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  • 1. Axelsson, Par
    et al.
    Johansson, Magnus S.K.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hearing status among commercial pilots2006In: INTER-NOISE 2006, Washington, D.C: Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA , 2006, p. 4231-4234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the hearing status of commercial pilots. Studies show that noise-induced hearing loss initially appears as a threshold shift in a specific frequency region. Deterioration in pure-tone average of the frequencies 3, 4 and 6 kHz is used as an indicator for noise-induced hearing loss and to evaluate hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure. The present study provides a comparison of the hearing status of commercial pilots and a reference group. The study looks at the high frequency pure-tone average for 3, 4 and 6 kHz of 658 commercial pilots. The pure-tone average was calculated from the regular health examinations of the pilots. The reference group was from a general adult population, aged 20 to 79 years, not exposed to hazardous occupational noise. The results indicate no influence from occupational noise exposure on the hearing status of commercial pilots.

  • 2.
    Fu, Xi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Guo, Moran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Cai, Gui-Hong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundgren, Hakan
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Furry pet allergens, fungal DNA and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in the commercial aircraft cabin environment2013In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1228-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been concern about the cabin environment in commercial aircraft. We measured cat, dog and horse allergens and fungal DNA in cabin dust and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in cabin air. Samples were collected from two European airline companies, one with cabins having textile seats (TSC) and the other with cabins having leather seats (LSC), 9 airplanes from each company. Dust was vacuumed from seats and floors in the flight deck and different parts of the cabin. Cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1) and horse allergens (Equ cx) were analyzed by ELISA. Five sequences of fungal DNA were analyzed by quantitative PCR. MVOCs were sampled on charcoal tubes in 42 TSC flights, and 17 compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). MVOC levels were compared with levels in homes from Nordic countries. The weight of dust was 1.8 times larger in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). In cabins with textile seats, the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 5359 ng g(-1), 6067 ng g(-1), and 13 703 ng g(-1) (GM) respectively. Levels of Fel d1, Can f1 and Equ cx were 50 times, 27 times and 75 times higher respectively, in TSC cabins as compared to LSC cabins (p < 0.001). GM levels of Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA, Aspergillus versicolor DNA, Stachybotrys chartarum DNA and Streptomyces DNA were all higher in TSC as compared to LSC (p < 0.05). The sum of MVOCs in cabin air (excluding butanols) was 3192 ng m(-3) (GM), 3.7 times higher than in homes (p < 0.001) and 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations were 15-17 times higher as compared to homes (p < 0.001). Concentrations of isobutanol, 1-butanol, dimethyldisulfide, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, isobutyl acetate and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate were lower in cabin air as compared to homes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, textile seats are much more contaminated by pet allergens and fungal DNA than leather seats. The use of seats with smooth surfaces should be encouraged. The MVOC levels differed between cabin air and homes.

  • 3.
    Fu, Xi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Medical Symptoms Among Pilots Associated with Work and Home Environments: A 3-Year Cohort Study2015In: AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE, ISSN 2375-6314, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 458-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study associations between the cockpit environment, psychosocial work environment, home environment, and medical symptoms in a cohort of commercial pilots followed over 3 yr. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was mailed in February-March 1997 to all Stockholm-based pilots on duty in a Scandinavian flight company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. During this time smoking was allowed on long haul flights, but not on shorter flights. Smoking was prohibited on all flights after September 1997. The same questionnaire was sent to the cohort of 577 pilots in February-March 2000; 436 participated (76%). The questionnaire contained questions on symptoms, the psychosocial work environment, and the home environment. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic and ordinal regression. RESULTS: Symptoms were common, especially eye symptoms (38.5%), nose symptoms (39.9%), and tiredness (29.9%). Pilots exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on long haul flights had more eye symptoms (odds ratio = 1.91) and tiredness (odds ratio = 2.73). These symptoms were reduced when no longer exposed to ETS. Those who started working on long haul flights developed more nose symptoms. Pilots reporting increased work demands developed more nose and dermal symptoms and tiredness and those with decreased work control developed more eye symptoms. Pilots living in new houses, multifamily houses, and in recently painted homes reported more symptoms. CONCLUSION: Eliminating ETS exposure on board reduced medical symptoms. Further work to reduce ETS exposure globally is needed. Psychosocial aspects of the work environment for commercial pilots should be considered, as well as the home environment.

  • 4.
    Fu, Xi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    A three year follow-up of asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported allergy, among pilots and cabin attendants2015In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 70, no S101, p. 124-124, article id 248Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Lindgren, T
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, K
    Dammstrom, BG
    Norbäck, D
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Ocular, nasal, dermal and general symptoms among commercial airline crews.2002In: Int Arch Occup Environ Health, Vol. 75, p. 475-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Lindgren, T
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norbäck, D
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Cabin air quality:indoor pollutants and climate during intercontinental flights with and without tobacco smoking.2002In: Indoor Air, Vol. 12, p. 263-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Lindgren, T
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norbäck, D
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Health and perception of cabin air quality among Swedish commercial airline2005In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, Vol. 15 Suppl 10, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Perception of cockpit environment among pilots on commercial aircraft2006In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 77, no 8, p. 832-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impaired cockpit environment may influence both well-being and performance of pilots. Objective: To study the perception of cockpit environment among pilots, in relation to demographic factors, and type of air craft (B767-300, B737-600, DC9/21-41, MD 81/90 series). Methods: A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all pilots in one airline company; 81% participated (n = 622). All flights were non-smoking flights and the B767 was the only aircraft operated on intercontinental flights. The DC9 was the only aircraft without air recirculation. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied, controlling for age, gender, smoking, perceived psychosocial work environment, and type of aircraft. Results: Younger age and a history of atopy and stress due to excess work were the main predictors of symptom and environmental perceptions. The most common symptoms were fatigue (14%), facial dermal (10%), and nasal symptoms (9%). Common complaints on cockpit environment were dry air (53%), dust and dirt (48%), noise (46%), and inadequate illumination (34%). Using the DC9 as a reference category, Boeing 767 pilots had more fatigue (OR 19.5; p < 0.001), throat symptoms (OR = 4.40; p < 0.05), complaints on dry air (OR = 2.93; p < 0.01), stuffy air (OR = 4.60; p < 0.01), static electricity (OR = 6.39; < 0.05), and dust (OR = 2.01; p < 0.05). Boeing 737 pilots had more complaints on noise (OR = 4.01; p < 0.001) and dust (OR = 1.81; p < 0.05). MD 81/90 pilots had more complaints on dry air (OR = 1.76; p < 0.05), dust (OR = 1.92; p < 0.05), and inadequate illumination (OR = 2.08; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Complaints on the cockpit environment were common and differed between different types of aircraft. This indicates a need to optimize the cockpit environment, e.g., increase the cleaning and relative air humidity.

  • 9.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Perception of cabin air quality in airline crew related to air humidification, on intercontinental flights2007In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of air humidification in aircraft, on perception of cabin air quality among airline crew (N = 71) was investigated. In-flight investigations were performed in the forward part and in the aft part on eight intercontinental flights with one Boeing 767 individually, equipped with an evaporation humidifier combined with a dehumidifying unit, to reduce accumulation of condensed water in the wall construction. Four flights had the air humidification active when going out, and turned off on the return flight. The four others had the inverse humidification sequence. The sequences were randomized, and double blind. Air humidification increased relative air humidity (RH) by 10% in forward part, and by 3% in aft part of the cabin and in the cockpit. When the humidification device was active, the cabin air was perceived as being less dry (P = 0.008), and fresher (P = 0.002). The mean concentration of viable bacteria (77–108 cfu/m3), viable molds (74–84 cfu/m3), and respirable particles (1–8 μg/m3) was low, both during humidified and non-humidified flights. On flights with air humidification, there were less particles in the forward part of the aircraft (P = 0.01). In conclusion, RH can be slightly increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. The cabin air quality was perceived as being better with air humidification.

  • 10.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Runeson, Roma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wahlstedt, K
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Dammström, B-G
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Digestive Functional Symptoms Among Commercial Pilots in Relation to Diet, Insomnia, and Lifestyle Factors2012In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 83, no 9, p. 872-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of our study was to identify associations between digestive symptoms among pilots and diet, insomnia, and lifestyle factors.

    Methods: A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all Stockholm pilots on duty in a Swedish airline company: 354 pilots and 564 office workers from the same company participated. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regressions with mutual adjustment.

    Results: Of the pilots, 9.9% reported poor appetite, 15.2% heartburn, 12.4% diarrhea, 62.1% bloating, 9.3% constipation, and 14.4% epigastralgia. Pilots reported more bloating and poor appetite compared with office workers. The prevalence of insomnia was 70.6% among pilots and 63.1% among office workers. Among pilots, insomnia was related to poor appetite, heartburn, diarrhea, bloating, constipation, and epigastralgia. There were no associations between insomnia and digestive symptoms among office workers. Among pilots, higher body mass index (BMI) was related to heartburn and smokers more often suffered from constipation. Frequent milk consumption was associated with heartburn and less constipation; female pilots suffered from more constipation. The number of years as an active pilot was negatively associated with epigastralgia and bloating.

    Conclusion: Insomnia and some digestive symptoms were more common among pilots than office workers. In addition to insomnia, BMI, smoking, female gender, and milk consumption were associated with some digestive symptoms. The strong association between insomnia and digestive symptoms among pilots, but not among office workers, suggests a stress component related to this occupation.

  • 11.
    Norbäck, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Changes in ocular and nasal signs and symptoms among air crew in relation to air humidification on intercontinental flights.2006In: Scand J Work Environ Health: Changes in ocular and nasal signs and symptoms among air crew in relation to air humidification on intercontinental flights., ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 138-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Runeson-Broberg, Roma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosocial work environment, among Swedish commercial pilots2014In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 685-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The associations between psychosocial work conditions and health in pilots are understudied, and therefore, the associations between the psychosocial work conditions and musculoskeletal problems among Swedish commercial pilots were investigated. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire study was performed among pilots in one Swedish commercial airline: 354 pilots participated (61 %). Musculoskeletal symptoms and the psychosocial work conditions measured by the demand control social support model were investigated. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were expressed per change of one unit on the interquartile score scale. Pilots on long-haul flights had less elbow symptoms (OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.14-0.85), and women had more hand symptoms (OR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.11-7.52). There were associations between high work demands and symptoms from the neck (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.45-2.88), shoulders (OR 1.46, 95 % 1.05-2.03), elbows (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.10-2.90) and low back (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.02-1.96) in pilots. Low social support was associated with symptoms from the neck (OR 1.87, 95 % 1.35-2.58), shoulders (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.14-2.14) and low back (OR 1.63, 95 % CI 1.18-2.24). Low supervisor support was associated with neck (OR 1.67, 95 % CI 1.22-2.27), shoulders (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.02-1.87) and low back symptoms (OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.09-2.01). The associations were mainly found among first officers. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pilots can be affected by poor psychosocial work conditions such as high demands and low social support, especially for first officers. The psychosocial aspects of organisational changes in commercial airlines should be taken into consideration.

  • 13.
    Smedje, Greta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundén, Maria
    Gärtner, Lotta
    Lundgren, Håkan
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hearing status among aircraft maintenance personnel in a commercial airline company2011In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 13, no 54, p. 364-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study subjective and objective hearing loss in a population of aircraft maintenance workers and identify predictors. A total of 327 aircraft maintenance personnel answered a self-administered work environment questionnaire (response rate 76) and underwent audiometric test. The mean values for the hearing threshold at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for the ear with the most hearing loss were compared with a Swedish population database of persons not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise exposure during a working day was measured. Relationships between subjective and objective hearing loss and possible predictors (age, years of employment, self-reported exposure to solvents, blood pressure, and psycho-social factors) were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. At younger ages (< 40 years), aircraft maintenance workers had higher hearing thresholds (1-3 dB) compared to the reference group, but such a difference was not found in older employees. Relationships were found between age and objective hearing loss, and between exposure to solvents and reported subjective hearing loss. Equivalent noise exposure during working days were 70-91 dB(A) with a maximal noise level of 119 dB(A). Aircraft maintenance workers are exposed to equivalent noise levels above the Swedish occupational standard, including some very high peak exposures. Younger employees have a higher age-matched hearing threshold level compared with a reference group. Thus, there is a need for further preventive measures.

  • 14. Strid, Anna
    et al.
    Smedje, Greta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundgren, Hakan
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Bergman, Ake
    Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 116, no SI, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group.

  • 15.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Norback, Dan
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training:acute ocular and respiratory effects2001In: Occup Environ Med, Vol. 58, p. 649-Article in journal (Refereed)
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