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  • 1.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Leach, Ross
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Infect Control Program, Geneva, Switzerland; Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Morel, Chantal M.
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Infect Control Program, Geneva, Switzerland; Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland; London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, London, England.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Exploring the obstacles to implementing economic mechanisms to stimulate antibiotic research and development: a mulit-actor and system-level analysis2016In: American Journal of Law & Medicine, ISSN 0098-8588, Vol. 42, 451-486 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Article examines the potential stakeholder-related obstacles hindering the implementation of mechanisms to re-ignite the development of novel antibiotics. Proposed economic models and incentives to drive such development include: Public Funding of Research and Development (R&D), Tax Incentives, Milestone Prizes, End Payments, Intellectual Property (IP) and Exclusivity Extensions, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, Product Development Partnerships (PDPs), and the Options Market for Antibiotics model. Drawing on personal experience and understanding of the antibiotic field, as well as stakeholder consultation and numerous expert meetings within the DRIVE-AB project and Uppsala Health Summit 2015, the Authors identify obstacles attributable to the following actors: Universities and Research Institutes, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Large Pharmaceutical Companies, Marketing Approval Regulators, Payors, Healthcare Providers, National Healthcare Authorities, Patients, and Supranational Institutions. The analysis also proposes a characterization and ranking of the difficulty associated with implementing the reviewed mechanisms. Public Funding of R&D, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, and PDPs are mechanisms expected to meet highly systemic barriers (i.e., obstacles across the entire antibiotic value chain), imposing greater implementation challenges in that they require convincing and involving several motivationally diverse actors in order to have much effect.

  • 2.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Linné, Åse
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Shih, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    How Can a Biotech Tool Reveal what's Going on under the Surface of Three Hyped Biotech Regions?: The Embedding of ÄKTApilot in the US, China and Taiwan2005In: 21st Annual IMP Conference: Dealing with Dualities, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    “Betting on Science or Muddling Through the Network”: Two Universities and one Innovation Commission2011In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 5, no 3, 172-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid 1990s the OECD, the EU and many national innovation policies have pointed to universities as the most important direct providers of solutions to use as sources of innovations for growth and societal welfare. Also, through their respective governments, universities are exposed to rather detailed requirements on how to fulfil the increased direct utilisation of research results. This paper takes a closer look at how two internationally recognised universities from the same country, namely Sweden, addressed the innovation commission. A case study investigates how the Karolinska Institute and Uppsala University interpreted and implemented the Swedish government’s commission on an increased utilisation of publicly funded research for innovation. The main finding is that both universities’ ways of fulfilling this commission are more directed towards ‘betting’ on potential innovations than on ‘muddling through’ the context of innovation.

  • 4.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Conscious use of others’ interface knowledge: how IKEA can keep the price of the Lack table constant over decades2007In: Knowledge and innovation in business and industry: the importance of using others / [ed] Håkan Håkansson and Alexandra Waluszewski, London: Routledge, 2007, 79-108 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Information Technology at IKEA: an “Open Sesame” Solution or just Another Type of Facility?2005In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 58, no 9, 1251-1260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology and such business applications as IT systems create great expectations to solve most problems a company faces. However, these expectations are seldom fulfilled. This article treats IT and IT systems simply as a facility among many other resources (products, facilities, business units and relationships) in business networks. By making use of a case study centred around Product Information Assistance (PIA), one of IKEA’s key IT systems for product information administration, the analytical part extracts a series of interactions patterns between IT facilities and the surrounding resources. Being IT systems also embedded into other resources implies that

    their effects seldom turn out to be as expected or simply defined by their technical potentials.

  • 6.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hermansson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Rider, Sharon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Dags för Lemne att lämna2015In: Upsala Nya Tidning, Vol. march 13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7. Dubois, A.
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    A Networks Approach to Industrial Dynamics – Identifying two objects and two forms of organizing1998In: Proceedings of the 14th IMP Conference, September, 1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 8. Dubois, A.
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Different Logics of Industrial Dynamics: Paper presented at the Nutek National Seminar on Industrial and Technical Development, Stockholm, November1997Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Eklund, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    The diversity of systemic thinking: The underpinnings of NIS and IMP and the different assessment of an industry2015In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 9, no 1, 26-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Ford, David
    et al.
    Gadde, Lars-Erik
    Håkansson, Håkan
    Snehota, Ivan
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Analysing Business Interaction2008In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual IMP Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ford, David
    et al.
    University of Bath.
    Gadde, Lars-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    Norwegian School of Manegement, BI.
    Snehota, Ivan
    University of Lugano.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Analysing Business Interaction2010In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 4, no 1, 82-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Hakansson, Hakan
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    A never ending story: Interaction patterns and economic development2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 3, 443-454 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial marketing and purchasing is an interesting phenomenon. On the surface it appears as very mundane, a simple day-to-day activity performed by purchasers, sales personnel, and technical specialists; i.e. most often by professions representing 'middle management'. As such, it is not surrounded with any of the greater prestige ascribed to more hyped business activities, such as financing and strategy. Furthermore, industrial marketing and purchasing is seldom recognised as being of any greater importance for society at large. In policy circles, for example the UN, OECD and EU, where they stress the importance of innovation, productivity and growth, industrial marketing and purchasing is rarely mentioned as a related phenomenon. Behind the scenes, however, an empirical, much more challenging view is outlined. When the content and the effects of industrial marketing and purchasing processes are scrutinised empirically, these activities appear as perhaps the most important source for business development, industrial renewal, efficiency and innovation. From this perspective, industrial marketing and purchasing seems to be a critical phenomenon for creating prosperity for both companies and communities and for general economic growth. It is this role of industrial marketing and purchasing that we highlight and discuss in this article. Based on extensive empirical research results, we argue that interaction is the main ingredient in these processes. This implies that the supplier-customer interaction has a central development function for efficiency and innovativeness, for companies as well as for the economy at large. Thus, there is a strong need to include and consider this key engine for dynamics (and its role in developing materialised structures as well as ideas) in any theoretical study of economic development.

  • 13. Harrison, Debbie
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    The Development of a User Network as a Way to Re-launch an Unwanted Product2008In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 37, no 1, 115-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common situation in product development is that of product failure and the need for re-launch. This paper presents findings regarding how one firm successfully re-launched a product through the ex-post development of a user network. The producer, Biacore, had to re-launch its biosensor product or lose a €50 million investment. The firm identified and interacted with multiple potential lead-users in order to generate new use applications. The firm benefited from the successful development of a set of new applications, innovative users, and sales. As sales of the product increased, Biacore created marketing channels as diffusion mechanisms for the encouragement of direct and indirect user-to-user interaction. These were a way to spread the costs of user support when the firm standardised how it interacted with users. Some follower-users were able to benefit from lead-users who became lead teachers; other follower-users became non-users of the product. This paper illustrates three main roles for the firm in developing a user network: creating lead-users, organising directed applications development and facilitating user-to-user interaction.

  • 14.
    Hasselberg, Ylva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Rider, Sharon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Conclusion: On the Verge of Breakdown2013In: Transformations i Research, Higher Education and the Academic Market: The Breakdown of Scientific Thought / [ed] Sharon Rider, Ylva Hasselberg & Alexandra Waluszewski, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15. Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Ford, David
    Gadde, Lars-Erik
    Snehota, Ivan
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Business in Networks2009Book (Other academic)
  • 16. Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Harrison, Debbie
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Rethinking marketing : developing a new understanding of markets2004Book (Other academic)
  • 17. Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Hejnesand, Inge-Jan
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Introduction: Rethinking marketing2004In: Rethinking Marketing :: Developing a New Understanding of Markets / [ed] Håkan Håkansson, Debbie Harrison, Alexandra Waluszewski, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2004, 1, 1-13 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Laage-Hellman, Jens
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lundgren, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Teknikutveckling i företaget. Ett nätverksperspektiv1993Book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 19.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Reuithe, Anna
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    The Greatness of Being Small1999In: New High-Technology Based Firms, 1999Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Reuithe, Anna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Greatness of Being Small1999In: New Technology Based Firms, Elsevier, London , 1999Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 21.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Managment, BI.
    Tunisini, Annalisa
    University of Urbino.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Place as a resource in business networks2006In: Taking place: the spatial contexts of science, technology, and business / [ed] Enrico Baraldi, Hjalmar Fors and Anders Houltz, Sagamore Beach, Mass.: Science History Publications Ltd., 2006, 223-246 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Arterfakters ekonomiska konsekvenser2004In: Artefakter: Industrin, vetenskapen och de tekniska nätverken, Gidlunds, Hedemora , 2004Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 23.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Co-evolution in Technological Development – The Role of Friction2002In: Syneriga, no 58, 171-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Comparative Analysis of Industrial Networks within the European Furniture Industry1999Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 25.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    "Das Plagiat": kopian som fick originalet att anpassa sig2004In: Artefakter: Industrin, vetenskapen och de tekniska nätverken, Gidlunds, Hedemora , 2004Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 26. Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Den fullkomliga marknadens ofullkomlighet2008In: Marknadsorientering: myter och möjligheter / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Mattsson, Malmö: Liber, 2008, 1, 18-31 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27. Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Developing a new understanding of markets: Reinterpreting the 4Ps2005In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 20, no 3, 110-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Oslo.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Interaction: the only mean to create use2007In: Knowledge and Innovation in Business and Industry: The importance of using others / [ed] Håkan Håkansson and Alexandra Waluszewski, London: Routledge, 2007, 147-167 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Norwegian Business School BI.
    Waluszewski, AlexandraUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Knowledge and Innovation in Business and Industry: The importance of using others2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Managing Technological Development. IKEA, the environment and technlogy2002Book (Other scientific)
  • 31.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Innovat & Econ Org, Oslo, Norway.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    “Methodomania”? On the methodological and theoretical challenges of IMP business research“2016In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 10, no 3, 443-463 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Behind the simple connotation "business exchange" a complex empirical phenomenon can be observed, including using, producing and developing activities, taking place in different contexts, influenced by ideas stemming from both practice and mainstream economic thinking. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methodological challenges of research on business exchange in general and of IMP research in particular. Furthermore, to discuss how the authors can avoid the contemporary "methodomania" trend, where the researchers' focus is directed toward accounting for which rules were followed. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on a methodological distinction made by Peter Galison (1997) in his investigation of the interdependence among research approach, methodology, and research object in microphysics. Studies based on: "image," allows data in its original form, and "logic," requires the translation of original data and therefore relies "fundamentally on statistical demonstrations." This distinction is utilized to investigate what is specific with business exchange as a research object, and how IMP researchers have dealt with the methodological challenges it presents. Furthermore, the paper considers these different methodological approaches in relation to theory and understanding of the research object. Findings - The main conclusion is the huge importance the image-based methodology has had for the development of the IMP network approach. From the very start the IMP project has been focused on the production of a large set of, in Galison's terminology, "hard facts" about the existence, substance and importance of interaction and the relationships it is creating. This image-based methodology has been utilized in the development of a set of imaging instruments, each with an ability to picture the content and consequences of business exchange. Research limitations/implications - Two methodological challenges which are specific for business research are identified. One is that "images" in terms of personal accounts on the organizing of production and use of economic resources are marbled with ideas, stemming from a mix of theories, textbooks and practice on how to do this. The second is that established theories create a "logic" in terms of the combination of "assumptions" and established " accounting principles" that produce a number of outputs interpreted as primary data and objective accounts of the characteristics of the production and use of economic resources. Practical implications - IMP's image-based methodology and the development of specific imaging instruments can increase the exactness in the pictures of the content and consequences of business interaction, and also, catch the range of its substance. Considering this circumstance could be a way to avoid " methodomania" and to breed awareness of the relationship among research object, methodology, and research approach. Social implications - IMP's image-based methodology can increase the awareness that the logic-based model of business exchange has been ascribed an advisory role in terms of how companies should act in order to survive and prosper: as sellers and buyers in relation to each other, and also in relation to others. Originality/value - First, the paper underlines that image-based methodologies can be used to produce "hard facts" about the existence, substance, and importance of business interaction. Second, the paper shows how the methodology of mainstream economics tends to be "the elephant in the room," both in approaches resting on "image" and "logic." It addresses the importance of making the elephant visible and investigates what is happening in its shadow.

  • 32.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan BI Oslo.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Methodomania? On the theoretical and methodological challenges of (IMP) business research.2015In: Proceedings of the 31st IMP Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Path-dependence: restricting or facilitating technical development?2002In: Journal of Business Research, no 55, 561-570 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Recycled Fibre Turning Green1997In: Gemünden, H.G., Relationships and Networks in Industrial Markets, Elsevier, London , 1997Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 35. Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Reinterpreting the four Ps2004In: Rethinking Marketing :: Developing a new understanding of markets / [ed] Håkan Håkansson, Debbie Harrison, Alexandra Waluszewski, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2004, 1, 249-261 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    To investigate interaction between heterogeneous resources – a methodological dogma2001Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 37. Håkansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Waluszewski, AlexandraUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.Prenkert, FransBaraldi, EnricoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Use of science and technology in business: exploring the impact of using activity for systems, organizations and people2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book comprises a variety of examples of the use of science and technology in business, ranging from early computer use in the U.S. insurance industry to the present use of information technology in the Swedish furniture industry; from the classic UK fish and chip shop's use of white fish to Heathrow's Terminal 5-project; from new fishing net fibers to the cooling of chocolate at Cadbury's; from the development of new mobile wireless services to the creation of a genetic database on Iceland. The book shows the multifaceted and interactive character of the relationship between science and technology on the one hand, and business and innovation on the other. It explores this non-linear relationship through a selection of case studies and discusses its implications for science as well as for business. The economy of the use of sciences and technology, as well as the science and technology of economy, is given equal focus.

  • 38.
    Ingemansson, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Success in Science and Burden in Business. On the Difficult Relationship between Science as a Developing Setting and Business as a Producer-User Setting2009In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 3, no 2, 20-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Handling resource interfaces in a planned economy: how Tipografiya solves interaction issues without direct interaction2007In: Knowledge and innovation in business and industry: the importance of using others / [ed] Håkan Håkansson and Alexandra Waluszewski, London: Routledge, 2007, 109-126 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Milanesi, Matilde
    et al.
    Univ Florence, Dept Econ & Management, Florence, Italy.
    Guercini, Simone
    Univ Florence, Dept Econ & Management, Florence, Italy.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    A black swan in the district? An IMP perspetive on immigrant entrepreneurship and changes in industrial districts.2016In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 10, no 2, 243-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changes of the Italian textile district of Prato, considered an exemplary case of the industrial district (ID) model, using a business network perspective. The "Black Swan" metaphor is used to address the changes in the Prato textile district in order to understand whether such changes have been an unexpected and unpredictable phenomenon, or they can be explain with a different theoretical tool-box, namely, that developed by the industrial network approach. Design/methodology/approach - The paper utilizes already published studies on the changes of the textile/fashion companies located to the Prato area. Both studies that have been carried out within an ID approach and those carried out with an Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) point of departure are considered in the research. Both types of studies were utilized to identify empirical observed changes of the producer, respectively user setting that the Prato located companies was related to, including identification of changes affecting both the local setting and the larger network it was related to. Findings - The utilization of the IMP model proposes a learning ground that exceed the local context and open ups of investigations of opportunities and threats stemming from interactions across spatial borders. Analysed from an interactive point of view, in the specific context of Prato, the exploitation of the opportunities given by establishing relationship between natives and migrants actors goes through the creation of interactions among actors representing specific resource combinations and activity structures - within and outside the local community. Originality/value - The paper concerns how the same research object - the changes of the Prato district - appears from another perspective different from the ID theory, namely, the industrial network approach developed by scholars of the IMP Group.

  • 41.
    Olsen, Per-Ingvar
    et al.
    Norwegian Business School BI.
    Håkansson, Håkan
    Norwegian Business School BI.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Value Creation and Economic Deal Structures in IMP Analysis.2013In: Proceedings of the 29th IMP Conference, Atlanta, USA, Aug 30-Sept 1 2013., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Perna, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Is the value created necessarily associated with money? On the connections between an innovation process and its monetary dimension: The case of Solibro's thin-film solar cells2015In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 46, 108-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While IMP research has implicitly identified the intricate and unfair connection between innovation and its monetary dimension, there is a lack of studies which explicitly focus on this connection. Consequently, there is also a lack of concepts with which to investigate the role of money and its connections with other resources in the business landscape. This paper aims to contribute to an increased understanding of this phenomena, by explicitly investigating the connection between the social-material and the monetary dimensions of an innovation journey. We analyze a case study on new type of thin-film solar cells; an innovation journey in which both the social-material and monetary dimensions involve public and private actors and transcend national borders. We identify five key connections between social-material resources and the monetary dimension: (1) Monetary flows finance new resource combinations; (2) the monetary dimension evaluates social-material resources, even though it does so in highly subjective, erratic and negotiated ways; (3-4) business deals and monetary flows both enable and block actions on social-material resources; and (5) business deals distribute, although very unevenly, the costs and benefits of social-material resources among the involved actors.

  • 43.
    Perna, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Polytechnic University of Marche.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Is the value created necessarily associated with money? On the connections between an innovation process and its monetarydimension: The case of Solibro's thin-film solar cells2015In: Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 46, 108-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Rider, Sharon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics.
    Hasselberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Transformations in Research, Higher Education and the Academic Market: The Breakdown of Scientific Thought2013Book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Rider, Sharon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Crowding out Knowledge: Efficiency, Innovation and Higher Education2015In: The Global Financial Crisis and Educational Restructuring / [ed] Michael Peters, João M Paraskeva, Tina Besley, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, 1, 235-248 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Rider, Sharon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Hasselberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Introduction2013In: Transformations in Research, Higher Education and the Academic Market: The Breakdown of Scientfic Thought / [ed] Sharon Rider, Ylva Hasselberg, Alexandra Waluszewski, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, 4-21 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Rider, Sharon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hasselberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Kvacksalveri att i förväg peka ut nyttig forskning2008In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 30 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48. Strömsten, Torkel
    et al.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Governance and Resource Interaction in Networks: The role of venture capital in biotech start-up2012In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 65, no 2, 232-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines venture capital (VC) governance in innovation processes. The VC literature often presents the relationship between a VC firm and a start-up as dyadic and analyzes it with agency theory. In contrast, this paper deploys the resource interaction framework presented in Hakansson and Waluszewski (2002) to governance and innovation in networks. The paper reports an in-depth case study of Pyrosequencing, a Swedish biotech firm financed with VC. The results from this study reveal how the relationship between a VC and a start-up company is embedded in a wider network and how the governance of the VC spreads in the surrounding network and influences a start-up's possibilities to develop organizational and technical resource interfaces to critical counterparts such as suppliers and customers.

  • 49.
    Ståhl, Benjamin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Use of knowledge in the model world: lessons to learn from economic literature2007In: Knowledge and innovation in business and industry: the importance of using others / [ed] Håkan Håkansson and Alexandra Waluszewski, London: Routledge, 2007, 1, 127-146 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Wagrell, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    The innovation process and its organisational setting - fit or misfit?2009In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 3, no 2, 57-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new microwave based technology for enlarged prostate treatment has been developed that, in contrast to the established surgical method, does not require surgery, anaesthesia and subsequent hospitalisation. The development of this technology and a company supplying it was initiated and encouraged by a hospital belonging to a health care sector that deliberately promoted innovation efforts in order to increase cost-efficiency. Still, when the microwave based technology was ready for use, it was revealed that the health care sector that initiated the innovation journey was equipped with both professional and organisational structures that counteracted this process. It is this innovation process we will explore in this paper. The overall research question concerns the interaction between the innovation process and the organisational setting it emerges within: In what way does the organisational setting a) facilitate and b) hinder the embedding of the potential innovation.

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