005In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Department of Economic History. Department of Economic History.
    Stanfors, Maria
    Department of Economic History.
    20-24-åringars etableringsproblem på 1990-talöets arbetsmarknad. En översikt om inaktivitet och låga inkomster2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 49.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Reggiani, Aura
    University of Bologna, Iatly.
    Galiazzo, Giacomo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Novel methods for the estimation of cost–distance decay in potential accessibility models2014In: Accessibility and spatial interaction / [ed] Ana Condeço-Melhorado, Aura Reggiani and Javier Gutiérrez, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 15-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In much accessibility research, arbitrary estimates of the distance sensitivity parameters have been used to represent the distance decay parameters in potential accessibility models. These estimates might be considered arbitrary since the choice of value and the choice of the distance decay function is often motivated by statistical indicators of the goodness of fit on spatial flows, given the fact that measures of ‘real’ accessibilities are missing. Starting from these considerations, in this chapter we introduce a new approach, the half-life model originating from the natural sciences, to estimate distance decay parameters. This method is compared with two conventional approaches originating from spatial economic science for the computation of distance decay parameters: the unconstrained and the doubly constrained spatial interaction models. The emerging distance decay parameters will be then considered in the construction of accessibility indicators based on the potential accessibility introduced by Hansen in 1959. In this context, both the mean and the median distance will be taken into account in order to identify MAUP-related issues. The exploration of these three approaches focuses on empirical analyses of accessibility in Sweden at the municipal level for 1993 and 2008. All the emerging accessibility indicators are compared in order to analyse similarities and differences in the hierarchical accessibility levels of the Swedish municipalities. The chapter concludes with some methodological and empirical remarks on the adoption of these three approaches, in the light of possible forecasts and related policy analyses.

  • 50.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Reggiani, Aura
    University of Bologna,Bologna, Italy.
    Peter, Nijkamp
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland; Tinbergen Institute Amsterdam,The Netherlands.
    Resilience and accessibility of Swedish and Dutch municipalities2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1051-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have shown a rising popularity of the concept of resilience—both theoretically and empirically—in complex systems analysis. There is also a rising literature on resilience in the transport and spatial-economic field. The pluriform interpretation of resilience (e.g., engineering vs. ecological resilience) is related to methodological differences (e.g., stability in dynamics vs. evolutionary adaptivity). But in all cases the fundamental question is whether a complex system that is subjected to an external shock is able to recover, and if so, to which extent. The present paper [Based on presentation from cluster 6 (Accessibility) of the Nectar 2015 conference in Ann Arbour, USA.] aims to add a new dimension to resilience analysis in spatial systems, by addressing in particular the relationship between spatial accessibility at a municipality level and the resilience outcomes of the spatial system concerned. It does so by investigating to which extent accessibility of Swedish and Dutch municipalities has mitigated the local shock absorption from the recent economic recession. In our study the shock absorption capacity of municipal accessibility is estimated by analysing the relevant resilience indicators for the period concerned. In this context, conventional resilience indicators based on either multivariate complex data (in particular, the Foster Resilience Capacity Index) or employment data (in particular, the Martin Resilience-Employment Index) are confronted with spatial connectivity data based on local accessibility measures, so that geographical mobility may be regarded as one of the shock-mitigating factors. The empirical analysis is carried out for two countries which have both proven to be rather shock-resistant during the recent economic crisis, viz. Sweden and The Netherlands. Clearly, the geographical structure of these countries forms a sharp mutual contrast, viz. a spatially dispersed economy with a few distinct urban concentrations versus a spatially dense economy with one major metropolitan centre (the Randstad), respectively. Our experiments are carried out for the 290 municipalities in Sweden and 40 COROPs in The Netherlands. Our research findings show relevant and new insights into differences in the local recovery potential in Sweden and The Netherlands.

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