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  • 1.
    Aalto, Aino-Maija
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Childcare - A safety net for children? 2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how access to childcare affects health outcomes of children with unemployed parents using a reform that increased childcare access in some Swedish municipalities. For 4–5 year olds, we find an immediate increase in infection-related hospitalization, when these children first get access to childcare. We find no effect on younger children. When children are 10–11 years of age, children who did not have access to childcare when parents were unemployed are more likely to take medication for respiratory conditions. Taken together, our results thus suggest that access to childcare exposes children to risks for infections, but that need for medication in school age is lower for children who had access.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Demand for local public schooling: another brick in the wall2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the demand for local public school expenditures in Sweden. By using survey data, a method previously never applied to Swedish data, the paper provides an additional piece of evidence on individual demand for publicly provided local services. Estimating a linear demand specification, we find that the demand is inelastic with respect to income and tax, much in line with previous Swedish findings in a median voter framework. Estimation of a log-linear demand specification indicates more elastic demand. Testing the hypothesis that municipal employees tend to have a higher demand for public spending than others, we conclude that income, as well as taxprice, enters the demand function differently for the two groups of employees. We find no evidence of Tiebout sorting.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Individual Demand for Local Public Schooling: Evidence from Swedish Survey Data2001In: International Tax and Public Finance, ISSN 0927-5940, E-ISSN 1573-6970, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 331-352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of Decentralization on School Resources2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of decentralization on school resources2008In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 276-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is centralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher–pupil ratio after the reforms. The less-targeted grants are the fewer teachers per pupil do the municipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear-cut.

  • 6.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Effects Of Decentralization On School Resources: Sweden 1989-20022007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector which, con- sequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether school resources became more un- equally distributed across municipalities in connection with the reforms and if local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. Using municipal data the paper studies how per pupil spending and the teacher-pupil ratio has evolved over the period 1989– 2002, separating between three different waves of decentralization. As nothing much has happened with per pupil spending, the teacher-pupil ratio has become more evenly distributed across municipalities. Municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is cen- tralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher-pupil ratio after the reforms. The less targeted grants are, the fewer teachers per pupil do the mu- nicipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear cut.

  • 7.
    Bergström, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    GMM Bootstrapping and Testing in Dynamic Panels1999In: Essays on Local Public Finance and Intergovernmental Grants, Uppsala: Department of Economics, Uppsala University , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergström, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    GMM bootstrapping and testing in dynamic panels1997Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergström, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Municipal labour demand: Sweden 1988-19951998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of municipal labour demand in Sweden 1988-1995. Utilising a major grant reform in 1993, through which a switch from mainly targeted to mainly general central government grants occurred, we are able to identify which type of grants that have the largest effects on municipal employment. We find a larger municipal employment elasticity with respect to grants before the reform, implying that the more freedom given to the municipalities, the less they seem inclined to spend on municipal employment. We further find (i) a short run wage elasticity of approximately -0.5 and a long run ditto of approximately -0.9, (ii) a quite sluggish adjustment process: only 60% of the desired change in municipal employment is implemented in the first year, (iii) that the demographic structure is an important determinant of municipal employment, and (iv) that the behavioural pattern is different in"socialist"municipalities.

  • 10.
    Bergström, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Municpal Labour Demand - Sweden 1988-19951998In: Essays in Labour Economics and Econometrics, Uppsala: Department of Economics, Uppsala University , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bergström, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Statsbidragens och lönernas effekter på den kommunala arbetskraftsefterfrågan1999In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 151-161Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bergström, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The effects of grants and wages on municipal labour demand2004In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 315-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of municipal labour demand in Sweden 1988–1995. Utilising a major grant reform in 1993, through which a switch from mainly targeted to mainly general central government grants occurred, we are able to identify which type of grants that have the largest effects on municipal employment. We find a larger municipal employment elasticity with respect to grants before the reform, which we interpret as evidence that general grants have less employment effects than specific ones. We further find a short run wage elasticity of approximately -0.5 and a long run ditto of approximately -0.9, and a quite sluggish adjustment process: only 60% of the desired change in municipal employment is implemented in the first year.

  • 13.
    Boadway, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fördelning av makt och ansvar2003In: Staten och kommunerna / [ed] Per Molander, Stockholm: SNS förlag , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14. Braunerhjelm, P.
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inkomstfördelning och optimal politik2002In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Hansen, Jörgen
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Fattigdom i folkhemmet: Från socialbidrag till självförsörjning2008 (ed. 1:a upplagan)Book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    An examination of the dynamic behavior of local governments using GMM bootstrapping methods1997Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    An Examination of the Dynamic Behaviour of Local Governments using GMM Bootstrapping Methods2000In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 401-416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Högre utbildning och forskning2002In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 107-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Om regeringars röstköpsbeteende2000In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 305-316Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the vote purchasing behavior of incumbent governments1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A couple of months before the Swedish election in 1998, the incumbent government distributed 2.3 billion SEK to 42 out of 115 applying municipalities. This was the first wave of a four-year long grant program intended to support local investment programs aimed at an ecological sustainable development. This temporary grant program differs from traditional intergovernmental grants in several aspects, most importantly in the sovereign decision making power given to the incumbent central government. In this paper we investigate whether there were any tactical motives behind the distribution of these grants. We find support for the hypothesis that the incumbent government used the grant program under study in order to win votes. In particular, we find strong support for the Lindbeck-Weibull/Dixit-Londregan model in which parties distribute transfers to regions where there are many swing voters. This result is statistically as well as economically significant. We do however not find any support for the model that predicts that the incumbent government transfer money to its own supporters.

  • 21.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On the Vote Purchasing Behavior of Incumbent Governments2002In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether there are any tactical motives behind the distribution of grants from central to lower level governments. We use a temporary grant program that is uniquely suitable for testing theories of vote-purchasing behavior of incumbent governments. The temporary grant program differs from traditional intergovernmental grants in several aspects, most importantly in the sovereign decision making power given to the incumbent central government. We find support for the hypothesis that the incumbent government used the grant program under study in order to win votes. In particular, we find strong support for the Lindbeck-Weibull/Dixit-Londregan model in which parties distribute transfers to regions where there are many swing voters. This result is statistically as well as economically significant. We do however not find any support for the model that predicts that the incumbent government transfers money to its own supporters.

  • 22.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The revenues-expenditures nexus: panel data evidence from Swedish municipalities1996Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Revenues-Expenditures Nexus: Panel Data Evidence from Swedish Municipalities1998In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1379-1386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tovmo, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panels2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panel data models. The general conclusion from the Monte Carlo simulations is that the Sargan test, in many cases, leads the econometrician to accept misspecified models with sometimes severely biased parameter estimates as a result. This is especially true when the number of cross-sectional units is small and when there are measurement errors in the dependent variable. To investigate if the simulation results have any bearing in real applications, we used the data in Arellano and Bond (1991) and re-estimated their employment equations with the difference that we deliberately imposed additive and multiplicative measurement errors in the employment and wage variables. It turned out that the Sargan test always accepted the misspecified models while we at the same time ended up with biased parameter estimates. The conclusion from this paper is that in the very likely case of measurement errors in either the dependent or any of the independent variables, we will, if we rely on the Sargan test, quite likely accept a misspecified model and end up with biased results.

  • 25.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On mandatory activation of welfare receivers2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether mandatory activation programs for welfare receivers have effects on welfare participation, employment and disposable income. In contrast to earlier studies we are able to capture both entry and exit effects. The empirical analysis makes use of a Swedish welfare reform in which the city districts in Stockholm gradually implemented mandatory activation programs for individuals on welfare. The reform is well suited for investigating effects of such programs for several reasons. First, the reform was not combined with any other policy instruments, like time limits or tax credits, making sure that we will capture effects of mandatory activation policies and nothing else. Second, the reform was initiated at different points of time in different city districts, which ease identification. Third, using data from city districts within a single local labor market we can control for confounding macro economic shocks. Overall, we find that mandatory activation of welfare receivers reduce overall welfare participation and increases employment. We also find that mandatory activation programs appear to work best for young people and for people born in non-Western countries. For disposable income, we do not find a statistically significant effect.

  • 26.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Effects of Work Requirements on Welfare Participation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundqvist, Heléne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. IFAU.
    Intergovernmental Grants and Bureaucratic Power2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In their role as agenda setters and implementers of political decisions, bureaucrats potentially have the power to influence decisions in their own favor. It is however difficult to empirically test whether bureaucrats actually are involved in such actions. In this paper we suggest and apply a new way of testing the hypothesis that bureaucrats can and do in fact affect policy to their own benefit. Making use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system, we estimate causal effects of intergovernmental grants on different types of personnel employed by the local governments. On the margin, we find a large, positive effect of grants on the number of bureaucrats in the central administration, but no effects on the number of personnel in other important sectors run

    by the local government (child care, schools and elderly care). These results support the

    view that bureaucrats are able to, and do indeed, affect the allocation of grants within

    municipalities to support own goals.

  • 28.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Aktivering av socialbidragstagare i Sverige2008In: Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, ISSN 0800-6199, E-ISSN 1504-7970, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 277-289Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Is there an election cycle in public employment? Separating time effects from election year effects2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Do governments increase public employment in election years? This paper investigates this question by using data from Sweden and Finland, two coun¬tries that are similar in many respects but in which local elections are held at different points in time. We can thereby separate an election effect from other time effects. Our results indicate that there is a statistically significant election year effect in local public employment, a production factor that is highly visi¬ble in the welfare services provided by the local governments in the Scandina¬vian countries. The effect also seems to be economically significant; the municipalities employ 0.6 more full-time employees per 1,000 capita in election years than in other years (which correspond to an increase by approximately 1 percent).

  • 30.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Is There an Election Cycle in Public Employment?: Separating Time Effects from Election Year Effects2011In: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 480-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do governments increase public employment in election years? This article answers this question by using data from Sweden and Finland, two countries that are similar in many respects but in which local elections are held at different points in time. These facts make it possible for us to separate an election effect from other time effects. Our results indicate that there is a statistically significant election year effect in local public employment, a production factor that is highly visible in the welfare services provided by the local governments in the Scandinavian countries. The effect also seems to be economically significant; the municipalities employ 0.6 more full-time employees per 1000 capita in election years than in other years (which correspond to an increase by approximately 1%).

  • 31.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kommunanställda byråkraters dubbla roll2005In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 171-177Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Public Employment and the Double Role of Bureaucrats2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bureaucrats in the government sector have a double role since they are both suppliers and demanders of public employment; they are publicly employed (supply labor) and they have an important say in deciding the size of the municipal employment (demand labor). In this paper we present and estimate a theoretical model that focuses on this double role of bureaucrats. The predictions from the theoretical model are supported by our empirical results: The estimates, based on data from Swedish municipalities 1990–2002, show that wages have smaller effects on the demand for bureaucrats than on the demand for other types of public employees. Actually, wages have no significant effect on the number of bureaucrats the municipality employs.

  • 33.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Public Employment and the Double Role of Bureaucrats2006In: Public Choice, ISSN 0048-5829, E-ISSN 1573-7101, Vol. 126, p. 387-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bureaucrats in the government sector have a double role since they are both suppliers and demanders of public employment; they are publicly employed (supply labor) and they have an important say in deciding the size of the municipal employment (demand labor). In this paper we present and estimate a theoretical model that focuses on this double role of bureaucrats. The predictions from the theoretical model are supported by our empirical results: The estimates, based on data from Swedish municipalities 1990–2002, show that wages have smaller effects on the demand for bureaucrats than on the demand for other types of public employees. Actually, wages have no significant effect on the number of bureaucrats the municipality employs.

  • 34.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Släpp dataseten fria! Slutreplik2003In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 53-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Valår och den kommunala politiken2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rattsø, Jørn
    Ågren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Using a discontinuous grant rule to identify the effect of grants on local taxes and spending2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the effects of federal grants on the behavior of lower-level governments, it is hard to defend the handling of grants as an exogenous factor affecting local governments; federal governments often set grants based on characteristics and performance of local governments. In this paper we make use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system in order to estimate the causal effects of general intergovernmental grants on local spending and local tax rates. The formula for the distribution of funds is used as an exclusion restriction in an IV-estimation. We find evidence of crowding-in, where federal grants are shifted to more local spending, but not to reduced local tax rates. Our results thus confirm a flypaper effect for Sweden.

  • 37.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rattsø, Jørn
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Ågren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Using a discontinuous grant rule to identify the effect of grants on local taxes and spending2008In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 2320-2335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the effects of federal grants on the behavior of lower-level governments, it is hard to defend the handling of grants as an exogenous factor. Federal governments often set grants based on characteristics and performance of decentralized governments. In this paper we make use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system in order to estimate the causal effects of general intergovernmental grants on local spending and local tax rates. The formula for the distribution of funds is used as an exclusion restriction in an IV-estimation. We find evidence of crowding-in, where federal grants are shifted to more local spending, but not to reduced local tax rates.

  • 38.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sorribas Navarro, Pilar
    Universitat de Barcelona and Institut d’Economia de Barcelona.
    Do Politicians’ Preferences Matter for Voters’ Voting Decisions?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using unique survey data that allows us to observe both voters’ and politicians’ preferences for local public spending as well as voting decisions, this paper tests if voters typically support parties in which the politicians’ preferences are closest to their own. Doing so would be rational for the voters to do if politicians’ preferences matter for policy outcomes, as is the case in e.g. the citizen-candidate model. It is found that this is indeed the case. This finding is in line with theoretical models such as the citizen-candidate model arguing that politicians cannot credibly commit to election platforms that differ from their true policy preferences.

  • 39.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Tovmo, Per
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Power Properties of the Sargan Test in the Presence of Measurement Errors in Dynamic Panels2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 349-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panel data models. The conclusion from Monte Carlo simulations, and an application on the data used by Arellano and Bond (1991), is that in the very likely case of measurement errors in either the dependent or any of the independent variables, we will, if we rely on the Sargan test, quite likely accept a mis-specified model and end up with biased results.

  • 40.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ågren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Do politicians' preferences correspond to those of the voters: an investigation of political representation2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates to what extent voters and politicians have the same preferences for locally provided welfare services. We make use of two different types of survey questionnaires; one directed towards voters and one directed towards politicians. We reach two main conclusions in the paper. First, we find that politicians have preferences for significantly different spending on locally provided welfare services compared to voters. Second, this difference remains even after controlling for politicians and voters having different socio-economic characteristics. For example, when analyzing female representation, we find that female politicians have significantly different preferences for spending than female voters. One implication of the latter result is that an increase in the ratio of female to male politicians may not be the only way to deal with the desire to increase the political representation of women.

  • 41.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ågren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Har kommunens storlek någon betydelse för den lokala demokratin?2005In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 5, p. 33-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42. Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Därför går det inte att utvärdera jobbskatteavdraget2012In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 5, p. 6-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Evaluation of the Swedish earned income tax credit2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last twenty years we have seen an increasing use of in-work tax subsidies to encourage labor supply among low-income groups. In Sweden, a non-targeted earned income tax credit was introduced in 2007, and was reinforced in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The stated motive of the reform was to boost employment; in particular to provide incentives for individuals to go from unemployment to, at least, part-time work. In this paper we try to analyze the extensive margin labor supply effects of the Swedish earned income tax credit reform up to 2008. For identification we exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit, as well as the resulting average tax rate, is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working. However, throughout the analysis we find placebo effects that are similar in size to the estimated reform effects. In addition, the results are sensitive with respect to how we define employment, which is especially true when we analyze different subgroups such as men and women, married and singles. Our conclusion is that the identifying variation is too small and potentially endogenous and that it is therefore not possible to use this variation to perform a quasi-experimental evaluation of the Swedish EITC-reform.

  • 44.
    Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, CESIfo, IFAU, IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;UCLS, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. IBF, POB 514, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala Univ, UCFS, UCLS, CESifo,IZA, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;IEB, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, CESifo, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Swedish Earned Income Tax Credit: Did It Increase Employment?2016In: Finanzarchiv, ISSN 0015-2218, E-ISSN 1614-0974, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 475-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the extensive-margin labor-supply effects of a Swedish earned income tax credit introduced in 2007. The reform was one of the government's flagship reforms to boost employment, but its actual effects have been widely debated. We exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working, which yields two sources of quasi-experimental variation. The identifying variation, however, turns out to be small and potentially endogenous, which means that the question of whether the reform has delivered the hoped-for effects cannot be credibly answered.

  • 45.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bokanmälan: Lars Söderström, Anders Björklund, Per-Gunnar Edbalk2000In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 380-385Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on local public finance and intergovernmental grants1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five self-contained essays on local public finance and intergovernmental grants.

    Essay I: Two different bootstrap approaches for GMM estimations have recently been suggested for use in dynamic panel data models: Brown & Newey (1995) and Hall & Horowitz (1996). In this essay we compare the small sample properties of these estimators, and suggest how sequential testing can be conducted within the GMM bootstrapping framework. Our findings are that i) the Brown and Newey method has superior size properties, and that ii) the Hall and Horowitz method works better than the usual asymptotic tests in a sequence of tests.

    Essay II: Even though recent Monte Carlo evidence has shown that the use of bootstrap critical values instead of asymptotic ones improves tests' sizes substantially, empirical applications using GMM bootstrap techniques are largely missing. In this essay, the dynamic relationships between local government revenues and expenditures are re-investigated using GMM bootstrapping techniques on a panel of 265 Swedish municipalities over the period 1979 - 1987. A lag of one year is found in the expenditures equation, while no dynamics is found in the own-source revenues and grants equations. These results contrast sharply with those obtained when asymptotic critical values are used.

    Essay III: Swedish municipalities account for approximately 20 percent of total Swedish employment. In this essay we investigate the determinants of municipal labor demand in Sweden 1988 -1995. Utilizing a major grant reform in 1993 we are able to compare the effects that different type of grants have on municipal employment. We find a larger municipal employment elasticity with respect to grants before the reform when grants were targeted rather than general. We further find a short run wage elasticity of approximately -0.5 and a long run ditto of approximately -0.9, and a quite sluggish adjustment process.

    Essay IV: In this essay, redistributive transfers between regions are examined in a political economy model where both parties and voters are lead by selfish as well as ideological motives, the latter taking the form of egalitarian objectives. It is found that regional transfers are completely tactical; it is the political power of a region that decides if it will be a receiver or a contributor of transfers. Ideological goals are reached by redistributive transfers between different income types.

    Essay V: Are grants to Swedish municipalities tactical? In this essay, I derive testable implications from a theoretical voting model and test these on a panel of 255 Swedish municipalities, 1981 - 1995. In order to decide which regions that are politically powerful, both election results, and survey data from the Swedish election studies are used. The results, although somewhat ambiguous, support the hypothesis that intergovernmental grants are used in order to win votes.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    GMM Bootstrapping in Dynamic Panels - Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Local Public Finance.1997Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 48.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Intergovernmental Grants as a Tactical Instrument: Empirical Evidence from Swedish Municipalities2003In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 87, no 5-6, p. 883-915Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Intergovernmental grants as a tactical instrument: some empirical evidence from Swedish municipalities1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Are grants to Swedish municipalities tactical? In this essay, I derive testable implications from a theoretical voting model and test these on a panel of 255 Swedish municipalities, 1981 - 1995. In order to decide which regions that are politically powerful, both election results, and survey data from the Swedish election studies are used. The results, although somewhat ambiguous, support the hypothesis that intergovernmental grants are used in order to win votes.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tactical Redistribution Between Regions when Parties and Voters Care about Ideology2003In: Journal of Public Economic Theory, ISSN 1097-3923, E-ISSN 1467-9779, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 95-120Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 67
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