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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. kost.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Becker, Wulf
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Nilsson, Gerd
    Näringslära för högskolan2006Book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 2. Aro, Antti
    et al.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pedersen, Jan I.
    Trans fatty acids in the Nordic countries2006In: Scandinavian journal of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 1748-2976, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 151-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) comprise a variety of positional isomers, mainly with 18 carbon atoms and one double bond (C18:1). They are found in foods of ruminant animal origin and in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. The isomeric composition of TFA in animal and vegetable foods differs, but no definite differences have been documented between the metabolic and health effects of the different isomers. In the Nordic countries the intake of TFA has declined during the past 1015 years, mainly through reduced use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. TFA are mainly found in foods that contain far higher amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA). The proportion of SFA plus TFA should be kept to one-third of total dietary fatty acids. The problem of excessive consumption of these unfavourable fatty acids should be managed with food-based dietary guidelines in agreement with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

  • 3.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Garmo, Hans
    Regional Cancer Center , Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Grundmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men2014In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary pattern analyses have increased the possibilities to detect associations between diet and disease. However, studies on dietary pattern and prostate cancer are scarce. Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively. Prostate cancer risk was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression (median follow-up 13years) and competing risk of death was considered. There were no associations between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (n = 133) in the whole study population. Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participants (P-for-trend 0.04). Risk relations were not attributable to competing risk of death. In this study, a LCHP diet was associated with lower prostate cancer incidence. Relations emerged in adequate reporters, underscoring the importance of high-quality dietary data.

  • 4.
    Ax, Erika Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Grundmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Patterns and prostate cancer risk: a population based cohort study in elderly Swedish men2013In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 27, no S1, p. 847.8-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fetter2006In: Näringslära för högskolan, Liber AB, Stockholm , 2006, p. 460-Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 6.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livsmedelskonsumtion och kostvanor i Sverige - utvecklingstrender2006In: Näringslära för högskolan, Liber AB, Stockholm , 2006, p. 460-Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 7.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Håglin, Lena
    Aschan-Åberg, Karin
    Mineralämnen2006In: Näringslära för högskolan, Liber AB, Stockholm , 2006, p. 460-Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 8.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Haraldsdottir, Johanna
    Nydahl, Margareta
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ytterfors, A
    Precoded or weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults. I Food intake.1996Report (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Daryani, Achraf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Bengt, Vessby
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Dietary fat intake, fat sources and fatty acid composition in serum among immigrant women from Iran and Turkey compared with women of Swedish ethnicity2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immigrants in general seem to be more vulnerable than the host population to developing nutrition-related chronic conditions. This may in part be related to diverging dietary habits, including intake of different types and amounts of dietary fat.

    Objectives

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the dietary fatty acid composition and the dietary fat sources among first generation immigrant women from Iran and Turkey compared with women of Swedish ethnicity. The second aim was to relate the reported dietary fatty acid composition to the fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters, and the fatty acid composition in serum to metabolic variables.

    Design

    The study was a cross-sectional health survey of randomly selected foreign-born women (n=107) and native Swedish women (n=50) living in Uppsala. This included 24 h dietary recall repeated four times and administered in the native language.

    Results and conclusion

    A lower proportion of satura ted fatty acids, a higher proportion of linoleic acid and a higher n-6/n-3 ratio were found in the immigrants’ diet than in the diet of the Swedish women. The difference in linoleic acid was also mirrored in serum. Vegetable dishes, together with edible fats, were the major contributors of polyunsaturated fatty acids among the immigrant women. While the fatty acid profile in serum among the immigrant women had both favourable and unfavourable implications, a higher prevalence of obesity and dyslipidaemia was observed in immigrant compared with Swedish-born women.

  • 10.
    Daryani, Achraf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Lars
    Andersson, Åsa
    Kocturk, Tahire
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Risk factors for coronary heart disease among immigrant women from Iran and Turkey, compared to women of Swedish ethnicity2005In: Ethnicity & Disease, ISSN 1049-510X, E-ISSN 1945-0826, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    The aim of the study was to compare a group of immigrant women from the Middle East living in Sweden to Swedish-born controls regarding the prevalence of certain cardiovascular risk factors.

    DESIGN:

    Health survey of randomly selected foreign-born women and women native in Sweden.

    SETTING:

    Uppsala, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS:

    A total of 107 immigrant women aged 35-64 years from the Middle East (Iran [N=71] and Turkey [N=36]) living in Uppsala and residents in Sweden for at least three years and a control group of ethnic Swedish women (N=50).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

    A questionnaire and a clinical examination specially directed towards measuring cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension.

    RESULTS:

    A less beneficial cardiovascular risk profile was found among immigrant women than among ethnic Swedish women. Turkish women had substantially higher body mass index (BMI), larger waist, higher waist/hip ratio and sagittal abdominal diameter, higher levels of serum triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol concentration compared with Swedish-born women. A similar tendency was seen also for Iranian women.

    CONCLUSION:

    The present study shows important ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factor pattern. Immigrant women from Iran and Turkey are heavier than women born in Sweden and have a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, an unfavorable lipid profile, and a high degree of physical inactivity during leisure time, which may predispose for a higher incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  • 11.
    Daryani, Achraf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kocturk, Tahire
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlstrom, Brita
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Becker, Wulf
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Greater underreporting of dietary intake among immigrant women from Iran and Turkey than in native-Swedish women in Uppsala County2006In: 6th International Conference on Dietary Assessment Methods, 27-29 april Köpenhamn, Danmark: Complementary advances in diet and physical activity assessment methodologies, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 12. Håglin, Lena
    et al.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hagren, Britta
    Kost och hälsa i Sverige och världen2006In: Näringslära för högskolan, Liber AB, Stockholm , 2006, p. 29-57Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 13.
    Järvi, Anette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Natl Food Agcy, Risk Benefit Assessment Dept, POB 622, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake2016In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 10, p. 1760-1768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which >= 500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2 alpha) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum a-and beta-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  • 14.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Olsson, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ability to predict resting energy expenditure with six equations compared to indirect calorimetry in octogenarian men2017In: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 92, p. 52-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of predictive equations for calculating resting energy expenditure (REE) in elderly people has been questioned. Aging is associated with progressive declines in REE, which partly is explained by loss of fat free mass (FFM). Against this background we aimed to identify the most accurate predictive equation for REE in octogenarian men, taking body composition into account and using indirect calorimetry as reference value. REE was measured in 22 men (mean age 82.6 +/- 0.3 years) and compared with six predictive equations: two based on FFM and four based on body weight, height and/or age. FFM was derived from Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. Spearman's rank correlations showed a moderate to high positive monotonic correlation (r = 0.62 to 0.79) between measured and calculated REE (all p < 0.005).The mean calculated REE was significantly different from measured REE for all equations except Mifflin-St Jeor. A calculated REE within 10% of measured REE was considered acceptable and the equations of Mifflin-St Jeor, WHO and Harris-Benedict captured 64%, 50% and 45% of the participant, respectively. The Mifflin-St Jeor equation had the lowest root mean square error (138 kcal), followed by the equation by Harris-Benedict (189 kcal) and WHO (220 kcal). The equations from Luhrmann, Henry and Cunningham predicted REE rather poorly in our study subjects, with e.g. <40% of the individuals within 10% of measured REE. Our results indicate that the Mifflin-St Jeor equation (using FFM) is the most accurate equation estimating REE in these octogenarian men. Harris-Benedict or WHO equations are potential alternatives if information on FFM is unavailable, although their accuracy on an individual level is limited.

  • 15.
    Landström, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Magnusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Use of functional foods among Swedish consumers is related to health-consciousness and perceived effect2007In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 1058-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to survey attitudes to and use of functional foods and to investigate which demographic variables and attitudes to diet and health predict consumption of functional foods among Swedish consumers. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 2000 randomly selected Swedish citizens aged between 17 and 75 years. A total of 972 (48 %) responded, 53 % were female and 44 % male. Mean age was 45 years. The results revealed that 84 % of respondents were familiar with the concept of functional foods; 83 % had consumed/purchased at least one of the seven functional food products presented in the questionnaire. Of those who had consumed a functional food, 25 % had perceived effect of it. Positive correlations were seen between consumers perceiving a personal reward from eating functional foods, having an interest in natural products and an interest in general health. Consumption/purchase of functional foods was related to beliefs in the effects of the products, having consumed nutraceuticals or dietary supplements, having a diet-related problem personally or in the family, and a high level of education. The characteristic Swedish functional food consumer has a high level of education, is health-conscious and interested in healthy foods and believes in the health effect of functional foods. Thus, factors other than demographics better explain consumption of FF. However, the study population may represent a more health-conscious segment of the Swedish population in general. Additional studies are therefore required to elucidate the attitudes and use of FF in different consumer groups.

  • 16. Sand, Salomon
    et al.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Assessment of dietary cadmium exposure in Sweden and population health concern including scenario analysis2012In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 50, no 3-4, p. 536-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The median dietary cadmium exposure for adults in Sweden is around 1 mu g/kg/week and the upper 95th and 99th percentiles are 1.6-1.8 and 1.9-2.2 mu g/kg/week, respectively. Potatoes and wheat flour were the most important food categories, contributing with 40-50% to the exposure. Differences in dietary patterns between high and low exposed individuals were observed; for high exposed individuals, seafood and spinach contributed with an exposure similar to that low exposed individuals received from potatoes and wheat flour. Consequences of differences in methodology used for exposure assessment are discussed. The median exposure is a factor 2 lower compared to that estimated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). It is also a factor 1.4 lower compared to that of the assessment used for development of the EFSA tolerable weekly intake (TWI). The potential importance of this latter fact was addressed by adjusting the present assessment to that used for TWI derivation. While the percentage of the population exceeding the TWI was <1% for the present data, it was around 3% for adjusted data, which is more in line with observations at the level of urinary cadmium. Scenario analysis was also performed to addresses the consequence of increasing/decreasing cadmium occurrence levels.

1 - 16 of 16
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