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  • 1. Achard, B.
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of the infant's ability to retrieve food through a slit2002In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study is to explore infants' ability to comprehend task manipulation, and whether they can feed themselves with a spoon when food has to be retrieved through a slit in a lid placed over a plate. To access the food, the infant has to align the bowl of the spoon with the slit. The orientation of the slit is manipulated, and certain orientations require more elaborate modifications of the feeding action than others. The infants are observed at monthly intervals, from 12 to 17 months of age. The presence of the lid affects the behaviour of the infants at all ages. Some behaviours become more immature. The infants grasp the spoon with more primitive grasp configurations, they grasp the spoon less consistently at the top of the handle, and they orient the spoon less consistently, with its bowl facing upwards. These differences decrease with age. The infants also make attempts to adjust to the constraints of the task, mainly by inclining the spoon more vertically, and rotating the hand in such a way as to align the spoon with the orientation of the slit. These adjustments improve with age.

  • 2. Achard, Benedicte
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of the Infant’sAbility to Retrieve Food Througha Slit2002In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 11, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study is to explore infants’ability to comprehend task manipulation, and whether they canfeed themselves with a spoon when food has to be retrievedthrough a slit in a lid placed over a plate. To access the food, theinfant has to align the bowl of the spoon with the slit. Theorientation of the slit is manipulated, and certain orientationsrequire more elaborate modifications of the feeding action thanothers. The infants are observed at monthly intervals, from 12 to17 months of age. The presence of the lid affects the behaviourof the infants at all ages. Some behaviours become more immature.The infants grasp the spoon with more primitive graspconfigurations, they grasp the spoon less consistently at the topof the handle, and they orient the spoon less consistently, withits bowl facing upwards. These differences decrease with age.The infants also make attempts to adjust to the constraints of thetask, mainly by inclining the spoon more vertically, and rotatingthe hand in such a way as to align the spoon with the orientationof the slit. These adjustments improve with age.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Readability of vertically vibrating aircraft displays1999In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrations pose a problem to the visual system. The vibrations in aircraft are mainly vertical and cause reading errors when the pilots read the instruments. In three experiments, reading capability was tested during vertical vibration of modern military aircraft, using symbols presented on a computer monitor. The results showed that complexity of symbols have a significant effect on the performance. The orientations of symbols were also of importance for their readability. Indexes made up of horizontally oriented lines were found to be especially difficult to read during vertical vibration. Orienting them 45° up or down improved readability in a significant way. The size of the symbols was found to be of importance especially when they were horizontally oriented.

  • 4.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Strömberg, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of smooth pursuit eye movements in very preterm infants: 1. General aspects2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 7, p. 983-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To investigate early oculo-motor development in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants.

    Methods:  Early oculo-motor development was prospectively studied by measuring smooth pursuit eye movements at 2 and 4 months corrected age in a population of very preterm infants born in Uppsala County 2004–2007. Eighty-one preterm infants were studied, and 32 healthy term infants constituted the control group.

    Results:  The study group consisted of infants with a mean gestational age of28 + 5 weeks. At 2 and 4 months corrected age, infants born very preterm showed lower gain (p < 0.001) and proportion of smooth pursuit eyemovements (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. The boys showed higher gain of smooth pursuit eye movements at both 2 and 4 months corrected age, compared to girls.

    Conclusions:  Oculo-motor development measured by smooth pursuit eye movements is delayed in very preterm infants at 2 and 4 months corrected age. This might be a risk factor or early indicator of later perceptual and behavioural impairment.

  • 5. Cannon, Erin N.
    et al.
    Woodward, Amanda L.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Turek, Colleen
    Action production influences 12-month-old infants' attention to others' actions2012In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work implicates a link between action control systems and action understanding. In this study, we investigated the role of the motor system in the development of visual anticipation of others actions. Twelve-month-olds engaged in behavioral and observation tasks. Containment activity, infants spontaneous engagement in producing containment actions; and gaze latency, how quickly they shifted gaze to the goal object of anothers containment actions, were measured. Findings revealed a positive relationship: infants who received the behavior task first evidenced a strong correlation between their own actions and their subsequent gaze latency of anothers actions. Learning over the course of trials was not evident. These findings demonstrate a direct influence of the motor system on online visual attention to others actions early in development.

  • 6.
    Cunha, Andrea Baraldi
    et al.
    Univ Fed Sao Carlos, Neuropediat Sect, Dept Phys Therapy, BR-13565905 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Soares, Daniele de Almeida
    Univ Fed Mato Grosso do Sul, Ctr Biol & Hlth Sci, Phys Therapy, BR-79070900 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil..
    Carvalho, Raquel de Paula
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Dept Hlth Sci, BR-11015020 Santos, SP, Brazil..
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tudella, Eloisa
    Univ Fed Sao Carlos, Neuropediat Sect, Dept Phys Therapy, BR-13565905 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Maturational and situational determinants of reaching at its onset2015In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 41, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At 3 months of age, reaching behavior was measured in a group of 10 girls and 10 boys born at term. The assessments were carried out on the average 2 days after reaching onset. Reaching kinematics was measured in both supine and reclined positions. Girls reached more than boys, had straighter reaching trajectories and movements of shorter durations as well as fewer movement units. The reclined position gave rise to straighter trajectories in both girls and boys. Several anthropometric parameters were measured. Girls had less length and volume of the forearm than boys but similar upper arm volumes. There was a weak relation between kinematic and anthropometric variables.

  • 7.
    Ekberg, Therese L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Soska, Kasey C.
    Adolph, Karen E.
    Dynamic reaching in infants during binocular and monocular viewing2013In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 229, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined reaching in 6-, 8-, and 10-month-olds during binocular and monocular viewing in a dynamic reaching situation. Infants were rotated toward a flat vertical board and reached for objects at one of seven positions along a horizontal line at shoulder height. Hand selection, time to contact the object, and reaching accuracy were examined in both viewing conditions. Hand selection was strongly dependent on object location, not on infants' age or whether one eye was covered. Monocular viewing and age did, however, affect time to object contact and contact errors: Infants showed longer contact times when one eye was covered, and 6-month-olds made more contact errors in the monocular condition. For right-hand selection, contact times were longer when the covered right eye was leading during the chair rotation. For left-hand selection, there were no differences in contact time due to whether the covered eye was leading during rotation.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of visual flow display of flight maneuvers on perceived spatial orientation.2005In: Hum Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 378-93Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 9. Fagard, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Spelke, Elisabeth
    Harvard University.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reaching and grasping a moving object in 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old infants: Laterality and performance2009In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to investigate some of the visuo-motor factors underlying an infant's developing ability to grasp a laterally-moving object. In particular, hand preference, midline crossing, and visual-field asymmetry were investigated by comparing performance as a function of the object's direction of motion. We presented 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old infants with a graspable object, moving in a circular trajectory in the horizontal plane. Six-month-old infants reached for the object with the ipsilateral hand and grasped it with the contralateral hand. Eight-month-old infants showed a strong right-hand bias for both reaching and grasping. Ten-month-old infants showed a greater diversity of strategy use including bimanual and successful ipsilateral grasping following ipsilateral reaching in both directions of motion. Thus, motor constraints due to spatial compatibility, hand preference and bimanual coordination (but not midline crossing) must be taken into account to understand age differences in grasping a moving object.

  • 10.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernell, E.
    Lundholm Hedvall, Å.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gillberg, C.
    Gaze performance in children with autism spectrum disorder when observing communicative actions2012In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 2236-2245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this eye tracking study was to map the correlates of gaze performance in a brief test of spontaneous gaze and point-gesture following in young children with autistic disorder (AD), Pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), or typical development (TD). Gaze measures included the children’s spontaneous tendency to look at the correct (attended) toy, and the latency of their correct responses. In addition to group differences (AD vs. TD), we found that in AD, accuracy of performance was specifically related to adaptive communication skills. The study also indicated that the latency of correct gaze shifts is related to verbal intelligence. These results have direct implications for our understanding of (responsive) joint attention impairments in AD.

  • 11.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Handicap and Habilitation, Stockholm.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Institute of Child Health, London.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Face scanning distinguishes social from communication impairments in autism2010In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 864-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How closely related are the social and communicative impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)? Recent findings in typically developing children suggest that both types of impairment are highly heritable but have only moderate behavioural and genetic overlap. So far, their respective roles in social perception are poorly understood. Here we show that when looking at other people’s faces, children with ASD who are better at socio-emotional behaviours than non-verbal communication look more at the eyes, while those with the opposite profile look more at the mouth (Study 1). For the mouth area, a similar pattern was observed for inverted faces, suggesting that information from this area is perceived on a featural basis. In Study 2, we found that when shown a person performing manual actions, ‘eye-lookers’ from Study 1 tended to look most at the face of the actor, while ‘mouthlookers’ from Study 1 tended to look at the action itself (hand ⁄ objects). This result was found in both ASD and typical development. In Study 3, the main finding in Study 1 was replicated in a new sample. Taken together, we interpret these results as supporting the view that the neural systems underlying socio-emotional versus non-verbal communication skills are separable, a finding that has important theoretical and clinical implications. The results also suggest that a similar differentiation of looking behaviour may operate in normal development.

  • 12.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants predict other people's action goals.2006In: Nat Neurosci, ISSN 1097-6256, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 878-9Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How special is social looking in ASD: a review2011In: Progress in Brain Research, ISSN 0079-6123, E-ISSN 1875-7855, Vol. 189, p. 209-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review is primarily concerned with the view that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) look less at the eyes and more at the mouth compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Such performance in ASD could reflect that the eyes are not meaningful or that they are perceived as threatening, two ideas that may seem intuitively appealing. However, our review shows that despite the fact that the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis fits with clinical common sense and initial data from adults, it does not-as a generalization across ages and contexts-fit with the emerging pattern of eye-tracking data. In adolescents and adults, there is only partial support for the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis, and regarding children, most studies do not support this hypothesis. In particular, independent studies have found longer looking durations on the mouth in TD children than in children with ASD, and no difference for the eye area. We describe recent evidence that mouth fixations are functional responses related to (early) stages of normative language development. We conclude that although individuals with ASD often give less preferential attention to social objects and events (faces, people, and social actions) than TD individuals, the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis of ASD is not generally supported. Therefore, this hypothesis needs to be reevaluated, as do related theories of social perception in ASD.

  • 14.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Visualization and Analysis of Eye Movement Data from Children with Typical and Atypical Development2013In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 2249-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking at other children's interactions provides rich learning opportunities for a small child. How children with autism look at other children is largely unknown. Using eye tracking, we studied gaze performance in children with autism and neurotypical comparison children while they were watching videos of semi-naturalistic social interactions between young children. Using a novel, bottom-up approach we identified event-related measures that distinguished between groups with high accuracy. The observed effects remained in a subset of the total sample matched on IQ, and were replicated across several different stimuli. The described method facilitates the detection of meaningful patterns in complex eye tracking data. Also, the approach significantly improves visualization, which will help investigators understand, illustrate, and generate new hypotheses.

  • 15.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eighteen-month-olds' ability to make gaze predictions following distraction or a long delay2014In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abilities to flexibly allocate attention, select between conflicting stimuli, and make anticipatory gaze movements are important for young children's exploration and learning about their environment. These abilities constitute voluntary control of attention and show marked improvements in the second year of a child's life. Here we investigate the effects of visual distraction and delay on 18-month-olds' ability to predict the location of an occluded target in an experiment that requires switching of attention, and compare their performance to that of adults. Our results demonstrate that by 18 months of age children can readily overcome a previously learned response, even under a condition that involves visual distraction, but have difficulties with correctly updating their prediction when presented with a longer time delay. Further, the experiment shows that, overall, the 18-month-olds' allocation of visual attention is similar to that of adults, the primary difference being that adults demonstrate a superior ability to maintain attention on task and update their predictions over a longer time period. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ Prospective Control during Object Manipulation2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora
    Univ Padua, Dept Dev Psychol & Socializat, Padua, Italy.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekberg, Therese L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?2017In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 4-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system. Peak velocity of the first movement unit of the reach served as indicator for prospective motor control. Both difficulty aspects (goal size and goal distance) affected prior reaching, suggesting that both these aspects of the subsequent action have an impact on the prior action. The smaller the goal size and the longer the distance to the goal, the slower infants were in the beginning of their reach toward the object. Additionally, we modeled movement times of both reaching and placing actions using a formulation of Fitts' law (as in heading). The model was significant for placement and reaching movement times. These findings suggest that 14-month-olds can plan their future actions and prospectively control their related movements with respect to future task difficulties.

  • 18.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What’s next? Infants Prospectively Control their Reaching Movements Depending on the Difficulty of their Subsequent Action2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ adaptation to object weight2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ adaptation to object weight2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Stasiewicz, Dorota
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants2009In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1190-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds, anticipated the goal of reaching actions but tracked all the other actions reactively. Fourteen-month-olds also produced more anticipatory gaze shifts during containment compared with displacement and differentiated between reaching actions dependent on whether the overall goal was to displace objects or place objects inside containers. These results demonstrate that action type and goal type modulate the latency of goal-directed gaze shifts in infants.

  • 22.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye tracking in infancy research2010In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, no 35, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' Evolving Representations of Object Motion During Occlusion: A Longitudinal Study of 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants2004In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 165-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants' ability to track temporarily occluded objects that moved on circular trajectories was investigated in 20 infants using a longitudinal design. They were first seen at 6 months and then every 2nd month until the end of their 1st year. Infants were presented with occlusion events covering 20% of the target's trajectory (effective occlusion interval ranged from 500–4,000 msec). Gaze was measured using an ASL 504 infrared eye-tracking system. Results effectively demonstrate that infants from 6 months of age can represent the spatiotemporal dynamics of occluded objects. Infants at all ages tested were able to predict, under certain conditions, when and where the object would reappear after occlusion. They moved gaze accurately to the position where the object was going to reappear and scaled their timing to the current occlusion duration. The average rate of predictive gaze crossings increased with occlusion duration. These results are discussed as a 2-factor process. Successful predictions are dependent on strong representations, themselves dependent on the richness of information available during encoding and graded representations.

  • 24.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Taking an action perspective on infant’s object representations2007In: Progress in Brain Research, ISSN 0079-6123, E-ISSN 1875-7855, no 164, p. 265-282Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Taking an action perspective on infant's object representations2007In: From action to cognition / [ed] VonHofsten C; Rosander K, 2007, Vol. 164, p. 265-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At around 4 months of age, infants predict the reappearance of temporary occluded objects. Younger infants have not demonstrated such an ability, but they still benefit from experience; decreasing their reactive saccade latencies over successive passages from the earliest age tested (7 weeks of age). We argue that prediction is not an all or none process that infants either lack or possess. Instead, the ability to predict the reappearance of an occluded object is dependent on numerous simultaneous factors, including the occlusion duration, the manner in which the object disappears, and previous experiences with similar events. Furthermore, we claim that infants' understanding of how occluded objects move is based on prior experiences with similar events. Initially, infants extrapolate occluded object motion, because they have massive experience with such motion. But infants also have the ability to rapidly adjust to novel trajectories that violate their initial expectations. All of these findings support a constructivist view of infants object representations.

  • 26.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boudreau, Paul
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' tracking of continuous circular motion interrupted by occlusion2002In: Infant behavior and Development, Vol. 144, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of incidentally presented constructs that imply self-control on activated stereotypes associated with immigrants. To activate immigrant stereotypes, participants responded to a scale that measures people’s prejudice toward immig

  • 27.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aus, Cathy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The development of two-dimensional tracking: a longitudinal study of circular pursuit2005In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 163, no 2, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated 6- to 12-month-old infants’ ability to track an object moving on circular trajectories, using a longitudinal design. Consistent predictive gaze tracking was not found before 8 months of age. These results indicate that infants’ horizontal and vertical components of circular tracking are less mature than expected from previous studies of one-dimensional horizontal tracking. Vertical components are especially immature, particularly during high velocity tracking (~20°/s). The results also suggest that horizontal and vertical tracking are mutually dependent during early development. Saccades were predictive (average lag >−125 ms) from 6 months onwards.

  • 28.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The development of reactive saccade latencies2006In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 173, no 1, p. 159-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) of 4-, 6- and 8-month-old infants' was measured during tracking of abruptly changing trajectories, using a longitudinal design. SRTs decreased from 595 ms (SE=30) at 4 months of age to 442 ms (SE=13) at 8 months of age. In addition, SRTs were lower during high velocities (comparing 4.5 and 9 degrees/s) and vertical (compared to horizontal) saccades.

  • 29.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reaching strategies of very preterm infants at 8 months corrected age2011In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 209, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reaching strategies and kinematics for a group of very preterm infants were investigated and compared with a group of full-term infants when reaching for a moving object. Eight-month-old (corrected-age) infants were presented with small toys moving on a semicircular path in the vertical plane. The trajectories of the target and the hands of the infants were measured using a 3D motion analysis system. No differences were found in how often the infants encountered the target. The very preterm group, however, used bimanual strategies more often and had more curved reaching paths than the full-term group. These results suggest that very preterm infants are equally successful as healthy full-term infants in catching a moving object but their reaching strategies are less efficient compared with full-term infants at 8 months (corrected age).

  • 30.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developmental asymmetries between horizontal and vertical tracking2006In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1754-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the asymmetry between horizontal and vertical eye tracking was investigated longitudinally at 5, 7, and 9 months of age. The target moved either on a 2D circular trajectory or on a vertical or horizontal 1D sinusoidal trajectory. Saccades, smooth pursuit, and head movements were measured. Vertical tracking was found to be inferior to horizontal tracking at all age levels. The results also show that the mechanisms responsible for horizontal and vertical tracking mutually influence one another in the production of 2D visual pursuit. Learning effects were observed within-trials but no transfer between trials was found.

  • 31. Hespos, S.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Spelke, E.S.
    Some things never change: Object occlusions and predictive reaching in infants and adults2009In: Cognitive science, ISSN 0364-0213, E-ISSN 1551-6709, no 33, p. 1483-1502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action as a founding principle of cognitive development in humans and robots2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How motor development can go astray2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How special is looking and acting in children with ASD?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measurement of dynamic visual fixation in infants at risk2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The development of the mirror neuron system2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The "whys" and "hows" of our epistemological and empirical journey2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    et al., et al.
    Improved visual perception in very low birth weight infants on enhanced nutrient supply2015In: Neonatalogy, ISSN 1661-7800, Vol. 108, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the development of the mirror neuron system2015In: New Frontiers in Mirror Neuron Research / [ed] G. Rizolatti and P. Ferrari (eds), Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 270-320Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Hreinsdottir, Jonina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ornkloo, H.
    Department of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Ophthalmological outcome and visuospatial ability in very preterm children measured at 2.5 years corrected age2013In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, no 12, p. 1144-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimTo investigate the ophthalmological outcome of very preterm children at 2.5years corrected age (CA) and perform a test of visuospatial and cognitive abilities. MethodsA population-based, prospective study (LOVIS study) in Uppsala County, Sweden, comprised 111 very preterm children (<32 w gestational age [GA]) born between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2007. Ophthalmic evaluations were undertaken in 98/109 children (89.9%) alive at 2.5 years. Spatial cognition was investigated with a test of five alternative blocks in 48 preterm and 25 term-born children. ResultsVisual impairment, strabismus or refractive errors, were found in 12% of the children. None of the children were blind in both eyes. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between strabismus and periventricular leucomalacia/intraventricular haemorrhage (OR 9.6, p=0.025) and between refractive errors and severe retinopathy of prematurity (OR 9.8, p=0.011) and GA (OR 0.763, p=0.034). Oval and rectangular blocks were significantly more difficult to insert into a box for preterm than full-term children (p=0.048 and 0.013, respectively). There was a significant correlation between total scores for the five blocks and GA at birth (p=0.035). ConclusionEye and visual problems were found in 12% of the preterm children at 30months CA. Preterm children had difficulties with blocks of complex shapes.

  • 41.
    Hreinsdottir, Jonina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Kaul, Ylva Fredriksson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Impaired cognitive ability at 2.5 years predicts later visual and ophthalmological problems in children born very preterm2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 822-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To identify possible predictive factors for visual problems at 6.5 years in children born very preterm.

    Methods: During 2004–2007, all very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <32 weeks) in Uppsala County, Sweden were screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) neonatally; at four months, visual tracking was tested; at 2.5 years, visuospatial and cognitive tests were carried out. At 6.5 years, 84 preterm children and a reference group of 64 full‐term children underwent ophthalmological testing.

    Results: Mean visual acuity (VA) did not differ between the groups, but subnormal VA (≤0.8) was more common in the preterm group (31% vs 14%; p < 0.05). More often than full‐term children, preterm children had impaired contrast sensitivity (<0.5) (36% vs 19%; p < 0.05) and strabismus (8% vs 0%; p < 0.05). Low GA, ROP, intraventricular haemorrhage 3‐4/periventricular leukomalacia and cognitive disability at 2.5 years predicted ophthalmological and visual problems at 6.5 years. Visual tracking ability at four months was not predictive of ophthalmological outcome.

    Conclusion: Children born preterm had more ophthalmological problems at 6.5 years of age, including subtle dysfunctions. ROP, early brain injury and impaired cognitive function around 2.5 years predicted later ophthalmological dysfunctions.

  • 42. Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' ability to track and reach for temporarily occluded objects2003In: Developmental Science, Vol. 6, p. 88-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Kato, Masaharu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Wit, Tessa
    Stasiewicz, Dorota
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sensitivity to second-order motion in 10-month-olds2008In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1187-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten-month-old infants' sensitivity to first-order motion (FOM) defined by luminance and second-order motion (SOM) defined by flickering was measured in an eye-tracking paradigm. We used a small single disc or gratings moving horizontally. Although infants could track the SOM of a small disc, they failed to exhibit smooth pursuit eye movements. They also failed to track SOM gratings with smooth pursuit. However, the gain of tracking based on slow eye movement was influenced by the motion direction of SOM in cases when both FOM and SOM were presented simultaneously, suggesting some sensitivity to SOM.

  • 44.
    Kaul, Ylva Fredriksson
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Kaul, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Bohm, Birgitta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Visual tracking in very preterm infants at 4 months predicts neurodevelopment at 3 years of age2016In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Typically developing infants track moving objects with eye and head movements in a smooth and predictive way at 4 mo of age, but this ability is delayed in very preterm infants. We hypothesized that visual tracking ability in very preterm infants predicts later neurodevelopment. METHOD: In 67 very preterm infants (gestational age<32wk), eye and head movements were assessed at 4 mo corrected age while the infant tracked a moving object. Gaze gain, smooth pursuit, head movements, and timing of gaze relative the object were analyzed off line. Results of the five subscales included in the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) at 3 y of age were evaluated in relation to the visual tracking data and to perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: Significant correlations were obtained between gaze gain and cognition, receptive and expressive language, and fine motor function, respectively, also after controlling for gestational age, severe brain damage, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CONCLUSION: This is the first study demonstrating that the basic ability to visually track a moving object at 4 mo robustly predicts neurodevelopment at 3 y of age in children born very preterm.

  • 45. Keitel, Anne
    et al.
    Prinz, Wolfgang
    Friederici, Angela D.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Daum, Moritz M.
    Perception of conversations: The importance of semantics and intonation in children's development2013In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 264-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conversations, adults readily detect and anticipate the end of a speaker's turn. However, little is known about the development of this ability. We addressed two important aspects involved in the perception of conversational turn taking: semantic content and intonational form. The influence of semantics was investigated by testing prelinguistic and linguistic children. The influence of intonation was tested by presenting participants with videos of two dyadic conversations: one with normal intonation and one with flattened (removed) intonation. Children of four different age groups-two prelinguistic groups (6- and 12-month-olds)-and two linguistic groups (24- and 36-month-olds) and an adult group participated. Their eye movements were recorded, and the frequency of anticipated turns was analyzed. Our results show that (a) the anticipation of turns was reliable only in 3-year-olds and adults, with younger children shifting their gaze between speakers regardless of the turn taking, and (b) only 3-year-olds anticipated turns better if intonation was normal. These results indicate that children anticipate turns in conversations in a manner comparable (but not identical) to adults only after they have developed a sophisticated understanding of language. In contrast to adults, 3-year-olds rely more strongly on prosodic information during the perception of conversational turn taking.

  • 46. Lee, David N.
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cotton, E
    Perception action approach to cerebral palsy1997In: Neurophysiology and Psychology of Motor Development / [ed] Kevin J. Connolly, Hans Forssberg, Mac Keith Press , 1997, p. 257-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47. Li, B
    et al.
    Lin, L
    Dong, Qi
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The development of fin motor control and their relation to children's academic achievement2002In: Acta Psychologica Sinica, Vol. 34, p. 494-499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Lin, Lei
    et al.
    Dong, Qi
    Sun, Yanqing
    von hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Comparison of chopstick using skills between 3-7-year-old children and adults2001In: Acta Psychologica Sinica, ISSN 0439-755X, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 40-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquisition and development of motor skill is an important aspect in human development. Children's motor skills have been investigated for many decades as the developmental milestones and have been used as a scale to describe children's developmental level by researchers. However,studies on the characteristics and the development of culturally related motor skill are very limited.

    Investigating culturally related motor skill will be very helpful to understand the nature and developmental course of human motor skill. Chopstick using is not only a necessary operation in the daily lives in eastern countries, but also one of the typical fine motor skills which are very important for the functional activities in early child development. In the present study,the characteristics and the development of chopstick using skills were investigated by comparing the types and frequencies of chopstick using gestures in 3-7 year old children and adults.

    181 participants were included in this study. 91 children aged from 3-5 and 60 pupils aged from 6-7 were selected from one kindergarten and one primary school as the children group. 30 undergraduates were selected as the adult group. Wooden objects in different sizes were used in this study. Participants were asked to hold and move the objects from one testing board to another with a pair of chopsticks. Their gestures and actions were photographed.

    Results indicated that 8 kinds of chopstick using gestures were found in both children and adults and they differed in the relative position of each finger,the interplay between fingers and chopsticks, the space of the palm and the agility in dealing with different tasks etc. The frequencies of Gesture Two, Five and Six were very low both in children and adults, which showed that similarity existed between children and adults,and the gestures used during early ages may have some effect later. With age increase,more and more people tended to use the more efficient gesture. In children, frequencies of the more efficient gesture (Gesture Type One) changed from 3.7% in 3 year olds to 23.1% in 7 year olds,while frequency of the lower efficient gesture (Gesture Type Four) changed from 59.3% to 23.1% accordingly. In adults, frequency of Gesture Type One was 50%,which was significantly higher than the ones in children, while frequency of Gesture Type Four was 10%, which was significantly lower than the ones in children.

  • 49. Rogoff, Barbara
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Editorial1997In: Human Development, Vol. 40, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 50.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cortical processing of visual motion in young infants2007In: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 1614-1623Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 78
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