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  • 1.
    af Geijerstam, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Runeson, Jenny
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingelshed, Lena
    Att skriva faktatext i fyran2017In: Undersöka och utveckla undervisning.: Professionell utveckling för lärare. / [ed] Almqvist, Jonas, Hamza, Karim, Olin, Anette, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 67-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brickhouse, Nancy
    University of Delaware.
    Lederman, Judith S
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Lederman, Norman
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Ligozat, Florence
    University of Geneva.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sadler, Troy
    University of Florida.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholms universitet.
    Zeidler, Dana
    University of South Florida.
    Exploring themes of scientific literacy2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen, Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Johan
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen, Örebro universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Pragmatiska studier av meningsskapande2008In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 11-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the article is to present a pragmatic approach for studies of meaning-making used in the articles of this issue. The approach, which is developed within the SMEDgroup (Studies of Meaning-making in Educational Discourses), mainly builds on the writings of John Dewey, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Michel Foucault. A common ambition for the researchers in SMED is to enable studies and discussions on questions concerning how meanings are made in people’s actions. Another ambition is to carry out these studies beyond assumptions of dualism, essentialism, causality and determinism. In this perspective learning and socialization are viewed in a communicative perspective. We argue in the article that our approach makes it possible, and important, to study meaning-making in action in different kinds of educational practices.

  • 4.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Tema: Didaktiska undersökningar2008In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 5-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen, Örebro uiversitet.
    Öhman, Johan
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Örebro uiversitet.
    Öhman, Marie
    Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen, Örebro uiversitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Pragmatic investigations -Studies of meaning making in educational discourses: Contribution to the NERA congress, March 6-9 in Copenhagen, Denmark2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to present and discuss a pragmatic approach for studies of meaning making in different educational practices. The approach – built on a framework developed within the SMEDgroup (Studies of Meaning making in Educational Discourses) at the universities of Uppsala and Örebro – is illustrated in a number of empirical studies. The main point of departure in the studies is taken in pragmatic curriculum theory and sociocultural perspectives on learning, and is inspired mainly by John Dewey, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Michel Foucault. A special focus is directed to communication practices and content selection within Physical education, Environmental education and Science education. A common ambition is to offer a language that enables studies and discussions on questions concerning how meanings are made in people’s actions. Another ambition is to make these investigations beyond assumptions of dualisms, essentialism, causality and determinism. In this perspective learning and socialisation is viewed in communicative perspective. Therefore, many of the studies are built on video recorded classroom conversations, but also on analysis of various kinds of written texts. We argue in the paper that this approach makes it possible to study meaning making – learning and socialisation – in different kinds of educational practices.

  • 6.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Privileging and Artifacts: On the use of information technology in science education2006In: Interchange, ISSN 0826-4805, E-ISSN 1573-1790, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 225-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that can be used in addressing the issue of the use of information technology and its importance in human meaning making. By using a combination of Wittgenstein’s work method, a sociocultural perspective on learning, and a sociotechnical perspective on artifacts a specific focus for analyses was discerned: the relation between the use-of-technology in meaning-making on one hand and the circumstances for this meaning-making on the other hand. The conversations of six groups of children, who worked with an assignment, that required that they doubted information they encountered, were video recorded and analyzed. The analyses were done in three interrelated steps. (a) The students use-of-technology in meaning making, (b) the meaning patterns that the students encounter on the web, and (c) students’ intentions and habits. Our findings show that, while the mode of reinforcement of the texts used by the students may have provided little opportunity for doubt or learning how to doubt, the students’ habits and intentions with their work determined the result of the interaction, namely copying information from the web. Taking our point of departure in this empirical illustration we discuss theoretical and methodological questions concerning the understanding of the use of information technology in educational settings.

  • 7. Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Garrison, Jim
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Empirical Philosophical Investigations in Education and Embodied Experience2018Book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Garrison, Jim
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Habit as intelligent action: A Learning Analysis of Dinghy Sailors Body techniques2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Garrison, Jim
    Virginia Tech, School of Education, Blacksburg.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Intelligent action as immanent meaning: A “Bodying” Learning Analysis of Dinghy SailingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    A transactional way of analysing the learning of 'tacit knowledge'Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    A Transactional Way of Analysing the Learning of ‘Tacit Knowledge’2015In: Interchange, ISSN 0826-4805, E-ISSN 1573-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodological challenges point to a reconceptualization of ‘tacit knowledge’ to ‘tacit knowing’. The paper outlines the concept of ‘tacit knowing’ and explores the need for educational research to reformulate questions about tacit knowledge as a practical learning concern. Using John Dewey’s transactional perspective on learning ‘tacit knowing’ is analysed as embodiment of knowledge. An approach of ‘body pedagogics’ is used to frame this analysis. From a perspective of ‘body pedagogics’ our bodily being and the actions we perform as such beings cannot be reduced to neither cultural nor subjective experience. Rather, we are in a continuing educating process when it comes to our bodies (Shilling and Mellor 2007, p. 533). On the background of this a transactional model of learning is developed that recognises educative bodily experiences in relation to ‘tacit knowing’. A sailing vignette is used to show that ‘tacit knowing’ becomes visible in a sailor’s embodied inquiry of which situated epistemic relations it is necessary to embody to acquire a certain ‘body technique’. Empirical focus lies on how dinghy sailors grow into purposeful ‘body techniques’ (Mauss, Econ Soc 2(1):70–88, 1973) by taking the measure of their ongoing, continuous experience while coordinating their movements with the environment. The analysis show how understandings and bodily skills are simultaneously used in the educational situation where the dinghy sailor has to handle both the environment and various instructions given by the trainer. Thus, ‘tacit knowing’ in dinghy sailing is not merely a collection of motor skills, but rather the grasping, in the practical embodied way, of physical principles.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ohman, Marie
    I am sailing-towards a transactional analysis of 'body techniques'2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 722-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in questions related to embodiment and learning. Within the field of 'body pedagogics' great efforts have been made to develop theory and methodology that can deal with the corporeal aspects of experience and knowledge without adopting any form of dualistic conceptions of body/mind and organism/environment. This article connects to this body of research. The purpose is to first present a synthesis of James' radical empiricism, Dewey's transactional understanding of experience and learning and Marcel Mauss' concept of 'body techniques' and the notion of education embedded in it. Against the background of this theoretical development, and with a Transactional Model of Analyzing Bodying (TMAB), we then show how we can analytically come to terms with different dualistic problems that research into 'body pedagogics' has to deal with. We use an empirical example of dinghy sailing to create knowledge about what we learn when learning embodied knowledge, and how this learning takes place. We argue that experience is an important concept for understanding the acting knowing human being, describing how experience is organized and developed and outlining how this organization can be understood as learning. We hold that situations where someone learns to embody certain knowledge are cases of overt actions, in which we can see what kinds of relations are created and how these relations become meaningful for further action.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Öhman, Marie
    Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin, Örebro universitet.
    I am sailing: towards a transactional analysis of 'body techniques'2013In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in questions related to embodiment and learning.Within the field of ‘body pedagogics’ great efforts have been made to develop theory andmethodology that can deal with the corporeal aspects of experience and knowledge withoutadopting any form of dualistic conceptions of body/mind and organism/environment. This articleconnects to this body of research. The purpose is to first present a synthesis of James’ radicalempiricism, Dewey’s transactional understanding of experience and learning and Marcel Mauss’concept of ‘body techniques’ and the notion of education embedded in it. Against the backgroundof this theoretical development, and with a Transactional Model of Analyzing Bodying (TMAB),we then show how we can analytically come to terms with different dualistic problems that researchinto ‘body pedagogics’ has to deal with. We use an empirical example of dinghy sailing to createknowledge about what we learn when learning embodied knowledge, and how this learning takesplace. We argue that experience is an important concept for understanding the acting knowinghuman being, describing how experience is organized and developed and outlining how thisorganization can be understood as learning. We hold that situations where someone learns toembody certain knowledge are cases of overt actions, in which we can see what kinds of relationsare created and how these relations become meaningful for further action.

  • 14. Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Öhman, Johan
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    A Business to Change the World - Moral Responsbility in Textbooks for International Economics2012In: A Business to Change the World - Moral Responsbility in Textbooks for International Economics., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15. Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Öhman, Johan
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    A business to change the world: moral responsibility in textbooks for international economics2011In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 79-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Stefan L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Globalisation and Education for Sustainable Development: Emancipation from context and meaning2013In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 477-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tries to contribute to the critical debate on the ideological and globalising potential of education for sustainable development (ESD), which exists in the research field of environmental education, by highlighting potential contradictions in the argumentation for ESD's ideological and globalising tendency. Further, the authors of this article argue for an alternative perspective on how education policy on ESD can be seen to contribute to globalisation and homogenisation by merging two conceptualisations of globalisation as connection' and the role of empty signifiers' in political discourse. The ambition with the merger is not to provide a universal explanation of globalisation and ideology, instead, the intention is to outline an alternative theoretical outlook that allows for an empirical study of the processes that can be seen to feed into or interrupt the preservation of hegemony in a global setting.

  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Stefan L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Globalisation and Education for Sustainable Development: Exploring the global in motion2016In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores education for sustainable development (ESD) as a policy concept in different spaces and how it is re-articulated as part of a process of globalisation. The objective is to explore empirically an alternative set of logics in order to conceive of this process of globalisation. With this objective in mind, the article investigates articulations of ESD and sustainable development in Vietnamese and Thai policy-making, and reflects upon how these articulations can be seen to relate to globalisation. In so doing, it addresses concerns about the globalising potential of ESD within the field of environmental education research, and aims to open up for an alternative understanding of the processes associated with the rearticulation of ESD in different national education policy settings. The alternative conception that is put forward promotes an understanding of these re-articulations of ESD as contingent, opening up a space for contestation and counter-hegemonic articulations.

  • 18.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Constructions of power and knowledge in the technology classroom2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    A bridge to understanding? An approach for analysing the construction of power/knowledge in a technology classroom.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Power and Knowledge in the Technology Classroom: The Development and Illustration of a Conceptual Framework.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the constitution of power and knowledge in science and technology classrooms. A deepened examination of the teaching of science and technology is partly motivated by these subjects high status in society, how they portrayed as crucial both for the individual, in order to function in an increasingly technologically advanced society, and for the society at large, while finding it increasingly difficult to attract interest among the youth . In the Swedish context, where this research is carried out, it can further be noted that while the country is top-ranked on a number of equality indices and in general has a reputation that highlights its commitment to eradicating social inequalities, the labour market is still highly gender segregated and in university educations focused on the physical sciences and engineering men are substantially overrepresented (Nyström 2009, Alexandersson 2011). This somewhat paradoxical situation further motivates studies of how science and technology are constructed in and beyond the classroom in Sweden, since often cited reasons to women’s underrepresentation in science and technology in, for example, the U.S., such as the legislation regarding parental leave and the tenure clock (Rosser 2012), is much less applicable to the Swedish context. In our research project we take a particular interest in a period where research show that many students lose interest in science and technology, namely the last years of compulsory schooling (cf. Lindahl 2003, Archer et al. 2010). By a deepened exploration of how power and knowledge interrelate in moment-to-moment interactions in the classroom we therefore hope to provide some additional clues as to how micro-inequalities, adding up to patterns of exclusion in science and technology (Rosser 2012), occur in the classroom context.

    The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate the use of a conceptual framework for exploring how power relations are constituted in the technology classroom – in terms of what Foucault (1982/2002) conceptualises as ‘actions upon actions’ (p. 340) – by the research questions:

    1)      How are teacher actions communicating how and what knowledge is privileged in the classroom?

    2)      How is this knowledge privileging establishing power relations, in terms of possibilities for student actions?

    The conceptual framework makes use of practical epistemological analysis (Wickman & Östman 2002) as an analytical tool for describing teacher actions that involves a privileging of a certain educational content. In short, practical epistemology is a description of what students and teachers use in action as relevant or irrelevant knowledge and appropriate ways to attain knowledge. In a practical epistemology analysis epistemology is understood as a result of human beings functional coordination with their environment. It explores how a conversation or other actions take a certain direction and continue in a specific way, i.e. explores how meaning making result in a more developed and specific repertoire of actions (Lidar et al. 2006).  In addition, our conceptual framework also utilises an adaptation of Brousseau’s (1997) concept ‘didactical contract’ that includes a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power. Central to Foucault’s conceptualization of power is the idea that power is exists in a net-work of micro powers, rather than being located in a few individuals and organisations (Foucault 1980:98). A key concept in Foucault’s theoretical build, in particular when applied to an educational context, is power/knowledge. This concept communicates the idea that power and knowledge are always intertwined and can never be separated: ’there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations’ (Foucault 1977:27).

    Methodology or methods 400 words

    The empirical design relies on a purposive sampling of teachers and classrooms, documenting classroom activities using video recordings and field notes. This paper will illustrate the use of the conceptual framework, by an analysis of a case of three one-hour lessons in one Swedish technology classroom in grade 8. The topic of these lessons concerns ‘solid and stable constructions’ (The Swedish National Agency for Education 2011). The pupils work in smaller groups with construction of models of bridges, with certain specifications, a very common activity when working with this topic in Swedish classrooms. The lessons were video recorded, using multiple cameras. The analytical process was initiated by several viewings of the video recordings, in order to acquaint ourselves with the empirical material. Next, sequences judged to be of particular importance to our research question, i.e. sequences where to teacher interacted with the groups, were transcribed. The first stage of the analysis focused the actions initiated by the teacher, through the identification of epistemological moves (Lidar et al. 2006), such as instructional or confirming moves. The teacher’s actions were coded in relation to the students’ interaction, following how practical epistemological analysis considers interactions as a language game where people create meaning together. In a second stage, the analysis focuses on how the epistemological ‘moves’ are functional in constituting a ‘didactical contract’, that is ‘the (specific) set of behaviours of the teacher which are expected of the students and the set of behaviours of the student which are expected by the teacher’ (Brousseau & Warfield 1999:47). The understanding of classroom practices, regarding both content and form, as constituted reciprocally by teacher and students opens up for a parallel understanding of classroom power relations, as a relational phenomenon. Consequently, inspired by a Foucauldian conceptualization of power, we argue that power relations are, and must be, integral to the didactical contract. Gore (1995) has explored the potential of Foucault’s analysis of power for investigating pedagogical sites, in an empirical study of four such sites. In her work she makes use of eight techniques of power, distilled from Foucault’s work, in order to do demonstrate the micro-level workings of power. In this paper we apply Gore’s (1995) techniques of power as a way to operationalise the Foucauldian power perspective in our analysis.

    Conclusion, expected outcomes or findings 300 words

    The main outcome of the study is the development of a conceptual framework for analysing the simultaneous constitution of knowledge and power in the classroom. This framework utilises practical epistemological analysis (Lidar et al. 2006) as the means of describing teacher and student action, and then uses an adaptation of Brousseau’s didactical contract to deepen the exploration of how power and knowledge are co-constitutive. In particular, we see the integration of a Foucauldian perspective on power, drawing on the work of Gore (1995), into Brousseau’s (1997) notion of ‘didactical contract’ as a fruitful avenue for further theoretical development and empirical explorations. The paper will present the conceptual framework, and provide empirical illustrations of how a didactical contract is constituted. In doing so, we demonstrate how the epistemological moves contribute to frame the expected behaviour of students and teacher. To exemplify, as long as the teacher-student interactions continues in the expected way the didactical contract is largely invisible, and it is not until it someone is perceived – by the teacher – as violating it that it is made explicit. In the classroom we have observed, teacher utterances that explicitly name the didactical contract are surprisingly abundant. The teacher repeatedly brings didactical contract to the foreground, by signalling how knowledge ought to be constituted in this technology classroom, e.g. by not basing knowledge claims on ‘who is your friend’. In summary, we argue that an increased understanding of the processes of knowledge and power constitution, and the relationship between them, in the classroom is important in what it can tell us about conditions for different students for engaging with science and technology. The ultimate aim of the research is to inform the ways in which an increased engagement in science and technology of a more diverse student body may be encouraged.

    References

    Alexandersson, M. (2011). Equivalence and choice in combination: the Swedish dilemma. Oxford Review of Education, 37(2), 195–214. Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B. &Wong, B. (2010) "Doing" Science Versus "Being" a Scientist: Examining 10/11-Year-Old School children's Constructions of Science Through the Lens of Identity'. Science Education, 94(4),617-639. Brousseau, G. (1997). Theory of Didactical situations in mathematics 1970-1990, [Edited and translated M. Cooper, N. Balacheff, R. Sutherland and V. Warfield.] Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Brousseau G. & Warfield V.M. (1999). The case of Gaël. The study of a child with mathematical difficulties. The journal of mathematical behaviour, 18(1), 7-52. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: the birth of the prison. New York: Pantheon Books. Foucault, M. (1980). Two Lectures. In: Power/knowledge: selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977, ed. G. Gordon. New York: Pantheon Books. Foucault, M. (1982/2002). The subject and power. In: Essential Works of Foucault 1954-1984. Volume 3, Power, ed. D. Faubion, 326-348. London: Penguin Books. Gore, J. (1995). On the continuity of power relations in pedagogy. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 5(2), 165-188. Lidar, M., Lundqvist, E. & Östman, L. (2006). Teaching and learning in the science classroom. The interplay between teachers’ epistemological moves and students’ practical epistemology. Science Education, 90, 148-163. Lindahl, B. (2003). Lust att lära naturvetenskap och teknik? En longitudinell studie om vägen till gymnasiet. Ph.D. diss. Gothenburg University. Nyström, E. (2009). Teacher talk: producing, resisting and challenging discourses about the science classroom. Gender and Education, 21(6), 735–751. Rosser, S. V. (2012) Breaking into the Lab: Engineering Progress for Women in Science. New York: New York UP. The Swedish National Agency for Education (2011). Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the recreation centre. Downloaded February 1st 2014, from www.skolverket.se Wickman, P-O. & Östman, L. (2002). Learning as discourse change: a sociocultural mechanism. Science Education, 86, 601-623.

  • 21.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Studying Power and Knowledge in the Technology Classroom: Towards a Conceptual Framework.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an empirical exploration of the constitution of power and knowledge in science and technology (S&T) classrooms. A deepened examination of the teaching of S&T is partly motivated by high status of these subjects in society, how they are portrayed as crucial both for the individual, in order to function in an increasingly technologically advanced society, and for the society at large, while finding it increasingly difficult to attract interest among the youth. The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate the use of a conceptual framework for exploring how power relations are constituted in the technology classroom – in terms of what Foucault (1982/2002) conceptualises as ‘actions upon actions’ (p. 340) – by the research questions: 1) How are teacher actions communicating how and what knowledge is privileged in the classroom? 2) How is this knowledge privileging establishing power relations, in terms of possibilities for student actions? The conceptual framework makes use of practical epistemological analysis (Wickman & Östman 2002) as an analytical tool for describing teacher actions that involves a privileging of a certain educational content. Furthermore, it also utilises an adaptation of Brousseau’s (1997) concept ‘didactical contract’ that includes a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power. The empirical design relies on a purposive sampling of classrooms, documenting classroom activities using video recordings. This paper will illustrate the use of the conceptual framework, by an analysis of a case of three lessons in one Swedish technology classroom in grade 8. The topic of these lessons concerns solid and stable constructions. The pupils work in smaller groups with construction of bridges, a very common activity when working with this topic in Swedish classrooms. The first stage of the analysis focuses the actions initiated by the teacher, through the identification of epistemological moves (Lidar et al. 2006), such as instructional or confirming moves. In a second stage, the analysis focuses on how these ‘moves’ are functional in constituting a ‘didactical contract’, that is ‘the (specific) set of behaviours of the teacher which are expected of the students and the set of behaviours of the student which are expected by the teacher’ (Brousseau & Warfield 1999, p. 47). In summary, we argue that the investigation of how power and knowledge interrelate in moment-to-moment interactions in the classroom may provide additional clues to how micro-inequalities, adding up to patterns of exclusion in S&T (Rosser 2012), occur in the classroom context. 

  • 22.
    Ekstig, Börje
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Undervisning och lärande i naturvetenskap och teknik2004Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Englund, Tomas
    et al.
    Pedagogiska institutionen Örebro universitet.
    Öhman, Johan
    Pedagogiska institutionen Örebro universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Deliberative communication concerning sustainability and security: A Habermas-inspired approach2008In: Sustainability and security within liberal societies: Learning to live with the future / [ed] Gough, S. & Stables, A., London: Routledge , 2008, p. 29-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24. Englund, Tomas
    et al.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Orienteringsämnenas framtid1992In: Kritisk utbildningstidskrift, no 3, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Garrison, Jim
    et al.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Håkansson, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The creative use of companion values in environmental education and education for sustainable development: exploring the educative moment2015In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 183-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper addresses the emergence and evolution of values in educational settings. It builds upon and extends earlier work on companion meanings to develop a theory of the creative use of companion values and meanings in education. The recognition of companion values in educational practices highlight epistemological, ethical, and aesthetic transactions that occur in ways we characterize as 'other than modern.' Introducing the idea of educative moments allows us to identify situations where value spheres interpenetrate and interrogate each other in the meaning-making of students and teachers. These moments occur when students suddenly experience companion meanings and values such that teacher and student must deliberate together rather than the teacher dictating some dominating epistemological, ethical, or aesthetic value. This way, it is possible to accommodate critical and creative reflection in education where new values can emerge or evolve. We illustrate the theory by empirical examples from classroom conversations.

  • 26.
    Hansson, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    af Geijerstam, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Reading Walden/s: An Ecocritical Investigation of Students’ Environmental Meaning Making2014In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hansson, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kronlid, David O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Encountering Nature on the Move. A transactional analysis of Jenny Diski's Travelogue Daydreaming and Smoking around America with interruptions.2014In: Counter Nature(s) / [ed] Steven Hartman, Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Hansson, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Reading the Outdoors: - an Analysis of the Swedish Outdoor Environmental and Sustainability Education Discourse Practice2014In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hedefalk, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Education for sustainable development in early childhood education: a review of the research literature2015In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 975-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyse research articles relating to the subject of education for sustainable development (ESD) for early childhood education (ECE), published during the years 1996–2013. This is done by answering three specific questions: (1) How is ESD defined by researchers in ECE? (2) What are the major research inquiries and results? (3) What does the research say about young children acting for change in relation to sustainability? Our analysis identified two different definitions of ESD: first, as a threefold approach to education based on questions concerning education about, in and for the environment; and, second, as an approach to education that includes three interrelated dimensions: economic, social and environmental. Two major research areas are identified in this study. The first area relates to how teachers understand ESD, while the second area focuses on how ESD can be implemented in educational practice. During the period studied, the research has evolved from teaching children facts about the environment and sustainability issues to educating children to act for change. This new approach reveals a more competent child who can think for him- or herself and make well-considered decisions. The decisions are made by investigating and participating in critical discussions about alternative ways of acting for change.

  • 30.
    Håkansson, Michae
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    kronlid, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Education + Sustainable Development = a Passionate Affair - rethinking the concept political through a radical democratic perspective to make aesthetical political experiences.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kronlid, David O. Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Searching for the political dimension in education for sustainable development: Socially critical, social learning and radical democratic approaches2019In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 6-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of a narrative research synthesis, the aim of this article is to explore how the political dimension can or should be staged as a teaching and learning content in education for sustainable development (ESD). The study is limited to research literature dealing with the political dimension in relation to the phenomenon of conflict. Three approaches to the topic are identified: a socially critical approach (SCA), a social learning approach (SLA) and a radical democratic approach (RDA). Notably, SCA and SLA are already established in the research field, whereas RDA is a result of our synthesis. The scope of the synthesis is limited to these three approaches. We follow up the narrative research synthesis by comparing the three approaches to discern how the political dimension emerges as an educational content by using conflict as part of the teaching and learning activities. The main results are that all three approaches tend to downplay the political and produce political sameness. The article ends by suggesting possible directions for further research that would fruitfully translate the idea of the political dimension into educational settings and enrich the political dimension as a concept in ESD in both practice and research.

  • 32.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Van Poeck, Katrien
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    An educative perspective on the political moment in ESE-practice2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Different perspectives on political in Education for Sustainable Development2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 34.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Different perspectives on the political in EE/ESD2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 35.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Politics and the political in environmental and sustainability education: A construction of an analytical modelIn: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers in environmental sustainability education (ESE) play a central role in the political dimension that pluralism gives rise to. This includes the increasing theoretical tendency to view conflicts as ontological in a pluralistic democracy.  Curiously, though the political dimension of educational processes has been theorized in ESE, empirical studies are still unusual. The aim of this article is, through theoretical, methodological and empirical work, to construct an analytical model to generate empirical knowledge about politics and the political – where students’ deal with conflicts, decision, inclusion and exclusion - in teaching and learning activities.  This article recounts a combined empirical and philosophical study of the political dimension in ESE practice.  The empirical material consists of a video recorded lesson and attempts to understand why some of the students did not raise their voices to express their disagreements, even though they clearly express disagreements in a written survey after the same lesson. This contradictory pictures has rarely been discussed in ESE research literature. It is crucial to reflect on whether face-to-face relations tamp down conflicts and if the students consequently do not become educated in or involved in the political dimension of environmental and sustainable issues. This concern is addressed using Chantal Mouffe’s theory of the political and a pragmatist theory of emotions and meaning-making, particularly by John Dewey. Introducing a didactical analytical model of political moments allows us to identify when a moment occurs as political. This model also allows us to study the anatomy of a political moment: first, we never start from scratch, meaning that we experience things that we discover as valuable and to which we feel committed; second, the moment is one that demands a judgment between incompatible alternatives; and third, the moment require a decision between conflicting ends of a kind that will determine or re-determine some amount of previously assumed solidarity and communality, i. e. our social relations. These moments occur when students suddenly experience undecidability in a situation that requires a decision, which inevitably leads to an act of inclusion and exclusion. In other words, the political becomes embodied in a practice of politics in a given context. This may include not only a new appreciation for commitments as part of the political dimension but also invite a way of learning from experiencing political moment in terms of undecidability and antagonism. With these ideas in mind, we suggest that the political dimension can become the source of new understandings, particularly that politics inevitably is an act of inclusion and exclusion.

     

     

     

  • 36.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The political dimension in ESE: the construction of a political moment model for analyzing bodily anchored political emotions in teaching and learning of the political dimension2019In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 585-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article departures from the understanding of environmental sustainable education (ESE) as a political project that consists of dissonant and conflicting voices. The aim of the article is to understand how affection, i.e. bodily sensations, transform into political emotions in teaching and learning settings. The article offers a philosophical and empirically based model called the 'political moment model' for analyzing bodily anchored political emotions in teaching and learning of the political dimension. The model was developed in response to an empirical case study where the data were somewhat confusing. In order understand the empirical data, we used parts of Mouffe's theory of the political and various scholars' work on political emotions and placed these aspects in a pragmatist standpoint of experience, emotions and meaning making. The model helped to investigate students' experiences of the political dimension in situations where they experienced affection, i.e. bodily sensation, and emotions in connection with reflections and discussions about how to handle public issues of sustainable development. The article ends with a theoretical discussion of the findings in order to understand the political dimension in teaching and learning activities and to discern possible directions for future research on political moments in ESE.

  • 37.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Kronlid O, David
    Who am I? I am the anger that will change the world2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 38.
    Håkansson, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Van Poeck, Katrin
    Univ Ghent, Dept Polit Sci, Ghent, Belgium.
    The political tendency in Environmental and sustainability education: a construction of an educational typology2018In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 91-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a categorisation of the different situations in which the political can be handled and experienced in environmental and sustainability education practice: the ‘political tendency’. Using a methodology inspired by Wittgenstein’s user perspective on language, we empirically identified situations that express the political tendency by looking for language games centred around the question how to organise social life recognising that this inevitably requires decision-making about different and competing alternatives. Classifying these situations resulted in a typology (the political tendency) that distinguishes ‘Democratic participation’, ‘Political reflection’, ‘Political deliberation’ (sub-divided into ‘Normative deliberation’, ‘Consensus oriented deliberation’ and ‘Conflict oriented deliberation’) and ‘Political moment’. Next, we discuss the developed typology from an educative perspective, showing that the distinguished situations in the political tendency differ as to how they enable the foregrounding and backgrounding of different educational goals: preparation, socialisation and person-formation (i.e. identification and subjectification as perspectife shifting and subjectification as dismantling). 

  • 39.
    Kronlid, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, SWEDESD - The Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    Sandell, Klas
    Svennbeck, Margareta
    Öhman, Johan
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Inledning2015In: Naturmötespraktiker och miljömoraliskt lärande / [ed] Leif Östman, Uppsala University, 2015, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40. Kronlid, David
    et al.
    Sandell, Klas
    Svennbäck, Margareta
    Öhman, Johan
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    LED-modellen:: ett tvärvetenskapligt analysschema2015In: Naturmötespraktiker och miljömoraliskt lärande / [ed] Leif Östman, Uppsala University, 2015, p. 127-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Leif, Östman
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    De naturorienterande ämnenas utveckling i ett internationellt perspektiv1990In: Politik och socialisation.: Nya strömningar i pedagogikhistorisk forskning, Pedagogisk forskning i Uppsala, 93 , 1990Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Leif, Östman
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    How companion meanings are expressed by science education discourse.1998In: Problems of Menings in Science Curriculum., New York: Teachers College Press , 1998, p. 54-70Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 43.
    Leif, Östman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Säfström, Carl-Anders
    Förnuft i utbildning och medier: att klargöra våra syften1999In: Textanalys, 1999Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 44.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    A Pragmatist Approach to Meaning Making in Children's Discussions About Gravity and the Shape of the Earth2010In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 689-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few decades, researchers from a cognitive science tradition and a sociocultural perspective on learning have discussed how to understand students’ conceptions of the earth. In this article, some of the questions discussed in this debate are elaborated in relation to meaning-making in educational settings. The aim is to illustrate how an approach built on pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s works makes it possible to take the role of both situation and experiences into account within a sociocultural perspective on learning. In video-recordings of second and fourth-fifth graders working in pairs meaning-making is studied using practical epistemology analysis, i.e. what children talk about as relevant and what experiences they re-actualize when answering questions. By analyzing the role of re-actualization of experience, the role of re-actualization and situation in making questions and problems intelligible and the individuals’ encounters with artifacts and the consequences of this in meaning-making, we elucidate why it is important to consider meaning making in situ as an empirical question. It is concluded that the way questions are made intelligible will direct the meaning-making and when using an artifact to answer questions, it is not the artifact in itself, but the specific use of the artifact that mediates action.

  • 45.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Classroom meaning making with text: Practical epistemology analysis of lab work instructions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a method for investigating the role of texts in student meaning making is developed. A central methodological standpoint in the article is that texts get their meaning in encounters with the users and it is shown how this can be studied by using the pragmatist approach practical epistemology analysis. The practical epistemology approach is combined with a transactional theory of reading, a theory that puts emphasis on the contributions of both text and the reader in the two-way, dynamic process of reading. The texts analyzed in this study are laboratory instructions. The empirical material is made up of video recordings from a science education class in year 7 and 8, doing laboratory work from written instructions. On many occasions in practical work, the laboratory guide plays an important role for the students’ activities and the opportunities for learning they get. Instructional texts are often supposed to be easy to understand and unproblematic to use. However, by focusing on different problematic situations that may arise when students are expected to follow laboratory instructions it is possible to discuss the different meanings that can arise in the encounter between student and text. In laboratory work, many more actions than those comprised in the instructional text are necessarily performed. Consequently, the way students are able to make the instructions intelligible will direct their further meaning making. With analyses of practical epistemology we can show that students need to know procedures, a certain attentiveness and to re-actualize relevant knowledge to be able to follow the instruction in a way that leads to the expected and relevant results in terms of learning.

  • 46.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Classroom meaning making with text: Practical epistemology analysis of lab work instructionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In this article, a method for investigating the role of texts in student meaning making is developed. A central methodological standpoint in the article is that texts get their meaning in encounters with the users and it is shown how this can be studied by using practical epistemology analysis. The practical epistemology approach is combined with a transactional theory of reading, a theory that puts emphasis on the contributions of both text and the reader in the two-way, dynamic process of reading.

    The texts analyzed empirically in this study are laboratory instructions. The empirical material is made up of video recordings from a Science Education class in year 7 and 8, doing laboratory work from the written instructions. On many occasions in practical work, the laboratory guide plays an important role for the students’ activities and the opportunities for learning they get. Instructional texts are often supposed to be easy to understand and unproblematic to use. However, by focusing on different problematic situations that may arise when students are expected to follow laboratory instructions it is possible to discuss the different meanings that can arise in the encounters between student and text.

    In laboratory work, many more actions than those comprised in the instructional text are necessarily performed. Consequently, the way students are able to make the instructions intelligible will direct their further meaning making. With analyses of practical epistemology we can show that students need to know the procedures, certain attentiveness and to re-actualize relevant knowledge.

     

     

     

  • 47.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching Traditions in Science Teachers’ Practices and the Introduction of National Testing2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 754-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our main interest in this article is to explore whether Swedish teachers changed their teaching and assessment practices in relation to the new national tests in science education that were introduced 2009. Data was collected using a web-distributed questionnaire, which was answered by 407 teachers. The concept of teaching traditions is used to capture patterns of what is emphasised by teachers in terms of goals and content in teaching and the design of the questionnaire was based on the concept of curriculum emphases. The results show two distinct groups of focus, which is compared with two traditions within science education: the Academic and the Moral tradition. The main content where teaching have been changed is in making science more applied than before, where applied not only mean the application of science knowledge to practical technical issues but also to moral and political issues.

  • 48.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers’ responses to the introduction of grading and national testing in Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reforms to the assessment system in Swedish schools were implemented in 2012.  The reform requires that pupils receive grades, rather than comments only, at Y6 (age 12-13). Previously this happened from Y8. Also, national tests were introduced in Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The national tests, marked locally using a marking scheme, are intended to support teachers in the assessment of students’ knowledge and to be supportive of consistent grading between schools. This study investigates whether, and if so in what way, the introduction of this centralized control influences the local teaching and assessment practices in science.

    Interviews were conducted with 12 teachers exploring their teaching practice after the first round of local grading and national tests. In some Swedish schools pupils are taught science by subject specialist teachers; in others by a ‘generalist’ teacher. Questions explored what they considered as characteristic about science teaching, how they select teaching content and assessment approaches, in addition to their thoughts on the reforms.

    Our theoretical framework is based on curriculum theory and research on educational traditions, showing that there are often patterns in the choices made by teachers in classroom teaching, and the purposes underlying these (i.e. Fensham  2009, Lundqvist et al 2012, Roberts 2011). For example, some teachers demonstrate a tradition of more emphasis on introducing pupils to scientific concepts and relations, while others focus on using scientific knowledge to explain, and deal with, situations in everyday life.    

    In the interviews, teachers expressed different teaching goals. For example, some teachers simply talk about the goal of enabling students to understand the world around them. Other teachers focus on enabling students to draw upon scientific knowledge to inform decisions around socio-scientific issues, e.g. environmental sustainability. Other teachers focus on preparing students for future science study or careers. Teachers also value the content in the national tests differently, e.g. in terms of agreeing /not agreeing with what they consider to be valid knowledge at Y6. This was expressed either as the tests being examples of good practice that a teacher aims to match, or that the tests were fragmenting the science content and detaching it from its social context.  These differing responses resulted in shifts in local teaching and assessment practices.

    Our study has implications for the reform of national testing regimes in other countries. This includes the UK, where a variety of national testing systems are in place, with ongoing changes.

  • 49.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden2017In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a new curriculum and new methods of assessment (grading of students and national tests) in science education were introduced in grade six in 2012/2013. We have investigated what implications these reforms have for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in order to explore the question of how teachers transform their teaching habits in relation to policy reforms. Interviews with 16 teachers teaching science in Y6, over three years after the reforms were introduced, were analyzed. Building on the ideas of John Dewey, we consider teachers’ talk about their everyday practice as expressions of their habits of teaching. Habits of teaching are related both to individual experiences as well as institutional traditions in and about teaching. A categorization of educational philosophies was used to teachers’ habits of teaching to a collective level, and to show how habits can be transformed and developed over time in specific sociocultural contexts. The teachers were categorised as using essentialist and/or progressivist educational philosophy. In the responses to the introduction of grading and national testing, the teachers took three approaches: their habits being reinforced, revised or unchanged in relation to the reforms. Although the responses were different, a striking similarity was that all teachers justified their responses with wanting to do what is best for students. However, how to show care for students differed, from delivering scientific knowledge in alignment with a essentialist educational philosophy, to preparing students to do well on tests, to supporting their development as individuals, which is in alignment with a progressivist educational philosophy.

  • 50.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Comparative studies of manners of teaching2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition with this presentation is to create possibilities for studying and make comparisons of teaching between subjects and teaching traditions within different cultural settings. This is important because didactic competence depends on the existence of alternatives, in this case, alternative ways of teaching, or alternative manners of teaching. Alternatives make choices necessary and visible and the need for justification arise.

    In order to fulfil these ambitions we will present a way of analysing teachers’ manners of teaching. This method for analysis contains two steps: analyses of epistemological moves and analyses of curriculum emphases. The theoretical background for the analyses is pragmatism, the work of late Wittgenstein and discourse theory.

    By identifying different manners of teaching possibilities are created to discuss what counts as teaching, teaching science in this case. Using analyses of epistemological moves and curriculum emphases for identifying different manners of teaching have several advantages. Firstly, the epistemological dimension is part of all teaching. This makes comparisons between teaching in different subjects possible. Secondly, analyses of curriculum emphases have been used in order to create knowledge about educational discourses and its historical transformation within different subjects. Thereby it becomes possible to highlight the potential connections between manners of teaching and educational discourses which are important when making comparisons between different manners of teaching within different cultural settings. Thirdly, by using epistemological moves analysis as the basic analytic tool, the problem of theoretical overdetermination is avoided, i.e. that categories are forced upon the empirical material.

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