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  • 1.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relations betwee inhibition, executive functioning, and ADHD-symptoms: A longitudinal study from age 5 to 82003In: Child Neuropsychology, Vol. 9, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral inhibition and attachment as predictors of peer social competence and social anxiety at early school age2004In: Social and moral development: emerging evidence on the toddler years, Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute, L.L.C. , 2004, p. 205-220Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Diamantopoulou, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henricsson, Lisbeth
    Uppsala University.
    Can Both Low and High Self-esteem Be Related to Aggression in Children?2008In: Social development (Oxford. Print), ISSN 0961-205X, E-ISSN 1467-9507, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 682-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the opposing hypotheses that either low or exaggerated but disputed self-esteem is related to aggression in 652 12-year-old schoolchildren. Children provided peer nominations of social acceptance and of physical aggression, self-ratings of global self-worth and of social satisfaction. Teachers rated aggressive behavior and internalizing problems. Exaggerated but disputed self-esteem was conceptualizedas discrepancies between self and peer evaluations of social satisfactionand of social acceptance, respectively, in combination with peer rejection. The main results showed that both low levels of global self-worth and exaggerated but disputed self-esteem were related to aggression. The findings indicated that, depending on how self-esteem is conceptualized, aggressive children may appear to have both a low and a high self-esteem. Regarding gender differences, exaggerated self-esteem was morestrongly related to aggression in boys than in girls.

  • 4.
    Diamantopoulou, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impact of executive functioning and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on children's peer relations and school performance2007In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 521-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the predictive relations from symptoms of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive functioning (EF) to social and school functioning in 112 (62 girls) school children. High levels of teacher and parent ratings of ADHD symptoms at the ages of 8-8 1/2 years, and poor EF measured at the age of 8 1/2, were associated with poor social functioning measured by peer nominations and poor teacher ratings of school functioning at the age of 9 1/2. ADHD symptoms independently predicted social and school functioning, whereas EF independently predicted only school functioning. Interaction effects between ADHD and EF and between EF and gender were found: At high levels of symptoms of inattention, the poorer the EF, the greater the need for special education. At high levels of symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, the poorer the EF, the higher the levels of physical aggression. Girls with poor EF were less accepted by peers than equivalent boys.

  • 5.
    Ehrstedt, Christoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hallsten, Marina Gabert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Strömberg, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Cognition, Health-Related Quality Of Life and Mood in Children and Young Adults Diagnosed with a Glioneuronal Tumor in Childhood2018In: Neuro-Oncology, ISSN 1522-8517, E-ISSN 1523-5866, Vol. 20, p. 161-161Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ehrstedt, Christoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology. Uppsala Univ, Childrens Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hallsten, Marina Gabert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology. Uppsala Univ, Childrens Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology. Uppsala Univ, Childrens Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology. Uppsala Univ, Childrens Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cognition, health-related quality of life, and mood in children and young adults diagnosed with a glioneuronal tumor in childhood2018In: Epilepsy & Behavior, ISSN 1525-5050, E-ISSN 1525-5069, Vol. 83, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and psychiatric symptoms in children and young adults diagnosed with a glioneuronal tumor in childhood.

    Methods: Twenty-eight children and adolescents (0-17.99 years) with a minimum postoperative follow-up time of five years were eligible for the study; four persons declined participation. A cross-sectional long-term follow-up evaluation was performed using the following study measures: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV), Reys Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), Short Form 10 (SF-10), Quality of Life in Epilepsy 31 (QOLIE-31), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) or Beck Youth Inventory Scales (BYI), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Historical WISC-III and RCFT data were used to compare cognitive longitudinal data.

    Results: Mean follow-up time after surgery was 12.1 years. Sixty-three percent (15/24) were seizure-free. Despite a successive postoperative gain in cognitive function, a significant reduction relative to norms was seen in the seizure-free group with respect to perceptual reasoning index (PRI), working memory index (WMI), and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Seizure freedom resulted in acceptable HRQoL. Thirty-two percent and 16% exceeded the threshold level of possible anxiety and depression, respectively, despite seizure freedom.

    Conclusion: Although lower than in corresponding reference groups, cognitive outcome and HRQoL are good provided that seizure freedom or at least a low seizure severity can be achieved. There is a risk of elevated levels of psychiatric symptoms. Long-term clinical follow-up is advisable.

  • 7.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prospective Links Between Hyperactive/Impulsive, Inattentive, and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors in Childhood and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Influence of Gender and the Parent–Child Relationship Quality2016In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 857-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prospectively investigated the effect of child hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional/defiant behaviors on the development of youth antisocial behaviors, and the moderating influence of gender and the parent-child relationship quality in a normative sample. Participants (N = 673, 50 % girls) were assessed at 10 years of age (parent reports) and at age 15 (parent and adolescent reports). Using latent change models, we found that initial levels of, as well as increases in, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional behaviors and initial levels of inattention behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors. The increase in oppositional behaviors was predictive of youth antisocial behaviors in girls only. Child hyperactive/impulsive behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors only in children for whom the quality of the parent-child relationship deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. Thus, both initial levels of and increases in disruptive behaviors as well as gender are important for understanding the development of antisocial behaviors in adolescence. We received partial support for the hypothesized, moderating role of a high-quality parent-child relationship.

  • 8.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Maladarens Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Dept Publ Hlth, Box 883, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of the mother-child relationship in the route from child ADHD to adolescent symptoms of depressed mood2017In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 61, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We attempt to explain the co-variation between ADHD and symptoms of depressed mood, focusing on the family context and testing whether the mother-child relationship mediates or moderates the link between child ADHD and youth depressed mood symptoms. In a longitudinal study, we used mother and youth reports for 596 Swedish youth, 50% boys, from a community sample at 10, 15, and 18 years of age. The results did not support the mediation hypothesis. Only one moderation effect was found. Mother-child conflicts in mid-adolescence, as rated by mothers, increased symptoms of depressed mood symptoms in late adolescent only for youth with high levels of hyperactivity symptoms. However, depressed mood symptoms at age 18 were predicted by low mother-child involvement in mid-adolescence, over and above the effects of inattention symptoms. This latter finding was consistent across mother and youth ratings of the relationship. Implications of these results are discussed. (C) 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm Ctr Healthcare Eth CHE, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bertilsson, Göran
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Domeij, Helena
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fahlström, Gunilla
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Heintz, Emelie
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Med Management Ctr, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hjern, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ctr Hlth Equ Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nehlin, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Nordin, Viviann
    Karolinska Inst KIND, Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rangmar, Jenny
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundelin Wahlsten, Viveka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Hultcrantz, Monica
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment Assessment So, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ethical aspects of diagnosis and interventions for children with fetal alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) and their families2018In: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 19, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD.

    Methods: Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists.

    Results: Several advantages and disadvantages in regards of obtaining a diagnosis or description of the condition were identified. For instance, it provides an explanation and potential preparedness for not yet encountered difficulties, which may play an essential role in acquiring much needed help and support from health care, school, and the socia ! services. There are no interventions specifically evaluated for FASD conditions, but training programs and family support for conditions with symptoms overlapping with FASD, e.g. ADHD, autism, and intellectual disability, are likely to be relevant. Stigmatization, blame, and guilt are potential downsides. There might also be unfortunate prioritization if individuals with equal needs are treated differently depending on whether or not they meet the criteria for a specific condition. Conclusions: The value for the concerned individuals of obtaining a FASD-related description of their condition - for instance, in terms of wellbeing - is not established. Nor is it established that allocating resources based, on whether individuals fulfil FASD-related criteria is justified, compared to allocations directed to the most prominent specific needs.

  • 10.
    Henricsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Children with behavior problems: The influence of social competence and social relations on problem stability, school achievement and peer acceptance across the first six years of school2006In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 347-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the role for problematic children of the child's social competence, teacher relations and behaviour with peers for later problem persistence, school performance and peer acceptance, in terms of moderating (protective and exacerbating) and independent effects. Groups of children with externalizing (n = 26) and internalizing (n = 25) problems and a non-problematic group (n = 44) were followed from grade 1-6. Teachers rated behaviour problems and social competence in the first, third and sixth grades, the teacher-child relationship in third grade, and school achievement in sixth grade. Behaviour with peers was assessed in observations in later elementary school. Peer acceptance was assessed through peer nominations in sixth grade. Both problem groups had lower social competence, school achievement and peer acceptance in sixth grade than the non-problematic group. There were moderating and independent effects of social competence, teacher and peer relations on outcomes, but these applied mainly to children with internalizing problems.

  • 11.
    Henricsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elementary school children with behavior problems: Teacher-child relations and self-perception. A prospective study2004In: Merrill-Palmer quarterly, ISSN 0272-930X, E-ISSN 1535-0266, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 111-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Khalifa, Najah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Dalan, Marie
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tourette Syndrome in the General Child Population: Cognitive functioning and self-perception2010In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the cognitive function and self-perception in a school-population-based sample of children with Tourette syndrome (TS). Many studies have examined cognitive and emotional functioning in clinical samples but to our knowledge, there is no population-based study of TS in schoolchildren. In a population-based sample identified in a rigid diagnostic procedure (n = 25), cognitive functioning and self-perception were examined. There was a large variation in the cognitive functioning of children with TS, at least one third obtaining subnormal results. The profile of index scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) factors was somewhat uneven, with the freedom from distractibility and processing speed factors presenting the lowest median scores. The TS group had more negative self-perceptions than a comparison group. Tic severity or age at onset was not associated with cognitive performance or self-perception. Children who were taking medication had lower full IQ scores than children who were not. Low cognitive abilities and negative self-perception may be common in community-based samples of children with Tourette syndrome.

  • 13. Malmberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedje, Hans
    Validity of the Swedish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Swe)2003In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 357-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is an internationally widely used, brief screening instrument for mental health problems in children and teenagers. The SDQ probes behaviours and psychological attributes reflecting the child's difficulties as well as strengths, and targets hyperactivity/inattention, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour. Also, the instrument taps the impact aspect, i.e. whether the child is judged to suffer from emotional or behavioural problems severe enough to cause distress or social impairment. Studies of the original English SDQ, as well as of translations into several other languages, attest to a compelling usefulness and validity of the instrument. In this investigation, the adequacy of the Swedish adaptation of the SDQ (SDQ-Swe) was tested in comparisons between parent reports on 5-15-year-old children drawn from a community sample (n=263) and from a child psychiatric sample (n=230). Results showed that the instrument differentiated well between the community and the psychiatric samples, the latter displaying more symptoms, fewer strengths and more social impairment. Moreover, ROC analyses showed satisfactory sensitivity and specificity of the principal scales of the SDQ-Swe at proposed cut-offs. Hence, results showed adequate validity of the SDQ-Swe, suggesting that this new instrument, an instrument in tune with the ideas of contemporary child psychiatry and psychology, is a useful tool for mental health screening in children and adolescents.

  • 14.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henricsson, Lisbeth
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Low social inclusion in childhood: Adjustment and early predictors2008In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 639-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of the present study was to obtain a deeper understanding than hitherto of the concurrent correlates and prospective predictors of loneliness and poor peer acceptance, both falling under the umbrella term low social inclusion. Problematic and socially competent behaviours were investigated as possible predictors of low social inclusion in grade 6, as defined by self-rated loneliness and degree of peer non-acceptance, respectively. In grade 6 808 children participated whereof 323 were followed longitudinally from first grade. Loneliness in grade 6 was distinctively associated with high levels of internalizing problems, concurrently as well as prospectively. Peer acceptance, on the other hand, emerged as a complex, multifaceted aspect, with concurrent, independent predictions from both externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours as well as social competence, although prospective analyses found early externalizing problems to be the strongest predictor of peer acceptance. Moderating effects of social competence were sparse, although peer nominated social competence buffered peer acceptance for children with high levels of aggression in the concurrent analyses and social competence boosted peer acceptance for children with low problem levels in the predictive analyses. Social competence did not appear to buffer the negative impact of early problem behaviours on peer relations.

  • 15.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An efficacy study of a combined parent and teacher management training programme for children with ADHD2012In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, no 66, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Children’s Interpersonal Skills and School-Based Relationships2010In: Handbook of Childhood Social Development / [ed] P.K. Smith & C.H. Hart, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does the mother-child relationship matter? Effects on callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behavior2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elementary school teacher's strategies to handle externalizing classroom behavior: A study of relations between perceived control, teacher orientation and strategy preferences2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 45, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Family factors and children's disruptive behaviour: An investigation of links between demographic characteristics, negative life events and symptoms of ODD and ADHD2010In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oppositional defiant disorder behaviours (ODD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (ADHD) are common disruptive childhood problems and co-occur to a large extent. In this study, prime questions were the specificity of relations between demographic factors and negative life events, respectively, and ADHD and ODD symptoms, and the role of negative life events in the relations between demographic factors and ODD and ADHD symptoms. Concurrent relations between maternal education, family structure, ethnicity/immigrant background and symptoms of ADHD and ODD were investigated in a Swedish population sample of 1,200 10-year-old children (52% boys). Parents completed questionnaires containing information about demographic characteristics and negative life events and rated the child's ADHD and ODD symptoms using DSM-IV criteria. Low maternal education, single/step-parenthood and non-European descent were associated with higher numbers of ODD and ADHD symptoms. Regression analyses identified ethnicity as specifically associated with ODD symptoms and single/step-parenthood as specific to ADHD symptoms, while there was no specificity with regard to negative life events. Experiences of multiple negative life events were more common in families in non-optimal circumstances. Negative life events had mainly additive effects on the level of ODD and ADHD symptoms above effects of the demographic stressors and especially conflicts between adults around the child were related to high symptom levels. The few gender effects pointed to boys as being more vulnerable than girls to non-optimal family factors expressed in relations to ODD and ADHD symptoms. Even in an affluent and egalitarian society, children's life circumstances are related to their mental health. Further, there seems to be some specificity in the demographic risk factors associated with ODD and with ADHD symptoms, while negative life events act as general stressors.

  • 20.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The mother-child relationship and the development of CU-traits and antisocial behaviour2012In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 47, no Suppl 1, p. 256-256Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotionality, emotion regulation, and adaptation among 5- to 8-year-old children.2003In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 30-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, L.B
    Representations of attachment to parents and shyness as predictors of children's relationships with teachers and peer competence in preschool2005In: Attachment & Human DevelopmentArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive and Emotional Profiles of CU Traits and Disruptive Behavior in Adolescence: a Prospective Study2019In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we followed 82–90 adolescents, 50% boys, from 15 to 16 years, investigating CU traits and disruptive behaviors as predictors of cognitive skills and arousal to emotional pictures. At age 15, CU traits were rated by adolescents and disruptive (aggregated ADHD-ODD-delinquent) behaviors were rated by parents and adolescents. At age 16, executive function, reaction time variability (RTV), IQ and arousal to negative pictures were assessed. The results showed that, with control for disruptive behaviors, CU traits predicted lower RTV, higher IQ and lower arousal to negative pictures. With control for CU traits, disruptive behaviors predicted lower spatial working memory, lower interference control and higher RTV. Our findings are of theoretical and clinical relevance as they point to highly diverging cognitive and emotional profiles of CU traits and disruptive behaviors.

  • 24.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dahl, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Children with early refusal to eat: Follow-up in adolescence2005In: Acta Paediatrica, Vol. 94, no 9, p. 1186-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Diamantopoulou, Sofia
    Thorell, Lisa
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hyperactivity, shyness and sex: Development and socio-emotional functioning2009In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 625-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on formulations about the possible consequences for adaptation of gender non-normative behaviour, we investigated predictive and concurrent relations of hyperactivity and shyness to various aspects of adaptation focusing on possible effects of sex. At ages 5-6, parents and preschool teachers rated hyperactivity and shyness for 151 children (50% boys). At age 9, we obtained teacher ratings of hyperactivity, internalizing and externalizing problems, self-ratings of trait anxiety, and peer nominations of shyness, social preference, and aggression. Several effects of sex were found. Hyperactivity ratings were more strongly related across time and raters for boys than for girls. In the predictive analyses, boys' hyperactivity was more strongly related to aggression than was girls' hyperactivity, and in concurrent analyses, girls' hyperactivity was more strongly associated with low social preference than was boys' hyperactivity. There was a protective effect of shyness with regard to aggression that applied only to boys, that is, at high hyperactivity levels, boys with high shyness levels were less aggressive than boys with low shyness levels. There were also main effects of hyperactivity and shyness. In predictive and concurrent analyses, hyperactivity was associated with low social preference, high levels of externalizing problems and with aggression, whereas shyness was associated with high levels of internalizing problems. Finally, there was an interactive effect of hyperactivity and shyness. In the concurrent analyses, an exacerbating effect was demonstrated insofar as high shyness was associated with low social preference at high, but not at low levels of hyperactivity. The different developmental risks of hyperactivity and shyness were discussed.

  • 26.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotion regulation in relation to social functioning: An investigation of child self-reports2007In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 293-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations between child self-reports of specific aspects of emotion regulation and specific aspects of social functioning in school were studied in two samples (N = 129/135) of 8- to 9-year-old children. The newly developed child self-report measure had significant relations to parent (Sample 1) and teacher (Sample 2) ratings of emotion regulation. In line with expectations (Rydell, Berlin, & Bohlin, 2003), poor regulation of anger and exuberance was associated with externalizing problems in both samples, poor regulation of fear had associations with social anxiety or internalizing problems in the two samples and poor regulation of sadness had marginal relations to internalizing problems in one sample. In both samples, good regulation of all emotions except fear was associated with prosocial behaviour. In Sample 1, several independent effects of child self-reports of emotion regulation on outcomes were demonstrated after controlling for parent reports of emotion regulation.

  • 27.
    Salari, Raziye
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuropsychological functioning and attachment representations in early school age as predictors of ADHD symptoms in late adolescence2017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 370-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more “at-risk” samples, these findings could also suggest that parent–child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

  • 28.
    Scholtens, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Diamantopoulou, Sofia
    Tillman, Carin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children2012In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 685-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social acceptance. Children reported on social acceptance and were given tasks measuring working memory, inhibition and reaction-time variability. A discrepancy score between child and adult reports of social acceptance was used as a measure of positive bias. Results: Inattention independently explained variance in social acceptance. The cognitive factors were related to social acceptance and the positive bias, but not beyond the ADHD and ODD symptoms. Conclusion: It is primarily disruptive behavior that contributes to external reports of children's social acceptance.

  • 29.
    Scholtens, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    ADHD Symptoms and Attachment Representations: Considering the Role of Conduct Problems, Cognitive Deficits and Narrative Responses in Non-Attachment-Related Story Stems2014In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1033-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.

  • 30.
    Scholtens, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: A longitudinal study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement.

  • 31. Sjöwall, Douglas
    et al.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence2017In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 111-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of ADHD symptoms are related to severe negative outcomes, which underscore the importance of identifying early markers of these behavior problems. The main aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether neuropsychological deficits in preschool are related to later ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, over and above the influence of early ADHD symptom levels. The present study is unique because it includes a broader range of predictors compared to previous studies and the participants are followed over time for as long as 13 years (i.e., ages 5 – 18 years). Preschool data included measures of executive functioning and reaction time variability as well as emotional reactivity and emotion regulation of both positive and negative emotions. When controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, working memory, reaction time variability, and regula- tion of happiness/exuberance were significantly related to inattention whereas regulation of happiness/ exuberance and anger reactivity were significantly related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Furthermore, working memory and reaction time variability in preschool were significantly related to academic achievement in late adolescence beyond the influence of early ADHD symptoms. These findings could suggest that it is possible to screen for early neuropsychological deficits and thereby identify children who are at risk of negative outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions need to look beyond executive functioning deficits in ADHD and also target the role of emotional functioning and reaction time variability. The importance of including both the positive and negative aspects of emotional functioning and distinguishing between emotion regulation and emotional reactivity was also demonstrated.

  • 32.
    Thorell, Lisa B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Two types of inhibitory control: Predictive relations to social functioning2004In: International Journal of Behavioural Development, Vol. 28, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Thorell, Lisa B.
    et al.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parent-child attachment and executive functioning in relation to ADHD symptoms in middle childhood2012In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 517-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated attachment representations and executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition and working memory) at age 8 1/2 in relation to ADHD symptoms one year later. Well-validated laboratory measures of both executive functioning and attachment representations were used. Additive, interaction, as well as mediation effects were investigated. The results showed that attachment disorganization and executive functioning were independently related to ADHD symptoms, even when using conduct problems as a covariate. No significant interaction effects were found, and executive functioning was not found to act as a mediator between attachment disorganization and ADHD symptoms. In conclusion, attachment disorganization had a significant effect on ADHD symptoms, independent of both executive functioning and conduct problems, which suggests that the parent-child attachment is a factor that needs to be included if we are to more fully understand the development of ADHD.

  • 34.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm Brain Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjowall, Douglas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm Brain Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Diamatopoulou, Sofia
    Univ Murcia, Dept Basic Psychol & Methodol, Murcia, Spain..
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional functioning, ADHD symptoms, and peer problems: A longitudinal investigation of children age 6-9.5years2017In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 26, no 4, article id e2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interplay between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and emotional functioning in relation to peer problems. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and regulation/reactivity with regard to four emotions (anger, sadness, fear, and happiness/exuberance) at age six were investigated in relation to sociometric peer nominations 3years later in a non-clinical sample (n=91). Reactivity and regulation were only modestly correlated, and these two aspects of emotional functioning did not show the same relation to peer problems. The main finding was that, it was primarily children with high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with either high dysregulation or low reactivity with regard to happiness/exuberance who received many negative peer nominations. In addition, high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with high reactivity with regard to anger were associated with nominations of physical aggression. The modest relation between reactivity and regulation emphasizes the importance of separating these two constructs. The fact that it was primarily happiness/exuberance, as opposed to negative emotions, that was associated with negative peer nominations suggests that future studies are needed to clarify the role of specific emotions in relation to the functional impairments associated with ADHD symptoms. Highlights The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between ADHD symptoms and emotional functioning in relation to peer problems using a longitudinal design (age 6-9 years). Ratings of ADHD symptoms and emotional functioning were investigated in relation to sociometric peer nominations and results showed that it was primarily children with high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with either high dysregulation or low reactivity with regard to happiness/exuberance who received many negative peer nominations. The fact that it was primarily happiness/exuberance, as opposed to negative emotions, that was associated with negative peer nominations suggests that future studies are needed to clarify the role of specific emotions in relation to the functional impairments associated with ADHD symptoms.

  • 35.
    Thorell, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behaviour problems and social competence deficits associated with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Effects of age and gender2008In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 584-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that children with high levels of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms often have a wide variety of associated behaviour problems. However, relatively little is known regarding to what extent these associated behaviour problems are present to the same degree in younger as well as older children and in girls as well as in boys. Methods: This study used parent ratings to examine effects of age and gender on behaviour problems, social competence, negative impact on everyday life, and family burden among pre-school and school-aged children high in ADHD symptoms (n = 60) and comparison children (n = 499). Results: With regard to age, the pre-school children did not differ from the school-aged children on any of the different types of problem behaviour or with regard to social competence. The interactions between age and group were not significant. The behaviour problems of older children did, however, have more negative impact on the child's daily life and induced higher levels of family burden compared with problems of younger children, especially among children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. Boys were more severely affected than girls with regard to ADHD symptom severity, most associated problem behaviours, as well as negative impact and family burden. Significant interactions of ADHD symptoms and gender were also found, which indicated that gender differences were primarily found among children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Children with high levels of ADHD symptoms have many associated behaviour problems, even in pre-school years, and boys with high levels of ADHD symptoms are more severely affected compared with girls.

1 - 35 of 35
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