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  • 1. Abraham, Fofana
    et al.
    Persson, Henrik
    Themnér, Anders
    Yesterday Warlord, Today Presidential Candidate:: Ex-Military Leaders Running for Office in Post-CivilWar Societies2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 2.
    Angerbrandt, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Above Politics?: Ex-Military Leaders in Nigerian Electoral Politics2021In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 782-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In countries transitioning from military to democratic rule, authoritarian legacies often continue to influence politics. Whereas previous research has focused on the institutional causes of such deficiencies, there is a lack of studies examining the role ex-military leaders who re-emerge as civilian presidents have in sustaining authoritarian tendencies. In this article, we begin to fill this lacuna by investigating the question: how and under which conditions do ex-military leaders' political identity constructions affect their tendency to place themselves above politics (i.e. expressing the attitude and behaviour of being superior to democratic rules)? The literature on neo-patrimonialism and post-civil war politics points to the importance of the political identities of ex-militaries, and we propose a theory that highlights the role identity construction plays in shaping elites’ decision-making processes. Based on a comparison of two Nigerian presidents, Olusegun Obasanjo and Muhammadu Buhari, we find that ex-generals' tendency to engage in politics from above is largely a function of to what extent they have diversified their political identities beyond their role as “militaries”. In this process, the degree of democratic consolidation also seems to play a role; ex-militaries operating in newly established democracies appear to have more opportunities to place themselves above politics.

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  • 3.
    Bangura, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
    Lonergan, Kate
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Patrimonial Truth-Telling: Why Truth Commissions Leave Victim and Ex-Combatant Participants Aggrieved2023In: Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, ISSN 1750-2977, E-ISSN 1750-2985, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 371-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing awareness that truth commissions (TCs) often leave victim and ex-combatant participants aggrieved. This is problematic since it can undermine support for peace processes. When attempting to explain such shortcomings, previous research has not paid sufficient attention to the patrimonial sources of TC-participants’ frustration. We argue that such forms of disenchantment are largely caused by internationalised TCs’ patrimonial mode of working, utilising tactics such as motorcades as manifestations of power and brokers to mobilise witnesses. To highlight the relevance of our argument, we use the work of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission as an example. 

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  • 4.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Fjelde, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hegre, Håvard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nio punkter för global fred (Nine Points for Global Peace)2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Insatserna för global fred måste stärkas skriver tolv företrädare för institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning apropå att världens ledare samlas i dag i New York för att anta 17 nya globala mål för en bättre värld och mer hållbar utveckling.

  • 5.
    Manning, Carrie
    et al.
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Discourses of Peace and Fear: The Electoral Navigations of Sekouh Conneh and Prince Johnson in Post-War Liberia2017In: Warlord Democrats in Africa: ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London: Zed Books, 2017, p. 95-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Another Brick in the Wall: The Israeli Wall2003In: About a Culture of Peace / [ed] Jenny Alge, Stockholm: Christian Council of Churches , 2003Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Informal Military Structures and Mid-Level Commanders: An African Outlook2009Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Making Peace with Islamists: Lebanon in Focus2002Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Reintegrating Ex-Combatants in Post-Conflict Societies2005Report (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Nilsson, R. Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Dangerous Liaisons: Why Ex-Combatants Return to Violence. Cases from the Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After disarming and demobilizing, why do some ex-combatants re-engage in organized vio-lence, while others do not? Even though former fighters have been identified as a major source of insecurity in post-civil war societies due to their military know-how, there have been few efforts to systematically examine this puzzle. This study fills this research gap by comparing the presence or absence of organized violence in different ex-combatant communi-ties – all the former fighters that used to belong to the same armed faction and who share a common, horizontal identity based on shared war-and peacetime experiences. It does so by analyzing six ex-combatant communities in two countries: ex-Cobra, Cocoye and Ninja in the Republic of Congo and ex-AFRC, CDF and RUF in Sierra Leone. More specifically, three concepts – remarginalization (former fighters’ lack of political influence, personal security or economic assistance), remobilizers (individuals who have the will, capacity and skills to coordinate organized violence in a post-conflict setting) and relationships (whether or not remobilizers share social or material bonds, conducive for war, with ex-combatant communi-ties and each other) – are applied to the six cases, in order to explain why relatively many former CDF, Cobra, Ninja and RUF fighters resorted to violence, while no or hardly any ex-AFRC and Cocoye combatants did the same. Contrary to assumptions found in previous research, this study finds that structural factors, relating to remarginalization, have little ex-planatory value in themselves. Being a rule, rather than an exception, remarginalization can best be understood as a background variable, creating conducive conditions for violence to take place. Instead, the main determinants of ex-combatant violence are whether former fight-ers have access to regional or domestic elites in the market for experienced fighters and to second-tier individuals – such as former mid-level commanders – who can act as intermediar-ies between the two. By utilizing relationships based on selective incentives and social net-works, these two kinds of remobilizers are able to generate the needed enticements and feel-ings of affinity, trust or fear, to convince ex-combatants to resort to arms. These findings demonstrate that the outbreak of ex-combatant violence can only be understood by more clearly incorporating an actor perspective, focusing on three levels of analysis: the elite, mid-level and grass-root.

  • 11.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Box 52, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Folke Bernadotte Acad, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Demagogues of Hate or Shepherds of Peace?: Examining the Threat Construction Processes of Warlord Democrats in Sierra Leone and Liberia2019In: Journal of International Relations and Development, ISSN 1408-6980, E-ISSN 1581-1980, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 560-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are threat images framed and constructed by the so-called warlord democrats (WDs)? Societies that have suffered from large-scale civil wars are commonly permeated by inter-group fear and hate. In these contexts, former military or political leaders of armed groups sometimes become involved in post-war politics. These WDs can act as reconciliation spoilers by making securitising moves, i.e. they construct threat images that are potentially very costly for fragile post-conflict democratisation processes. It is therefore crucial to explore WDs’ speech acts. Yet, the literature on post-war politics has largely overlooked these individual aspects. This article argues that the central components of securitisation theory can be useful in understanding this phenomenon if adjusted to the contextual circumstances of post-war societies. By analysing speech acts by seven WDs in post-war Liberia and Sierra Leone, two forms of framing strategies stand out as particularly relevant. First, WDs’ securitising moves are often framed as veiled threats of violence, as it is often deemed too risky for these individuals outside formal power positions to overtly express threats in a generally de-securitised setting. Second, when WDs construct threats, they often chose to frame themselves or their constituencies or followers as the referent object of security.

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  • 12.
    Swain, Ashok
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Themner, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Krampe, Florian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Zambezi River Basin: A Risk Zone of Climate Change and Vulnerability2012In: New Routes, ISSN 1403-3755, E-ISSN 2000-8082, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 17-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Swain, Ashok
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Krampe, Florian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Climate Change and the Risk of Violent Conflicts in Southern Africa2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify regions in the Zambezi River Basin in Southern Africa that are prone to risk of violent conflicts (collective violence, popular unrest) induced by climatic changes/variability. The Zambezi River is 575 kilometres long and the basin covers eight coun- tries: Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, Botswana, Mo- zambique and Namibia.Besides the ecological impact, the study argues that socio-econom- ic and political problems are disproportionately multiplied by climate change/variability. Climate change/variability amplifies stresses on the socio-political fabric because it affects the governance of resources, and hence, is linked to the weakened mitigation and adaptation capac- ity of societies, that are already facing economic challenges (rising food prices, etc.). Society becomes highly vulnerable to climate induced con- flicts when it suffers from poor central leadership, weak institutions and polarized social identities. Taking all these factors into consideration, this study identifies Bulawayo/Matableleland-North in Zimbabwe and the Zambezia Province in Mozambique as the most likely regions to experience climate induced conflicts in the near future. The reasons for arriving at this conclusion are: a) Climatechange/variabilitywillhaveasignificantimpactonthesetwo regions; due to increasing water scarcity in Bulawayo/Matabeleland- North; and intensified flooding, sea-level rise, and costal erosion in the Zambezia Province. b) Due to climate change/variability, agricultural production in these two regions will become highly volatile, leading to severe food insecurity. c) Both regions are suffering from low quality political governance, having unscrupulous elites, weak institutions, and polarized social identities.

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  • 14.
    Themner, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Former mid-level commanders in Big Man networks2012In: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Mats Utas, London: Zed Books, 2012, p. 205-223Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A Disempowering Peace: Explaining why Ex-Combatants Re-engage in Organised Violence2012In: From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and Its Resolution in Africa after the Cold War / [ed] Thomas Ohlson, Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publishing, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A Leap of Faith: When and How Ex-Combatants Resort to Violence2013In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 295-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has given scant attention to the issue of how and when ex-combatants resort to organized violence. This article fills this research gap by comparing ex-fighters in the Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone. It holds that ex-combatant violence is the result of interaction between entrepreneurs of violence, military affinities, intermediaries, and selective incentives. Ex-combatants take to arms when they have access to entrepreneurs of violence. By offering selective incentives and utilizing existing military affinities, entrepreneurs can generate the enticements and trust needed to convince ex-combatants to resort to arms. However, as entrepreneurs have limited contact with ex-fighters, they are dependent on intermediaries to do the actual recruiting for them. Contrary to previous assumptions, this article finds that ex-fighters are largely risk-averse individuals and that ex-combatant violence is seldom triggered by the mere presence of small arms, lack of economic opportunities, or experiences of insecurity.

  • 17.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A Response to Ilmari Käihkö's "On Brokers, Commodification of Information and Liberian Former Combatants"2022In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 535-546Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent article in Civil Wars, Ilmari Käihkö criticizes my research approach of collaborating with ex-commanders to study their own ex-command structures. While I welcome a discussion concerning the pros and cons of employing this approach, it must be based on a correct representation of the methods that I have used. Kaihko does not do this in his article, and he makes a number of false statements about my research. My ambition with this paper is to set the record straight and pave the way for a more productive discussion about how to best study ex-command structures.

  • 18.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Commanding Abuse or Abusing Command?: Ex-Command Structures and Drugs in Liberia2018In: Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, E-ISSN 2379-9978, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 46-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary discourses on post-war reconstruction in West Africa, ex-command structures are often assumed to play a key role in the drug economy. Such assertions have, however, not been systematically investigated. Based on in-depth field research in Liberia, this article holds that ex-command structures have not only played a limited role in the country’s drug economy, the use of and trade in drugs has had a destructive impact on ex-military networks. These findings highlight that rather than seeking to dismantle strong ex-command structures, efforts to combat the drug economy may benefit from integrating them into the statebuilding process.

    KEYWORDS: Ex-command structures, drugs, crime, disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration, Liberia, peacebuilding

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  • 19.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Conclusion: Ambiguous Peacelords: The Diminishing Returns of Democracy2017In: Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London: Zed Books, 2017, p. 222-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Demilitarisering och säkerhets­sektorreform2012In: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 257-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Demobilisering och säkerhetsreform2017In: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, Andra, p. 289-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Former Military Networks and the Micro-Politics of Violence and Statebuilding in Liberia2015In: Comparative politics, ISSN 0010-4159, E-ISSN 2151-6227, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 334-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have highlighted the inability of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs to dismantle command structures in the aftermath of civil war. The effect that lingering military networks have on peace, however, is ambiguous. Therefore, a key question—which has so far been unanswered—is why some ex-military networks are remobilized for violent purposes while others are used for more productive ones, such as income-generating activities. In this article, I seek to address this question by comparing two former mid-level commanders (ex-MiLCs) in Liberia and the networks that they control. Based on this comparison I argue that it is ex-MiLCs who are shunned by governing elites as peacetime brokers of patronage—distributing economic resources to ex-fighters—that are most likely to remobilize their ex-combatant networks.

  • 23.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Introduction: Warlord democrats: wartime investments, democratic returns?2017In: Warlord Democrats in Africa: ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London: Zed Books, 2017, p. 1-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    On Brokers, Biases and Leaving the Veranda: Working with Research Brokers in Political Science Based Field Research2022In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 117-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I critically discuss the pros and cons of working with research brokers from a political science perspective. I do this by sharing my experiences of collaborating with two types of local "fixers" - cultural and communal brokers. I argue that even if similar approaches risk introducing a number of broker-induced biases, countermeasures can be taken to mitigate their effect: e.g. continuous triangulation, interviewing "sleepers" and asking in-depth questions to exclude interviewees who misrepresent themselves. However, researchers must be aware that working with multiple brokers can also generate methodological and ethical challenges that need to be taken into consideration.

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  • 25.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilizers and Relationships2014 (ed. Second)Book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilizers and Relationships2011Book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. NAI, Sweden.
    Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Nord Africa Inst, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wealth in Ex-Combatants: Examining the Resilience of Ex-Command Structures in Post-War Liberia2019In: Journal of Global Security Studies, ISSN 2057-3170, E-ISSN 2057-3189, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 526-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs often fail to uproot wartime command structures. A key question is why some ex-commanders succeed in retaining control over their ex-fighters, while others are less successful. This study seeks to address this question by comparing four former midlevel commanders (ex-MiLCs) in Liberia and the ex-combatant networks that they head. Contrary to previous assumptions, which have stressed the tendency of ex-fighters to flock around ex-commanders operating in spaces of marginality, I argue that ex-MiLCs employed as government brokers and who funnel patronage from ruling elites to ex-combatants are likely to possess the most durable networks. These findings highlight how ex-military bonds thrive where previous research expects them to be weakest: close to government elites who are often designated as “agents of change” by international peacemakers.

  • 29.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Contributing, author
    Forskningens Framtid!: Ämnesöversikt 2014 Humaniora och Samhällsvetenskap2015Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Contributing, author
    The Future of Swedish Research!: Overview 2014 Development Research2015Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Karlén, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Swedish Def Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Building a Safety Net: Explaining the Strength of Ex-Military Networks2020In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 268-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of ex-combatants has become an integral part of peacebuilding. Although the main purpose of such interventions is to dissolve the military structures of armed groups, there is growing evidence that ex-combatant networks often remain intact. We investigate why such structures continue to thrive. We argue that ex-military networks are stronger when ex-commanders have weak links to elite patronage systems. Ex-combatants who are unable to rely on their former superiors for economic assistance must instead build denser ties to each other to gain access to a social safety net. To assess our argument, we conduct a comparative social network analysis (SNA) of two ex-military networks in Liberia. This innovative approach helps us uncover previously overlooked, but central, dynamics related to ex-combatant groups. We thereby show that SNA provides a range of underutilized tools and exact definitions that can increase our understanding of ex-military networks.

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  • 32.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Ohlson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legitimate Peace in Post-Civil War States: Towards Attaining the Unattainable2014In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 61-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Lund University.
    Buying Them Off or Scaring Them Straight: Explaining Warlord Democrats' Electoral Rhetoric2020In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post–civil war democracies are characterized by intense electoral competition. To ensure continued political relevance, ex-military-turned-politicians, or “warlord democrats” (WDs), can either engage in a rhetoric of fear or ease societal tensions by employing a rhetoric of peace. WDs’ choice of rhetoric can have a profound impact on durable peace by altering societal discourses concerning the legitimacy of using violence. A key question is therefore: Why do some WDs employ a rhetoric of fear, and others a rhetoric of peace, when running for office? We argue that the choice of rhetoric is a function of the patrimonial endowments WDs possess; if WDs lack the resources and social networks needed to distribute patronage, they may instead use a rhetoric of fear to rally voters. To highlight the explanatory value of this proposition, we compare two Liberian WDs who ran for the Senate in 2005—Adolphus Dolo and Prince Johnson.

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  • 34.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Nord Africa Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Utas, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology. Nord Africa Inst, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Governance through Brokerage: Informal Governance in Post-Civil War Societies2016In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 255-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a lack of knowledge about how elites rule post-civil war societies without strong state institutions. This paper argues that elites oftentimes overcome such institutional deficiencies by engaging in governance through brokerage. According to this perspective, elites outsource central state functions to influential broker figures. This is particularly true when dealing with war-affected groups that possess much violent agency. By functioning as social membranes, brokers can help elites and war-affected groups to redefine a new social contract. Liberia is employed as an example to illustrate the paper’s central arguments.

  • 35.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Utas, Mats
    Lindberg, Emily
    Commanders for Good and Bad: Alternative Post-War Reconstruction and Ex-Commanders in Liberia2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 35 of 35
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