uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 41 of 41
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Regler i praktikenConference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    What content is assessed in the Swedish national tests in biology, chemistry and physics?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All students in year nine in the Swedish compulsory school take a national test in biology, physics or chemistry. The ambition of these tests, which were given for the first time as late as in the spring semester 2009 is to measure the Swedish students’ knowledge in science, but also to provide an aid in teachers’ development of their teaching in order to support equal and fair assessment and grading. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the content of the national tests in biology, physics and chemistry. The paper highlights and discusses similarities and differences between the three subject tests carried out 2009-2012. The study presented in the paper has clarified five categories of content.The analysis shows that a student, to pass the tests, need to show evidence that he or she can answer correctly on questions about (a) scientific concepts, models theories, (b) the scientific ways of thinking about the world and (c) the scientific method. For higher grades, however, the students need to be able to give correct answers on questions about (d) the use of science in relation to everyday problems and also (e) the use of science in relation to political and moral issues. In the paper we discuss what the privileging of content measured can lead to in teachers’ planning of teaching and for the assessment of students’ knowledge, but also in relation to prerequisites for students’ participation in decision making where scientific knowledge is a central part of the problem at hand.

  • 3.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lidegran, Ida
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Inspelningspraktik, teknik och forskningsetik2003In: Erfarenhet och situation i handling: en rapport från projektet Lärande i naturvetenskap och teknik, Uppsala: Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2003, p. 119-131Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    De nationella provens innehåll: Vilken scientific literacy mäts i NO-proven2013In: Scientific literacy: Teori och praktik / [ed] Eva Lundqvist, Roger Säljö och Leif Östman, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2013, 1, p. 101-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan vårterminen 2009 skriver svenska elever i årskurs 9 i grundskolan nationella prov i biologi, fysik och kemi, en reform som är tänkt att bland annat påverka likvärdig och rättvis bedömning och lärares sätt att välja innehåll, undervisa och genomföra bedömning av elevers kunskaper. I detta kapitel är syftet att analysera och diskutera vilka kunskapsinnehåll som proven mäter, d.v.s. vilken scientific literacy som mäts. Kapitlet ämnar också belysa likheter och skillnader mellan vilka kunskaper som bedöms i de tre olika proven, i biologi, fysik respektive kemi. Resultatet visar att för att bli godkänd på proven behöver eleverna kunskaper om naturvetenskapens begrepp, modeller och teorier och om naturvetenskapens vardagstillämpningar i relation till samhälleliga och tekniska problem. Detta innebär samtidigt att för att klara godkänt på provet behöver eleverna inte visa kunskaper om hur naturvetenskapliga frågor relaterar till frågor om politik, moral och etik.

  • 5.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Orpwood, Graham
    University College, London.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices

  • 6.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Orpwood, Graham
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices.

  • 7.
    Berg, Gita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Elmståhl, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aesthetic judgments and meaning-making during cooking in Home and Consumer Studies2019In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 2, p. 30-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish home and consumer studies (HCS), cooking forms apart of the core content, and students often experience the results in a sensuous way–by eating the food. Sensuous, or aesthetic, experiences may affect students’ meaning-making and thus what is learned within the subject. There is a lack of research concerning the aesthetic aspects of cooking in a learning context; therefore, this study aims to explore HCS students’ meaning-making by focusing on aesthetic judgments during formalized cooking practices. The research question is, in what ways do students use aesthetic judgments in meaning-making processes during cooking? The data comes from video-documented classroom observations where the students cook together. Using a pragmatic approach and practical epistemology analysis (PEA), three ways in which the students use aesthetic judgments are illustrated: as arguments in negotiations, as reference points when reactualizing experiences, and as nonverbal actions evaluating sensory qualities. Empirical examples exemplify how aesthetic judgments play a role in establishing power relations, entail social/normative values, and influence the “tacit knowing” of cooking. The study found that aesthetic experiences are integral and important in students’ meaning-making during cooking practices. Moreover, by adding a new classroom context to the methodology used, its applicability for investigating aesthetic experiences and meaning-making is confirmed and widened.

  • 8.
    Berg, Gita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Elmståhl, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Mattsson Sydner, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Students’ meaning-making during formalized cooking in Swedish home- and consumer studies2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hedefalk, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching in preschool2015In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Larsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    A Fragmented Training Environment: Discourse Models in the Talk of Physics Teacher Educators2018In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports the results of an empirical study exploring the discourses of physics teacher educators. We ask how the expressed understandings of a physics teacher education programme in the talk of teacher educators potentially support the identity construction of new teachers. Nine teacher educators from different sections of a physics teacher programme in Sweden were interviewed. The concept of discourse models was used to operationalise how the discourses of the teacher education programme potentially enable the performance of different physics teacher identities. The analysis resulted in the construction of four discourse models that could be seen to be both enabling and limiting the kinds of identity performances trainee physics teachers can enact. Knowledge of the models thus potentially empowers trainee physics teachers to understand the different goals of their educational programme and from there make informed choices about their own particular approach to becoming a professional physics teacher. We also suggest that for teacher educators, knowledge of the discourse models could facilitate making conscious, informed decisions about their own teaching practice.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Dept. of mathematics and science education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    How does the culture of physics affect physics teacher education?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we ask how the culture of physics may affect physics teacher education. Our interest is motivated by the pessimistic description of the status of physics teacher education in the US reported by the Task Force on Teacher Education in Physics (T-TEP) (2012). We present the results of an empirical study that examines the culture of physics in Sweden. The main finding is what we call the physics expert model. This was the dominant framing that physicists and physics teachers used in our interviews to talk about physics teacher education. The goal of the physics expert model is to create future physicists, something that is clearly at odds with the purpose of physics teacher education (which is to create future physics teachers). We discuss the implications of the dominance of the physics expert model and suggest that our results offer an important explanatory interpretation of the chronic problems of physics teacher training described in the T-TEP report.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Swimming against the tide: Four myths about teacher education sustained by the culture of physicManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how the culture of physics potentially affects physics teacher education. Our interest in this topic was initially motivated by the pessimistic description of the status of US physics teacher education reported by the Task Force on Teacher Education in Physics (T-TEP). The report suggests an eminently sensible range of measures that may be taken by physics departments to aid recruitment of well-qualified physics teachers. However, the authors of the report also point out that similar suggestions have been made in various reports over the last 130 years. In this paper, we suggest that the physics community needs to ask why measures that have been repeatedly recommended have seldom been acted upon within physics departments. We suggest that the culture of physics could potentially play a pivotal role in the success or otherwise of the report’s proposals. Inspired by the T-TEP report and our earlier findings that suggest that physics departments may be unintentionally working against the recruitment and retention of high-quality physics teachers, we decided to look more deeply into the issue of the effects of physics culture on physics teacher training. To do this we analyzed data from interviews with seventeen physics teacher educators at four Swedish universities. The study demonstrates how the talk of physicists in the contexts we studied does indeed appear to unintentionally undermine and devalue physics teacher education. Our analysis suggests that one facet of the culture of Swedish physics departments is the basic underlying assumption that the purpose of all undergraduate physics teaching is to create physics experts. This assumption leads to four ‘myths’ about trainee physics teachers and school physics. These are the Goal Myth—The role of a school physics teacher is to create new physicists, the Content Myth—The content of school physics is simple, uninteresting and inherently unproblematic, the Student Myth—Students who decide to become physics teachers do so because they don’t have the ability to make it as successful physicists and the Teaching Myth—It is not really necessary to learn how to teach physics. If we want the best physics teachers possible, then any tacit attitudes to physics teacher education similar to the ones signaled by these four myths need to be challenged. We should not expect good physics students who want to become teachers to “swim against the tide”.

  • 13.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Undervisningstraditioner i naturvetenskaplig undervisning i relation till utbildningsreformer i NO i årskurs 62019In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 15, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we survey different teaching traditions in Swedish Science Education. The purpose is to map and investigate patterns in teachers’ views of what constitutes “good” Science education in the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden. This is done with the background of a new curriculum with national testing and grading being introduced, which could potentially alter teachers’ views of what is relevant content. A web-based questionnaire to teachers all throughout Sweden (response rate 43%, N=796) was used. The results show that groups can be formed with teachers emphasizing different teaching objectives including emphasis on; scientific facts and concept, laboratory work, everyday knowledge, and political and moral questions, even though the groups had a lot of similarities. The teachers indicate that they changed their instruction to a considerable extent after the three parallel reforms carried out 2011-13.

  • 14.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching Traditions in Science Teachers’ Practices and the Introduction of National Testing2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 754-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our main interest in this article is to explore whether Swedish teachers changed their teaching and assessment practices in relation to the new national tests in science education that were introduced 2009. Data was collected using a web-distributed questionnaire, which was answered by 407 teachers. The concept of teaching traditions is used to capture patterns of what is emphasised by teachers in terms of goals and content in teaching and the design of the questionnaire was based on the concept of curriculum emphases. The results show two distinct groups of focus, which is compared with two traditions within science education: the Academic and the Moral tradition. The main content where teaching have been changed is in making science more applied than before, where applied not only mean the application of science knowledge to practical technical issues but also to moral and political issues.

  • 15.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlberg, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Avdelningen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik .
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Manner of teaching and teaching traditions in Science Education: What do teachers emphasize?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    What the main contents of teaching in different subjects should be is a question that could and ought to be problematized. Different policies for what contents teaching should include and how it should be conducted shapes different presuppositions for teaching and for what the pupils have opportunity learn (cf. Fensham, 2009). That every pupil should be scientific literate to be able to take part in society have in many countries become a prominent goal in Science Education (Roberts, 2007). At the same time, there are goals in Science Education stating that pupils should be prepared for future studies in science, something that is relevant only for a minority of the pupils (Roberts, 1988). The difference between these goals for a teacher in Science Education could either be to put emphasis on the contents of the traditional academic subjects physics, chemistry and biology (to give the pupils a solid foundation for future education) or to focus more on the role of science in questions of ethical, social and political character in connection to questions about for example air pollution or global warming. These different purposes in science education create tensions concerning the subjects character (Ryder & Banner, 2011). Even though teachers are working to meet the same goals in the Science syllabuses, emphasis can be made differently, forming different manners of teaching (Munby & Roberts, 1998) that can be connected to different teaching traditions (Lundqvist, Almqvist & Östman, in press).

    The purpose of this study is to survey different manners of teaching practiced in Swedish Science Education in upper secondary schools and to qualify what features are characteristic in these manners, connected to teaching traditions.

     

    Teachers develop different manners of teaching that characterise their actions in the classroom (Munby & Roberts, 1998). The concept “manner of teaching” describes teachers’ actions in relation to epistemology since teachers are in a position to show privileged knowledge and values within the practice. The concept of curriculum emphases (Roberts, 1982) was invented to identify and describe the regularity within the epistemological dimension in teaching. Analysing Science syllabuses and Science textbooks, Roberts (in North America) and Östman (in Sweden) found different patterns concerning curriculum emphases in Science Education: correct explanation, structure of science, solid foundation, scientific skill development, self as explainer, everyday coping and science, technology and decisions (Roberts 1982, Östman, 1996). The curriculum emphases can in turn be connected to Roberts’ (2007) two main visions (I & II) in western societies of how science education should be formed in order to make the pupils scientific literate. Vision I is describes as science reproducing its own products of concepts, laws, theories and methods. In Vision II it is accentuated that education must include facts of the subject but it must also include knowledge and skills that make the pupils able to use scientific knowledge in practical, existential, moral and political contexts (e.g. Zeidler, 2003,Wickman et al., forthcoming).

     

    Methodology

    This investigation is done by constructing a questionnaire which aims at elucidating teachers teaching practice according to teaching goals, choice of content and methods used in the classroom including the assessment of students. The alternatives in the questionnaire have been elaborated emanating from the concept of curriculum emphases. In the questionnaire, the teachers were asked to rate several alternative goals, contents, methods, and form of assessment in a five point Likert scale from “not important” to “very important”. The questionnaire was sent to ~1000 teachers teaching grades 6-9 all over Sweden.

    The answers to the questions concerning teachers’ goals and contents in teaching were analysed in order to see if it was possible to find patterns in the collected materials. Factor analysis was used in order to estimate the patterns among the indicators of the teacher’ goals and contents in teaching.  Descriptive analyses of what qualifies the different factors in how the respondents combine alternatives for goals, contents and mode of operation were performed. Furthermore we look in to other aspects e.g. gender, teaching experience and assessment principles to see how these vary within the different manners of teaching.

    Expected outcomes

    The data was suitable for factor analysis (Kaiser’s MSA=0,81). The factor analysis resulted in four distinctive clusters; emphasizing goals and contents concerning 1) scientific methods and ways of reasoning, 2) application of societal, political, moral and existential questions, 3) to prepare pupils for future studies, the future every day and working life, and 4) facts and contents of science. Furthermore, the analysis show that there are statistic significant differences regarding goals and contents depending on gender. It was however no statistic significant differences regarding how many years the teachers had been in the profession.

    With a comparative approach, we find that the four clusters coincide in good measure with the teaching traditions found from analyses of subject content, subject focus and curriculum emphases in the Science syllabuses and Science textbooks (cf. Östman 1996), but not entirely. We attribute the clusters to be a constructivist tradition, a moral tradition, an applied tradition and an academic tradition. The paper discusses central features of teachers’ manners of teaching practice in the different traditions.

  • 16.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärarens roll för att rikta uppmärksamheten2014In: Lärande i handling: En pragmatisk didaktik / [ed] Per-Olof Wickman, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Nationella prov i biologi, fysik och kemi - hur påverkas undervisningen?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National tests in biology, physics and chemistry: potential influence on teachers’ teaching practices

    National tests in biology, physics and chemistry are now introduced in year 9 in Swedish comprehensive school. These tests aim at supporting teaching, learning and development of school practice in direction towards the goals in national curriculum. The introduction of national tests is used by the government in order to raise the standards, make more students reach the goals by strengthening the follow-up of student knowledge and at the same time create a more equal and fair assessment and grading of students. This is described as necessary since Swedish students’ results are cut back in national measurements and they achieve lower scores relatively to students in other comparable countries (e.g. TIMSS). We propose a project that will investigate if and in which way the introduction of national tests in science education influence teachers’ opinions of what is ‘good’ education in science and how this effects teachers’ instruction and assessment of students. This paper will be devided in two parts. The first part present an outline for a research project and the second part present the results of a pilot study with the aim to study how two focus groups of teachers have experienced the try-outs of national tests in 2009. The outlined project would firstly conduct a survey identifying different teaching traditions, or selective traditions, among the Swedish teachers. This is done by constructing a questionnaire which aims at identifying teachers teaching practice according to teaching goals, choice of content and methods used in the classroom. Secondly, elected teachers from different teaching traditions will be interviewed and observed when teaching. Analyses from the material will be made with the concept of ‘curriculum emphases’ to identify what is considered to be important knowledge. Analyses of the actual national tests will be carried out using the same tools. The results of the investigations will be discussed in relation to research on ‘scientific literacy’, which relates to socioscientific issues. This project will make it possible to identify potential systematic differences in teachers’ opinions and practice between teachers belonging to different teaching traditions regarding the effects of national tests. In the pilot study carried out during autumn 2009, groups of teachers in two different schools were given the task to discuss their experiences from performing try-out national tests in physics, chemistry or biology. They were asked questions about if and how they imagined theirs and others teaching would be affected by the introduction of national tests and if the content of instruction would change as a consequence. Preliminary results show that the group of teachers that preformed the chemistry test, identified everyday knowledge as privileged. These teachers used textbooks in their teaching, which according to them do not use this emphasis, they expressed the students were insufficiently prepared. The teachers made the prediction that the textbooks will probably change as a consequence. The teachers who have carried out the physics test expressed that the test helped them to see what had been missing in their teaching, according to both content and teaching methods. They also state that the national tests might function as a model when constructing questions concerning higher order thinking (MVG). The preliminary results from the pilot study will provide a background to find relevant and precise questions to a future survey, give insight into different positions teachers may take on and point to which changes are possible.

  • 18.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    New national tests and teachers' professional development in science education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers’ responses to the introduction of grading and national testing in Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reforms to the assessment system in Swedish schools were implemented in 2012.  The reform requires that pupils receive grades, rather than comments only, at Y6 (age 12-13). Previously this happened from Y8. Also, national tests were introduced in Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The national tests, marked locally using a marking scheme, are intended to support teachers in the assessment of students’ knowledge and to be supportive of consistent grading between schools. This study investigates whether, and if so in what way, the introduction of this centralized control influences the local teaching and assessment practices in science.

    Interviews were conducted with 12 teachers exploring their teaching practice after the first round of local grading and national tests. In some Swedish schools pupils are taught science by subject specialist teachers; in others by a ‘generalist’ teacher. Questions explored what they considered as characteristic about science teaching, how they select teaching content and assessment approaches, in addition to their thoughts on the reforms.

    Our theoretical framework is based on curriculum theory and research on educational traditions, showing that there are often patterns in the choices made by teachers in classroom teaching, and the purposes underlying these (i.e. Fensham  2009, Lundqvist et al 2012, Roberts 2011). For example, some teachers demonstrate a tradition of more emphasis on introducing pupils to scientific concepts and relations, while others focus on using scientific knowledge to explain, and deal with, situations in everyday life.    

    In the interviews, teachers expressed different teaching goals. For example, some teachers simply talk about the goal of enabling students to understand the world around them. Other teachers focus on enabling students to draw upon scientific knowledge to inform decisions around socio-scientific issues, e.g. environmental sustainability. Other teachers focus on preparing students for future science study or careers. Teachers also value the content in the national tests differently, e.g. in terms of agreeing /not agreeing with what they consider to be valid knowledge at Y6. This was expressed either as the tests being examples of good practice that a teacher aims to match, or that the tests were fragmenting the science content and detaching it from its social context.  These differing responses resulted in shifts in local teaching and assessment practices.

    Our study has implications for the reform of national testing regimes in other countries. This includes the UK, where a variety of national testing systems are in place, with ongoing changes.

  • 20.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden2017In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a new curriculum and new methods of assessment (grading of students and national tests) in science education were introduced in grade six in 2012/2013. We have investigated what implications these reforms have for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in order to explore the question of how teachers transform their teaching habits in relation to policy reforms. Interviews with 16 teachers teaching science in Y6, over three years after the reforms were introduced, were analyzed. Building on the ideas of John Dewey, we consider teachers’ talk about their everyday practice as expressions of their habits of teaching. Habits of teaching are related both to individual experiences as well as institutional traditions in and about teaching. A categorization of educational philosophies was used to teachers’ habits of teaching to a collective level, and to show how habits can be transformed and developed over time in specific sociocultural contexts. The teachers were categorised as using essentialist and/or progressivist educational philosophy. In the responses to the introduction of grading and national testing, the teachers took three approaches: their habits being reinforced, revised or unchanged in relation to the reforms. Although the responses were different, a striking similarity was that all teachers justified their responses with wanting to do what is best for students. However, how to show care for students differed, from delivering scientific knowledge in alignment with a essentialist educational philosophy, to preparing students to do well on tests, to supporting their development as individuals, which is in alignment with a progressivist educational philosophy.

  • 21.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Comparative studies of manners of teaching2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition with this presentation is to create possibilities for studying and make comparisons of teaching between subjects and teaching traditions within different cultural settings. This is important because didactic competence depends on the existence of alternatives, in this case, alternative ways of teaching, or alternative manners of teaching. Alternatives make choices necessary and visible and the need for justification arise.

    In order to fulfil these ambitions we will present a way of analysing teachers’ manners of teaching. This method for analysis contains two steps: analyses of epistemological moves and analyses of curriculum emphases. The theoretical background for the analyses is pragmatism, the work of late Wittgenstein and discourse theory.

    By identifying different manners of teaching possibilities are created to discuss what counts as teaching, teaching science in this case. Using analyses of epistemological moves and curriculum emphases for identifying different manners of teaching have several advantages. Firstly, the epistemological dimension is part of all teaching. This makes comparisons between teaching in different subjects possible. Secondly, analyses of curriculum emphases have been used in order to create knowledge about educational discourses and its historical transformation within different subjects. Thereby it becomes possible to highlight the potential connections between manners of teaching and educational discourses which are important when making comparisons between different manners of teaching within different cultural settings. Thirdly, by using epistemological moves analysis as the basic analytic tool, the problem of theoretical overdetermination is avoided, i.e. that categories are forced upon the empirical material.

  • 22.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Teaching and learning in the science classroom: The interplay between teachers' epistemological moves and students' practical epistemology2006In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practical epistemology used by students and the epistemological moves delivered by teachers in conversations with students are analyzed in order to understand how teaching activities interplay with the how and the what of students' learning. The purpose is to develop an approach for analyzing the process of privileging in students' meaning making and how individual and situational aspects of classroom discourse interact in this process. Here we especially focus on the experiences of students and the encounter with the teacher. The analyses also demonstrate that a study of teaching and learning activities can shed light on which role epistemology has for students' meaning making, for teaching and for the interplay between these activities. The methodological approach used is an elaboration a sociocultural perspective on learning, pragmatism, and the work of Wittgenstein. The empirical material consists of recordings made in science classes in two Swedish compulsory schools.

  • 23.
    Ligozat, Florence
    et al.
    Univ Geneva, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, 40 Blvd Pont Arve, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Amade-Escot, Chantal
    Univ Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Analysing the continuity of teaching and learning in classroom actions: When the joint action framework in didactics meets the pragmatist approach to classroom discourses2018In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 147-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One strand of comparative didactics aims at discussing the relationships between the theoretical constructions developed within subject didactics and how these can contribute to research about teaching and learning. This article explores the relationships between categories for analysing joint actions of teacher and students (didactic contract, milieu, mesogenesis, topogenesis, chronogenesis) and categories used in the pragmatist approach of classroom discourse analysis (practical epistemology and epistemological moves). We combine both frameworks to feature different types of breaches in the didactic contract and the building of continuity in teaching and learning actions for dealing with these breaches. Analyses are carried out through examples of classroom events in science education and physical education. We argue that these frameworks, when elaborated on and compared, enable us to characterise both generic and specific dimensions of teaching and learning in different subjects.

  • 24.
    Ligozat, Florence
    et al.
    Université de Genève.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Amade-Escot, Chantal
    Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès.
    Exploring the Continuity of Teaching and Learning through the Breaches in the Didactic Contract: A Comparison of Classroom Events in Science Education and Physical EducationIn: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    National tests and teachers’ practice2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a contribution to the discussion of what function assessment of students has in everyday practice. What consequences do increased control of students’ knowledge have in teachers choices of teaching contents and methods, and thereby for what students are given the opportunity to learn.

    An increasingly test-driven educational culture is now reality in many parts of the world (Broadfoot & Black 2004). There is also an ongoing discussion about the effects of national tests and research show that there are certainly both positive and negative outcomes from these sorts of testing (eg. Cimbricz 2002). Wales has for example abandoned the national testing system that England and Wales were a part of (Collins, Reiss & Stobart 2010). Implementation of national tests is found to have different consequences for teachers teaching and assessment practice and there is a need for investigating and nuance what these consequences are (Boesen 2006, Maier 2009). National tests in biology, physics and chemistry in year 9 in Swedish comprehensive school was introduced in spring 2009. The purpose of these tests are to raise the standards, make more students reach the goals by strengthen the follow-up of student knowledge, serve exemplary for teachers teaching and at the same time create a more equal and fair assessment and grading of students. This is described as necessary since Swedish students’ results are cut back in national assessments and they achieve lower scores relatively to students in other comparable countries (eg. TIMSS).

    The aim of the study presented is to investigate if and in which way the introduction of national tests in science education influences teachers’ opinions of what is "good" science education and how this effects the teachers’ instructions and assessment in their teaching practice. This study is part of a bigger project. In one part of the project a survey identifying different teaching traditions among Swedish science education teachers has been performed (Lidar et al, unpublished). From the results of the survey, teachers from four different teaching traditions have been selected for interviews.

    The theoretical framework is built foremost from Douglas Robert’s categorisation of science education content into curriculum emphasis (1982). Curriculum emphasis is defined as a coherent set of messages about science rather that within science and those messages are said to accompany the teaching of science subject matter. Roberts in Canada and Leif Östman in Sweden found seven different curriculum emphasis in textbooks, in-service training literature and syllabuses; correct explanation, structure of science, solid foundation, scientific skill development, self as explainer, everyday coping and science, technology and decisions (Roberts & Östman 1998). The results will also be analysed and discussed in relation to scientific literacy, starting in Roberts’ (2007) concepts, vision I and vision II. The most obvious distinction between Vision I and Vision II has to do with how the character of socio-scientific issues and problem is conceptualized and experienced in education.

    The empirical material consists of telephone interviews with 30 teachers categorized within the survey study into four different teaching traditions. Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes. The analyses from the interviews aim at identifying what is considered to be important knowledge in the teachers’ teaching, ways of using assessment in teaching and foremost how the national tests have influenced the teachers’ assessment and choice of subject matter in everyday practice. In a first step we identified the teachers’ utterances within the different categories of curriculum emphasis. In order to refine and qualify these categories we made further analyses within these categories, focusing on statements describing actual actions in the classroom. The interviews were semi-structured to both enable the teachers to prepare before the interviews and for us as researchers to be able to ask other questions depending on how the respondents answered (Kvale & Brinkman 2009).

    The study show systematic differences in teachers’ answers about teaching and assessment practices, in relation to the implementation of national tests. The interviews confirm the correlations from the survey study regarding the categorisation of teachers as belonging to different teaching traditions. The results also show important nuances within the teaching traditions. Most of the teachers stresses that the national test is only one of many ways off assessing the students, it is important not to forget what the student perform over a longer period of time. Though the results from the study show that the teachers can be categorised into different teaching traditions based on their expressions about different aims and goals with their teaching. Still most of the teachers express that they do not need to change their teaching a lot, they already teach in line with the content included in the tests. We will discuss potential explanations to the results and also highlight the results in relation to research on scientific literacy.

     

     

  • 26.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Companion meanings in classroom communication2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to illustrate an approach for analysing views of science which are communicated by different manners of teaching, and discuss what consequences these manners may have for students’ learning of specific ways of approaching science in the learning process. Scientific literacy is a way to describe what kind of science content and views of science that schools should offer students. An important aspect of scientific literacy is the idea of power distribution (Geddis 1998). In order to make students take part in the decision making processes in society it is necessary that they experience that their engagement is important for solving socio-scientific problems. Such an experience can be offered in the science classroom. In order to make scientific communication possible to analyse, we are going to use the concept of companion meaning (Roberts & Östman 1998). The study contribute to the discussion about possibilities and limitations in manners of teaching science, a discussion about how different moves from the teacher may have consequences for the students learning of both science and the “view of science”. The empirical material consists of video recordings from science classroom situations in a Swedish compulsory school.

  • 27.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Institutional tradition in teachers' manners of teaching2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and describe one teacher’s teaching in relation to established traditions within science education inSweden. The teacher’s manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis (EMA). The moves made by the teacher are than compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices.

    The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year7 ina Swedish nine-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called “Properties of materials”.

    The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with

    regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, however, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves is to switch the students’ attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teachers’ manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition - a selective tradition common in science education inSwedenbetween 1960-1990.

  • 28.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching2012In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher’s teaching in relation to established traditions within science education inSweden. The teacher’s manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis (EMA). The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices.

    The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year7 ina Swedish nine-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called “Properties of materials”.

    The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students’ attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher’s manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition - a selective tradition common in science education inSwedenbetween 1960-1990.

  • 29.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Teaching traditions in action in science education.: A Swedish case study.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Functional coordination between present teaching and policy reform in Swedish science education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major policy changes make teachers reconsider how they teach. In Sweden, a new curriculum, a grading system, and national tests were introduced in science education in Year 6 (Y6) for the 2012/2013 academic year. After two years the national tests were made voluntary, and they ended the following year. In this longitudinal interview study we investigate what implications these reforms had for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in science education. Interviews with 10 teachers over four subsequent years were analysed by applying Dewey’s notion of habits in order to explore how teachers coordinate between their teaching habits and new policies. The result show that teachers work to adjust their teaching practices in order to; make teaching transparent, deal with the experience of increased levels of stress, develop professionally in collective practices, and reconsider the teaching content and methods. Most strikingly, almost all the teachers accepted the reforms as a positive element in their professional work. In the last round of interviews, it was evident that, after the tests were taken away, teachers downplayed the significance of the national tests as a factor that changed their teaching and changed what they consider as good science education.

  • 31.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nationella prov i NO och lärares val av undervisningsinnehåll2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2009/10, all pupils in Year 9 in Sweden are obliged to take a national test in one of the science subjects physics, chemistry or biology. There are several aims of the national test system, among others to support teachers’ work by concretizing the curriculum and syllabi. In this article, we examine how the introduction of national tests in science education could affect the content selection teachers express that they do in their teaching. The data consists of interviews with 29 teachers teaching science in the upper years of compulsory school. The result shows that there are three themes of contents that teachers highlight as new in the national tests; scientific argumentation, the history of science and laboratory work. In an analysis, looking through the lens of curriculum emphases, it is shown that what unites these three content areas is that emphasis put on the intellectual skills of the scientific craftsmanship. An explanation for this could be that many teachers recognize this as a key content in scientific activities, but a content that they did not teach to a large extent.

  • 32.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The coordination of teaching habits in doing and undergoing policy reformIn: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of major reforms makes teachers reconsider how they teach. In Sweden, a new curriculum along with grading and national tests were introduced in Year 6 science education in 2012/2013. After two years the national tests were made voluntary and ended the following year. We will investigate what implications these reforms had for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in science education. Interviews with 10 teachers over four subsequent years were analyzed in order to explore how teachers coordinate their teaching habits in the encounter with new policy. First it was striking that almost all the teachers accepted the reforms as a positive element in their professional work. In the last round of interviews it was evident that the teachers, after the tests were taken away, downplayed the significance of the national tests as something that changed their teaching and changed what they consider as good science education.

  • 33.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sund, Per
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Introduction of national tests in biology, physics and chemistry and teachers' choice of teaching content2013In: The S in STEM Education: Policy, Research and Practice, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a project that aims at investigating if and in which way the introduction of national tests in science education influence teachers’ opinions of what is ”good” education in science and how this influence teachers’ instruction and assessment of students. National tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in 2009 in year 9 in Swedish compulsory school. Some of the governing arguments for introducing national tests are that they will work exemplary for teachers and create a more equal and fair assessment and grading of students. A survey among Swedish science teachers were performed regarding various aspects of their practice. Selected teachers were then interviewed about their teaching. Analyses of the actual national tests were also carried out. The results showed that different teachers do put emphasis on different goals, contents, and assessment in their classroom practices and that these aspects can be systematically grouped as teaching traditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in how teachers in different teaching traditions responded to national tests. Therefore it is discussed whether the use of national tests is a feasible way to generate a more equal and fair education.

  • 34.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jim, Ryder
    University of Leeds.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Science Teachers’ Teaching Habits in the Enactment of Reform2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The middle years of compulsory school in Sweden has recently experienced major changes. Reforms to theassessment system in Swedish schools were implemented in 2012, a reform that required that pupils received grades for the first time at Y6 (age 12-13). Also, national tests were introduced in Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The national tests, marked locally using a marking scheme, are intended to support teachers in the assessment of students’ knowledge and to be supportive of consistent grading between schools. Teachers teaching the Science subjects in Y6 are thus faced with a situation of increased centralized control.

    The overarching aim in this study is to investigate whether, and if so in what way, the introduction of an increased centralized control in the form of grades and national testing influences the teachers’ local teaching and assessment practices in Science education.

    Many parts of the world have over time had more of standardized testing than Sweden has. For example countries within Great Britain have performed tests at least at three key stages within the educational system from 1991, although this has changed in recent years as a consequence of devolution and debates about the pros and cons of such testing (Collins, Reiss & Stobart, 2010). Sweden has historically used this kind of assessment in a restricted way.

    The assumption that standardized tests affect teachers’ instruction and student learning is both confirmed and rejected (Cimbricz 2002, Andersen 2011) in international research. A common reaction to state standards and tests is that the content of teaching is adapted to what is tested (Au 2009). Additionally, Au writes that norms are created from high-stake testing reflecting what teaching that is considered to be “good” or “bad”. Standardized tests thus provide a discursive control that defines the acceptable ways of acting as teachers and also creates norms about what counts as valid content and valid methods in teaching. The theoretical approach in this paper is underpinned by Dewey’s pragmatist notion of habits (Dewey 1922/1983). The concept of habits is used to describe how teachers, with their different background and experiences, work with the enacting of reforms in their everyday teaching practice. The notion of habits focuses on understanding how teachers’ actions can appear to be both immutable and revisable and how the context of reform also can contribute to development. A teacher is acting as an individual in selecting what is central within the practice, but the teacher is also at the same time a part of a community, acting in relation to collective habits within this community. Consequently, individuals develop personal habits of acting/teaching on the basis of being educated in, being in and working in contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers and disciplinary traditions. Habits are thus acquired, but alterable depending on the circumstances. The concept is used to describe individuals’ predispositions for response to situations and problems that arise within a specific context (Nelsen 2015). In the context of reform, different teachers will have different predispositions to respond and with the notion of habits is a resource to capture the process and the tensions that may emerge.

    In this study we ask the question: In what ways are teachers’ teaching and assessment habits challenged by the reforms?

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources UsedIn order to investigate how teachers’ teaching and assessment habits were challenged by reforms, individual interviews were conducted with 15 science teachers. Data collection was made three consecutive years in connection to the conduction of the national tests, since changes in well-established practices will not happen instantly. The sampling of teachers was made to ensure a broad variation in teaching experience, educational background and school settings. All teachers teach Y6, whereof 6 are educated as intermediate school teachers, and 9 are secondary teachers. To be able to investigate and clarify if the teachers change their approach to teaching and assessment as reaction to the reforms, three rounds of interviews were made. The interview questions in the first round covered what the teachers considered to be characteristic in science teaching, what they select as teaching content and ways of assessing, in addition to their thoughts on the reforms. The second interview focused on the questions in the national test concerning the content and the assessment of students’ answers when marking the tests. This interview also included follow-up questions concerning changes in teaching and grading because of the tests. In the third interview we asked questions to clarify and deepen if, and if so, how the teachers had changed their teaching and assessment practice since the reform was introduced. Two of the authors conducted all the interviews. The interviews lasted between 35-60 minutes. The teachers received the questions in advance so that they could prepare for the interviews. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim by a professional transcriber. The analyzing process started out with reading thoroughly all of the interviews from the first interview round. In this first reading, we had a broad focus on what affordances and challenges in connection to their habits of teaching teachers recognize in enacting the reforms. From this reading we came up with three different approaches in dealing with the complexity of the reform, they were used when analyzing the remaining interviews. The approaches are representing three different ways that show how habits are a part of practice when dealing with the reforms. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsWe find different approaches to the reforms. The teachers are in different ways struggling to balance local teaching autonomy with external assessment-driven reform. The results show that teachers’ habits relate to the reforms in three different ways. Five of the teachers express that their habits of teaching are in line with the reforms, which means they do not need to change their teaching and assessment practice to any or to any great extent. The reforms even strengthen their habits. Eight of the teachers need to stretch their habits because of these reforms. This means for example that questions in the national tests work as a tool for finding new ways of asking questions and perform laboratory exercises. For two of the teachers, their habits are not in line with the reforms. The most striking part is the approach to assess the students. These teachers feel that they need to assess the students more frequently and to document the students work to have as a basis for assessment. These ways of working collide with the teachers’ views on how they want to teach to make science education interesting, fun and meaningful. When following these teachers during three rounds of interviews, we find that it seems likely that this new regime involves making changes in some way for all teachers. All teachers among the interviewees are experienced teachers. Considering this, it is striking that almost all the teachers, independent of teaching habits, accept the reforms as a positive element in their professional work, even though they have objections, for example causing stress for both teachers and students. That teachers have different approaches to teaching and assessment is a vital aspect in the implementation of reforms. The knowledge about teaching habits is there for important for policy makers to consider. ReferencesAnderson, K. J. B. (2011). Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy. Science Education 96:104-129. Au, W (2009). Unequal by design. High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of Inequality. New York and London: Routledge. Cimbricz, S. (2002). State-Mandated Testing and Teachers’ Beliefs and Practice. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10, 2. Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/281 Collins, Sue, Reiss, Michael & Stobart, Gordon (2010). What happens when high-stake testing stops? Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of compulsory national testing in science of 11-year-olds in England and its abolition in Wales. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Vol. 17, No. 3, 273-286. Dewey, J. (1922/1983). Human Nature and Conduct. Jo Ann Boydston (ed.), John Dewey: The Middle Works, Volume 14. Carbondale:  Southern Illinois University Press. Nelsen, P. J. (2015). Intelligent Dispositions: Dewey, Habits and Inquiry in Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 66(1), 86-97.

  • 35.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Science teachers’ experiences from the introduction of grading and national testing in Year 6 in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden experienced major reforms. These reforms required that pupils received grades and performed national tests in Biology, Physics and Chemistry, for the first time at Y6. Some Y6-pupils are taught by a class teacher within a Y4-6 system, whereas other pupils are taught by subject specialist teacher within a Y6-9 system. Intentions with the reform include making education fair and equal, but the system causes a dilemma since pupils get different prerequisites. The purpose is to examine teachers’ views of what constitutes "good" science education and investigate how the introduction of grades and national tests affects teachers’ practice.

    Dewey’s concept of habits is used as a way to capture the process and tensions that may emerge when enacting the reforms. Depending on your habits of teaching and views of science, a reform will have different consequences for your teaching practice.  

    The study draws on interviews with 13 science teachers and address teacher’s experiences in connection to carrying out the first round of national tests and setting grades in Y6. The sampling of teachers was made to ensure a broad variation in teaching experience, educational background and school settings.

    The results show how the teachers’ personal goals can be characterized in terms of science-focused or student-focused. A majority mention the clarity of national expectations in the tests as an affordance in relation to their work. Even though grading is said to contribute to preciseness about a student’s development, some teachers feel the grading of students forces them to assess more often, which can be stressful. The teachers are in different ways struggling to balance local teaching autonomy with external assessment-driven reform, however it is striking that almost all the teachers accept the reforms as a positive element in their professional work.

  • 36.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ligozat, Florence
    Université de Genève, Switzerland.
    Amade-Escot, Chantal
    Université de Toulouse Jean Jaurès, France.
    Leutenegger, Francia
    Université de Genève, Switzerland.
    Comparative didactics: tools for modeling the manners of teaching in physical education and science classrooms2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of comparative didactics in French speaking countries appears in the late 90's.With the term “didactics” we hereby include research about teaching and learning in relation to the content covered in school subjects. The general contention of the French-speaking tradition for comparative didactics is to develop a comprehensive science of the teaching and learning phenomena from the empirical studies of classroom events. A strand for comparative didactics aims at discussing the relationships between the theoretical constructions born within subject didactics. As an example, Amade-Escot & Venturini (2009) have shown how the concept of "didactic milieu" is relevant to account for classroom events both in physical education and science education. Comparative didactics puts the focus on the teacher and the student agency when the content is brought into play in the classroom (Ligozat & Leutenegger, 2012). In this line, comparative didactics is at the core of the Teaching Traditions and Learning projectinvolving Swiss, French and Swedish educational researchers. In this presentation, we will relate the categories for analyzing the joint actions of teacher and the students (didactic contract, milieu, mesogenesis, topogenesis, chronogenesis: Ligozat & Schubauer-Leoni, 2009; Sensevy, Mercier, Schubauer-Leoni, Ligozat, Perrot, 2005) to certain categories developed in the pragmatist approach of classroom discourse analysis in Sweden (Practical Epistemology Analysis and Epistemological Moves Analysis: Wickman & Östman, 2002; Ligozat, Wickman & Hamza, 2011; Lidar, Lundqvist & Östman, 2006). Through examples of classroom events recorded in gymnastics lessons in France and physics lesson (the state of the matter) in Switzerland, we will characterize some generic and specific dimensions of the teaching practice, using both analytical frameworks. The purpose is to explore their potential to model some manners of teaching connected to the teaching traditions related to each subject.

     

    References

    Amade-Escot, C., & Venturini, P. (2009). Le milieu didactique : d’une étude empirique en contexte difficile à une réflexion sur le concept. Éducation et didactique, 3(1), 7‑43.

    Lidar, M., Lundqvist, E., & Östman, L. (2006). Teaching and learning in the science classroom: The interplay between teachers’ epistemological moves and students’ practical epistemology. Science Education, 90(1), 148‑163.

    Ligozat, F., & Leutenegger, F. (2012). Vergleichende Didaktik: Geschichte, Instrumente und Heraufsforderungen aus einer frankophonen Perspektive. Pädagogische Rundschau, 66(Heft 6), 751‑771.

    Ligozat, F., Wickman, P. O., & Hamza, K. M. (2011). Using Practical Epistemology Analysis to Study the Teacher and Students’ Joint Actions in the Mathematics Classroom. Proceedings of the 7th Congress of the European society for Research in Mathematics Education (p. 2472‑2481). Rzeszow: University of Rzeszow.

    Ligozat, F., & Schubauer-Leoni, M. L. (2010). The Joint Action Theory in Didactics: Why Do We Need It in the Case of Teaching and Learning Mathematics? Proceedings of the 6th. Congress of the European society for Research in Mathematics Education (p. 1615–1624). Lyon: INRP. http://www.inrp.fr/editions/editions-electroniques/cerme6

    Sensevy, G., Schubauer-Leoni, M.-L., Mercier, A., Ligozat, F., & Perrot, G. (2005). An Attempt to Model the Teacher’s Action in the Mathematics Class. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 59(1-3), 153‑181.

  • 37.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sund, Per
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Selective traditions in group discussions: Teachers’ views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic2018In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 353-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers.

    In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we

    asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as “good” science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers’ views.

    The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national

    tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (Year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider.

    The findings show that ‘resistance’ to including SSI is not just an issue for individual

    teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge and thereby make assessment easier.

  • 38.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Säljö, Roger
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Scientific literacy: Teori och praktik2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka förväntningar gäller för läs- och skrivfärdigheter i det postindustriella informations- eller nätverkssamhället?

    I SCIENTIFIC LITERACY presenterar en rad forskare studier kring literacy. Tidigare har literacy-begreppet varit kopplat till läsning och användning av skrift. Här används literacy, speciellt scientific literacy, i en vidgad betydelse för att kunna visa att kunskapsinhämtning innebär ett successivt lärande av ett specifikt sätt att använda språket på. Med denna utgångspunkt blir det möjligt att diskutera hur människor får och använder de komplexa kunskaper som krävs i dagens digitala samhälle, utan att begränsa synen på detta lärande till en fråga om att kunna läsa eller skriva en text. Det räcker alltså inte att eleverna utvecklar insikt och förståelse i klassrummet, utan som aktiva medborgare måste de kunna tolka omvärlden, ta ställning i olika frågor, argumentera för val och ingripa när det krävs. Vidare innebär detta att ett urval alltid gjorts i utbildningssammanhang om vad som ska räknas som scientific literacy.

    SCIENTIFIC LITERACY innehåller en historisk överblick över hur skrift och skriftspråkande vuxit fram och hur literacy-färdigheter gått från att vara kunskaper för små eliter till att bli kunskaper som behärskas av en stor andel av befolkningen. I boken beskrivs tre olika övergripande sätt att betrakta scientific literacy på inom utbildning och forskning. Begreppet disciplinary literacy introduceras i samband med en diskussion kring vilka specifika ämnesrelaterade semiotiska resurser som är lämpliga i ett visst sammanhang och för ett visst ändamål. Hur skolans demokratiuppdrag har formulerats analyseras utifrån kursplaner och kommentarmaterial för de naturorienterande ämnena i grundskolan. Boken är ett resultat av arbetet i nätverket för forskning av literacy-praktiker. Projektet har pågått under tre år och har finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 39.
    Ryder, Jim
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK .
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: Science teachers’ experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden2018In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 538-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in implementing' reform practices.

  • 40.
    Ryder, Jim
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The teacher´s voice in education policy: Responses to national curriculum and assessment reforms in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 41.
    Östman, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Öhman, Marie
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching, Learning and Governance in Science Education and Physical Education: A Comparative Approach2015In: Interchange, ISSN 0826-4805, E-ISSN 1573-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching, learning and motivation are the major concerns for educators. In this article we approach these issues from a Foucauldian power and governance perspective in order to understand that attention is drawn to certain knowledge and values and not others that would be equally possible in a teaching practice. The approach suggests that the relationship between teachers’ governance and students’ freedom to govern themselves is something that is construed simultaneously in the teaching and learning of specific subject content. This interconnection is illustrated by two teaching sequences, one from science education and one from physical education. By comparing the two teaching sequences it is possible to identify differences and/or similarities between how the relationship between governance and self-governance is staged and thereby which companion meanings are offered. The desirable actions manifested in the teaching practices include which subject knowledge the students should learn, how students ought to act and the kind of people they ought to be. It is shown that self-governance leads to normative patterns in which the good student is constituted as a responsible, self-disciplined, active, thinking and judging individual. This can be seen as an expression of intensified student participation connected to the increasing individualisation in late liberal society, where people in their daily lives are forced to take sides, reflect, participate and make choices.

1 - 41 of 41
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf