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  • 1. Bergström, Sven
    et al.
    Olsen, Björn
    Burman, Nils
    Gothefors, Leif
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes ricinus in northern Sweden.1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 24, no 2, 181-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ixodes ricinus ticks, harbouring Borrelia burgdorferi, were found in an area in northern Sweden, not thought to be endemic for Lyme borreliosis. This investigation took place at Norrbyskär, an island situated in the Bothnian Gulf, 63 degrees 33'N/19 degrees 52'E. One of 42 nymphal and 8/43 adult I. ricinus ticks collected carried spirochetes as seen by phase contrast microscopy. Pure bacterial cultures were obtained from 2 of the ticks. Western blot analysis using species-specific monoclonal antibodies showed that the isolated spirochetes were B. burgdorferi. The identity of the isolated spirochetes was confirmed by DNA amplification using B. burgdorferi OspA and flagellin gene specific oligonucleotides as well as partial DNA sequencing of the respective OspA and flagellin genes. The 2 isolated spirochaete populations were different as shown by their protein profiles in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gels. Moreover, the demonstration of Lyme borreliosis in a patient from the island of Norrbyskär indicates the need for clinical consideration of this disease in northern Sweden.

  • 2.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Vongsombath, Chanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Pålsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Botanical Repellents and Pesticides Traditionally Used Against Hematophagous Invertebrates in Lao People's Democratic Republic: A Comparative Study of Plants Used in 66 Villages2010In: Journal of medical entomology, ISSN 0022-2585, E-ISSN 1938-2928, Vol. 47, no 3, 400-414 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hematophagous parasites such as leeches, ticks, mites, lice, bedbugs, mosquitoes, and myiasis-producing fly larvae are common health problems in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Several arthropod-borne infections, e.g., malaria, dengue fever, and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic there. Effective vector control methods including the use of pesticides, insecticide-treated bed nets, and synthetic and plant-based repellents are important means of control against such invertebrates and the pathogens they may transmit or directly cause. In this study, we documented traditional knowledge on plants that are used to repel or kill hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, bedbugs, human lice, mites and ticks, fly larvae, and blood-sucking leeches. Structured interviews were carried out in 66 villages comprising 17 ethnic groups, covering a range of cultures, throughout Lao People's Democratic Republic. A total of 92 plant species was recorded as traditional repellents (including plants for pesticidal usages) in 123 different plant-ectoparasite combinations. The number and species of plants, and animal taxa repelled (or killed) per plant species differed per region, village, and ethnic group. Traditional use was confirmed in the scientific literature for 74 of these plant species, and for an additional 13 species using literature on closely related species. The use of botanical repellents and pesticides from many plant species is common and widespread in the Lao countryside. In the future, the identification of the active components in certain plants to develop more optimal, inexpensive repellents, insecticides, acaricides, or antileech compounds as alternatives to synthetic repellents/pesticides against blood-feeding insects, ticks, mites, and leeches is warranted.

  • 3. Eitrem, R.
    et al.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Ihållande klåda orsakades av tropiskt löpkvalster2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 51, 2358-2359 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    »Chiggers«, dvs löpkvalster, infesterade en amatörbiolog under besök i Brasilien. Något liknande fall är, så vitt vi kunnat finna, inte tidigare beskrivet i svensk litteratur. Diagnosen ställs på resean­amnes och långdragna, kliande utslag, oftast på typiska ställen som midjan och axillerna där kläderna sitter åt och fuktigheten är hög. Klådan är besvärlig men kan lindras med kalaminlotion eller lokala steroider. Tillståndet är vanligtvis självläkande. Löpkvalster, familjen Trombiculidae, omfattar många arter, av vilka drygt 20 är medicinskt betydelsefulla. Neotrombicula autumnalis har rapporterats från några få lokaler i Sverige där dess larver under juli–oktober kan angripa människor, med långdragen, intensiv klåda som följd. Ett svenskt namn på åkomman behövs eftersom ekoturismresor ökar i omfattning och vi kan förvänta oss fler fall från varmare länder. Vi föreslår benämningen löpkvalsterklåda, som anger både orsak och främsta symtom.

  • 4. Estrada-Pena, Agustín
    et al.
    Farkas, Robert
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Madder, Maxime
    Pascucci, Ilaria
    Tarrés-Call, Jordi
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Scientific opinion on the Role of Tick Vectors in the Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and African Swine Fever in Eurasia: EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare2010In: EFSA Journal, ISSN 1831-4732, Vol. 8, no 8, 1-156 p., 1703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The report provides an update on the role of the tick vectors in the epidemiology of African swine fever (ASF) and Crimean and Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Eurasia, specifically to review of the geographical distribution of the relevant ticks with presentation of maps of their occurrence in Europe and Mediterranean basin; a description of the factors that define the relevant tick population dynamics and identify possible high risk areas in the EU; an update on the role of tick vectors associated with CCHF and ASF in Eurasia; and reviews available methods for the control of the relevant tick vectors. Data were collected through systematic literature review in a database from which maps of geographic distribution of ticks, CCHF virus and ASF virus were issued. The main vectors for CCHF are Hyalomma spp, Increase in the number of fragmented areas and the degradation of agricultural lands to bush lands are the two main factors in the creation of new foci of CCHF in endemic areas. Movement of livestock and wildlife species, which may carry infected ticks, contributes to the spread of the infection. The Middle East and Balkan countries are the most likely sources of introduction of CCHFV into other European countries. All the Ornithodoros species investigated so far can become infective with ASF virus and are perhaps biological vectors. These ticks are important in maintaining the local foci of the ASFV, but do not play an active role in the geographical spread of the virus. Wild boars have never been found infested by Ornithodoros spp. because wild boars normally do not rest inside protected burrows, but above the ground. There is no single ideal solution to the control of ticks relevant for CCHF or ASF. The integrated control approach is probably the most effective.

  • 5. Estrada-Peña, A.
    et al.
    Farkas, R.
    Jaenson, Thomas GT
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Koenen, F.
    Madder, M.
    Pascucci, I.
    Salman, M.
    Tarrés-Call, J.
    Jongejan, F.
    Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic: a digital data set2013In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 59, no 3, 351-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable.

  • 6. Estrada-Peña, Agustín
    et al.
    Farkas, Robert
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Madder, Maxime
    Pascucci, Ilaria
    Salman, Mo
    Tarrés-Call, Jordi
    European Food Safety (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Scientific opinion on geographic distribution of tick-borne infections and their vectors in Europe and the other regions of the Mediterranean Basin: EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)2010In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, no 9, 1723 [280 pp.]- p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the second of a series of two technical assessments of the role of ticks in transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. A previous published scientific opinion (EFSA 2010a) focused on two diseases- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. The aim of this report is to provide a general overview of the geographic distribution of tick species which have proven involvement in the transmission of pathogens causing animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia.The report provides a review of the geographic distribution of the relevant tick species and TBDs in Eurasia by producing maps of the region that display the occurrences of ticks and tick borne pathogens. Systematic literature review of available publications for the last 10 years and other available literature from the experts were used in the retrieval of the geographical reported cases for the presence of ticks and tick borne pathogens. The report includes a description of the factors that influence the dynamics of the relevant tick species and identify possible high-risk areas in the EU for introduction considering the biological and ecological characteristics of the ticks and their ability to adapt to new areas. Surveillance tools and control measures for ticks were discussed.Findings from this review have provided evidence of the extent of ticks and TBDs in geographical ranges and the existing risk areas that should be considered as baseline information to assess potential risk of these diseases. The report indicates the validity of using available literature to support the presence of ticks and TBDs without further predication using weather and other environmental factors associated with the survival of the ticks. Surveillance tools for the detection of the ticks and their control measures are discussed in this report. The report concluded that animal and human movement play a significant impact on the spread of the ticks and TBDs. Climate changes and flight pattern of migratory birds can influence the presence and spread of the ticks and TBDs, These two factors acting by themselves have not been determined be responsible for the widespread distribution of ticks.

  • 7. Gustafson, Rolf
    et al.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology. Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Gardulf, Ann
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Svenungsson, Bo
    Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in Ixodes ricinus in Sweden1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 27, no 6, 597-601 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the nymphs and 15% of the adult I. ricinus were positive for Borrelia. Of 41 non-I. ricinus ticks, none was positive for Borrelia. This study shows that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is present throughout the distributional area of I. ricinus in Sweden. This should lead to increased awareness of signs and symptoms compatible with Lyme borreliosis in persons living in or visiting areas where I. ricinus is present.

  • 8.
    Hagman, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Barboutis, Christos
    Ehrenborg, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Fransson, Thord
    Jaenson, Thomas G T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus2014In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, 20943- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA.

    METHODS: On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe.

  • 9.
    Jaenson, TGT
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Tälleklint, L
    Lundqvist, L
    Olsen, B
    Chirico, J
    Mejlon, H
    Uppsala University, Museums etc., Museum of Evolution.
    Geographical distribution, host associations, and vector roles of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae, Argasidae) in Sweden.1994In: J Med Entomol, ISSN 0022-2585, Vol. 31, no 2, 240-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review covers the geographic distribution and host relationships of the tick species in Sweden. Ixodes uriae White, I. caledonicus Nuttall, I. unicavatus Neumann, I. arboricola Schulze & Schlottke, and I. lividus Koch are ornithophagous species. I. trianguliceps Birula, I. canisuga Johnston, I. hexagonus Leach, and Argas vespertilionis (Latreille) are mammalophagous. I. ricinus (L.) and Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzago feed on both birds and mammals. All these tick species may be considered to be permanently present in Sweden. I. persulcatus Schulze, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), may be regarded as not indigenous to Sweden although they may be regularly introduced by spring-migrating birds or imported dogs, respectively. The first European record of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), is reported. There are several records of Hyalomma aegyptium (L.) from imported tortoises in Sweden. Excluding other ticks imported on exotic pets and zoo animals, another 13 tick species are listed that may occur, at least occasionally, in Sweden. Because of its wide geographic distribution, great abundance, and wide host range, I. ricinus is medically the most important arthropod in northern Europe. I. ricinus is common in southern and south-central Sweden and along the coast of northern Sweden and has been recorded from 29 mammal species, 56 bird species, and two species of lizards in Sweden alone. The potential introduction to Sweden of exotic pathogens with infected ticks (e.g., I. persulcatus and H. marginatum on birds or Dermacentor spp. and R. sanguineus on mammals) is evident.

  • 10.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Antalet fästingar i Sverige ökar2011In: EPI-aktuellt, Vol. 10, no 28Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Epidemi av gula febern hotar flyktinglägren i västra Sudan.2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 48, 2231-2232 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Fästingen Ixodes ricinus som sjukdomsöverförare i Skandinavien1999In: Växtskyddsnotiser, ISSN 0042-2169, Vol. 64, no 3, 53-59 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Larver av nässtyngflugan i ögat - ovanligt men allvarligt problem: Fall av human oftalmomyiasis från Dalarna och sydöstra Finland redovisas2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 16-17, 928-930 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Medically important parasitic arthropods (insects, ticks, and mites) of the northern Holarctic region2002In: Parasites of the Colder Climates, CRC Press, London , 2002, 215-244 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Ny fästingöverförd sjukdom2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 42, 2084-2085 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Nya rön: Fästingen bär ofta på mer än en art av patogen mikroorganism2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Sjukdomsorsakande insekter och kvalster2015In: Medicinsk mikrobiologi & immunologi / [ed] Annelie Braunier, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, 606-618 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Svårdiagnosticerad sjukdom efter fästingbett2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 42, 2083-2083 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Taigafästingen nu i norra Sverige2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no D6PPArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Hjertqvist, Marika
    Bergström, Tomas
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Why is tick-borne encephalitis increasing?: A review of the key factors causing the increasing incidence of human TBE in Sweden2012In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 5, 184- p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highest annual incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden ever recorded by the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI) occurred last year, 2011. The number of TBE cases recorded during 2012 up to 6th August 2012 indicates that the incidence for 2012 could exceed that of 2011. In this review of the ecology and epidemiology of TBE in Sweden our main aim is to analyse the possible reasons behind the gradually increasing incidence of human TBE during the last 20 years. The main TBE virus (TBEV) vector to humans in Sweden is the nymphal stage of the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The main mode of transmission and maintenance of TBEV in the tick population is considered to be when infective nymphs co-feed with uninfected but infectible larvae on rodents. In most locations the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus is the main host for the reproducing adult I. ricinus ticks. The high number of roe deer for more than three decades has resulted in a very large tick population. Deer numbers have, however, gradually declined from the early 1990s to the present. This decline in roe deer numbers most likely made the populations of small rodents, which are reservoir-competent for TBEV, gradually more important as hosts for the immature ticks. Consequently, the abundance of TBEV-infected ticks has increased. Two harsh winters in 2009-2011 caused a more abrupt decline in roe deer numbers. This likely forced a substantial proportion of the "host-seeking" ticks to feed on bank voles (Myodes glareolus), which at that time suddenly had become very numerous, rather than on roe deer. Thus, the bank vole population peak in 2010 most likely caused many tick larvae to feed on reservoir-competent rodents. This presumably resulted in increased transmission of TBEV among ticks and therefore increased the density of infected ticks the following year. The unusually warm, humid weather and the prolonged vegetation period in 2011 permitted nymphs and adult ticks to quest for hosts nearly all days of that year. These weather conditions stimulated many people to spend time outdoors in areas where they were at risk of being attacked by infective nymphs. This resulted in at least 284 human cases of overt TBE. The tick season of 2012 also started early with an exceptionally warm March. The abundance of TBEV-infective "hungry" ticks was presumably still relatively high. Precipitation during June and July was rich and will lead to a "good mushroom season". These factors together are likely to result in a TBE incidence of 2012 similar to or higher than that of 2011.

  • 21.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mehl, Reidar
    Försvarets mikrobiologiska laboratorium, Oslo.
    "Fågelloppor" kan ha varit fågelkvalster2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 29-31, 1791-1792 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Varv, Kairi
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Virol, Hiiu 42, EE-11619 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Fröjdman, Isabella
    Aalto Univ, POB 11130, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Jaaskelainen, Anu
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Virol, POB 21, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Rundgren, Kaj
    Jarvis Vag 50, SE-95395 Nikkala, Sweden..
    Versteirt, Veerle
    Avia GIS, Precis Pest Management Unit, Risschotlei 33, BE-2980 Zoersel, Belgium..
    Estrada-Pena, Agustin
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Parasitol, Miguel Servet 177, ES-50013 Zaragoza, Spain..
    Medlock, Jolyon M.
    Publ Hlth England, Emergency Response Dept, Med Entomol Grp, Salisbury, Wilts, England.;Hlth Protect Res Unit Emerging Infect & Zoonoses, Salisbury, Wilts, England..
    Golovljova, Irina
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Virol, Hiiu 42, EE-11619 Tallinn, Estonia..
    First evidence of established populations of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Sweden2016In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, 377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The tick species Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus are of exceptional medical importance in the western and eastern parts, respectively, of the Palaearctic region. In Russia and Finland the range of I. persulcatus has recently increased. In Finland the first records of I. persulcatus are from 2004. The apparent expansion of its range in Finland prompted us to investigate if I. persulcatus also occurs in Sweden. Methods: Dog owners and hunters in the coastal areas of northern Sweden provided information about localities where ticks could be present. In May-August 2015 we used the cloth-dragging method in 36 localities potentially harbouring ticks in the Bothnian Bay area, province Norrbotten (NB) of northern Sweden. Further to the south in the provinces Vasterbotten (VB) and Uppland (UP) eight localities were similarly investigated. Results: Ixodes persulcatus was detected in 9 of 36 field localities in the Bothnian Bay area. Nymphs, adult males and adult females (n = 46 ticks) of I. persulcatus were present mainly in Alnus incana - Sorbus aucuparia - Picea abies - Pinus sylvestris vegetation communities on islands in the Bothnian Bay. Some of these I. persulcatus populations seem to be the most northerly populations so far recorded of this species. Dog owners asserted that their dogs became tick-infested on these islands for the first time 7-8 years ago. Moose (Alces alces), hares (Lepus timidus), domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and ground-feeding birds are the most likely carriers dispersing I. persulcatus in this area. All ticks (n = 124) from the more southern provinces of VB and UP were identified as I. ricinus. Conclusions: The geographical range of the taiga tick has recently expanded into northern Sweden. Increased information about prophylactic, anti-tick measures should be directed to people living in or visiting the coastal areas and islands of the Baltic Bay.

  • 23.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Virus-like rods associated with salivary gland hyperplasia in tsetse, Glossina pallidipes1978In: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0035-9203, E-ISSN 1878-3503, Vol. 72, no 3, 234-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long, virus-like rods were discovered in hyperplastic salivary glands of Glossina pallidipes Austen from Kibwezi Forest (2 ° 27′ S, 37 ° 55′ E), Kenya. The glands were enlarged up to four times the normal diameter. This increase in size was due to a cellular proliferation of the glandular epithelial cells and hypertrophy of their nuclei and cytoplasm. Nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions were present in the enlarged cells but were not found in cells of normal-sized glands. Electron microscopy revealed many virus-like rods in the abnormal glands. Males with such glands were often completely sterile. Abnormal growth of the ovarioles was a significant feature of young females with hyperplastic glands. Both sexes of wild and laboratory-bred flies were found with enlarged glands. One way of transmission of the trait seems to be from mother to progeny.

  • 24.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Eisen, L.
    Comstedt, P.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Lindgren, E.
    Bergström, S.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden2009In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 23, no 3, 226-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden.  It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analyzed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by a mean duration of 150 days with snow cover and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the center of the distribution south Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of Sweden were examined for presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and found to be infected with B. afzelii and B. garinii. Tick sampling localities were characterized on the basis of density of Borrelia-infected I. ricinus nymphs, presence of specific mammals, dominant vegetation and climate. Densities of I. ricinus nymphs and Borrelia-infected nymphs were significantly correlated, and nymphal density can thus serve as a general indicator of risk for exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes. Analysis of data from this and other studies suggest that high densities of Borrelia-infected nymphs typically occur in coastal, broad-leaf vegetation and in mixed deciduous/spruce vegetation in southern Sweden. Ixodes ricinus populations consistently infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. can occur in biotopes with (i) shrews, rodents, hares and birds, (ii) shrews, rodents, hares, deer and birds, (iii) and on islands where the varying hare (Lepus timidus) is the only mammalian tick host.

  • 25.
    Jaenson, Thomas GT
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Hjertqvist, Marika
    Lundkvist, Åke
    År 2011 toppar TBE-incidensen: Rådjursstammens variation i storlek och vädret är nyckelfaktorer2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 7, 343-346 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Petersson, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    [Dataset for forthcoming publication]2017Data set
  • 27.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Jaenson, David GE
    Eisen, Lars
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    Karolinska institutet.
    Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden2012In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 5, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study.

    Methods: A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present.

    Results: Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66 degrees N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60 degrees N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Gotaland) and Central Sweden.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high by e. g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and lynx (Lynx lynx), the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades.

  • 28.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    The range of Ixodes ricinus and the risk of Lyme borreliosis will increase northwards when the vegetation period becomes longer2011In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 2, no 1, 44-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis corresponds to that of its vector Ixodes ricinus. Both tick activity and the length of the vegetation period are determined by daily mean temperatures ≥5 °C. We analysed the correspondence between the distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden, the start date, end date, and length of the vegetation period, and the distributions of tick habitat-associated plant species. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden corresponds to a vegetation period averaging ∼170 days, an early start (before May 1st) of spring, and to the distribution of black alder (Alnus glutinosa). Based on scenario models for these parameters, changes in the range and abundance of I. ricinus were projected for the periods 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100. We conclude that climate change during this century will probably increase the geographic range of I. ricinus as vegetation communities and mammals associated with high tick densities will increase their geographic ranges due to a markedly prolonged vegetation period. By the end of this century, the ranges of I. ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato may, in suitable habitats, encompass most of Sweden, Norway, and Finland as far as 70°N, except the mountainous regions. This will lead to an increased Lyme borreliosis risk in northern Scandinavia.

  • 29.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Thorsell, Walborg
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Människan och faunan; Etnobiologi i Sverige 3: Fästingen Ixodes ricinus2007In: Människan och faunan Etnobiologi i Sverige, Wahlström & Widstrand, Stockholm , 2007Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 30.
    Labbé, Lisa Sandelin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Tolf, Conny
    Larsson, Sara
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, e0133250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  • 31.
    Lindeborg, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Barboutis, Christos
    Ehrenborg, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Fransson, Thord
    Jaenson, Thomas G T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Migratory birds, ticks, and crimean-congo hemorrhagic Fever virus2012In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 18, no 12, 2095-2097 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TO THE EDITOR:

    In a recently published study, Estrada-Peña et al. reported the finding of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in adult Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain during 2010 (1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus was most likely of African origin. Here, we present a model for the transfer of CCHFV-infected ticks by migratory birds from Africa to Europe.

  • 32. Lindgren, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Lyme borreliosis in Europe: influence of climate and climate change2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33. Medlock, Jolyon M
    et al.
    Hansford, Kayleigh M
    Bormane, Antra
    Derdakova, Marketa
    Estrada-Peña, Agustín
    George, Jean-Claude
    Golovljova, Irina
    Jaenson, Thomas GT
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Jensen, Jens-Kjeld
    Jensen, Per M
    Kazimirova, Maria
    Oteo, José A
    Papa, Anna
    Pfister, Kurt
    Plantard, Olivier
    Randolph, Sarah E
    Rizzoli, Annapaola
    Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida
    Sprong, Hein
    Vial, Laurence
    Hendrickx, Guy
    Zeller, Herve
    Van Bortel, Wim
    Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe2013In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 6, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  • 34.
    Mejlon, Hans A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Mather, Thomas N.
    Center for Vector-borne Disease, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.
    Evaluation of host-targeted applications of permethrin for control of Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)1995In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 9, no 2, 207-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Mejlon, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Questing behaviour of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)1997In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 21, no 12, 747-754 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertical distribution in the vegetation of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks was investigated in two different vegetation types ('high' and 'low' vegetation) at two localities in south-central Sweden during 1992-1993 (Torö) and 1995 (Bogesund). Significant correlations were found between the vertical distribution of immature ticks and the height of the vegetation. The greatest mean availabilities of the larvae and nymphs in low vegetation were in the intervals 0-9 and 30-39 cm, respectively. The larval numbers were greatest close to the ground (0-29) in both high and low vegetation. The larval : nymphal ratio, at ground level at localities free of ground vegetation, varied between 8:1 and 32:1. In high vegetation, the greatest mean numbers of nymphal and adult ticks were at height intervals of 50-59 and 60-79 cm, respectively. These ranges are within the estimated height interval (40-100 cm) of the main part of the body surface of their 'preferred' host, the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The presence of most questing I. ricinus larvae at ground level would favour the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., since this is where the highly reservoir-competent rodents and shrews usually occur.

  • 36.
    Mejlon, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Seasonal prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus in different vegetation types in Sweden1993In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 25, no 4, 449-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to estimate the seasonal risk of contracting human Lyme disease in different vegetation types in southern Sweden. Host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected with standardized methods during May-September 1988 and March-October 1989 at 10 different sampling sites. Tick abundance was greatest during May-June and August-September. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection of the ticks was assessed by phase-contrast microscopy complemented by immunology. Spirochetal infection of tick larvae was not detected. The prevalence of infection among nymphal ticks differed significantly between years and between sampling sites. Infection prevalence was greater in adult females than in nymphs, but was similar in female and male ticks. Among all vegetation types studied, the greatest Lyme disease risk was deemed to be from I. ricinus nymphs during May and September in mixed forest vegetation.

  • 37.
    Molin, Ylva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Madder, Maxime
    Hjelm, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Ehrenborg, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Migratory birds, ticks and Bartonella2011In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 1, 5997- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. Most ticks were Hyalomma rufipes nymphs and larvae with mean infestation rates of 1.7 nymphs and 0.6 larvae per infested bird. Bartonella spp. RNA was not detected in any of the tick specimens.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindquist, Olle
    Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Liu, Ai Jie
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Påhlson, Carl
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Sweden1999In: J Clin Microbiol, Vol. 37, 400-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Pettersson, John H.-O.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Golovljova, Irina
    Department of Virology, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vene, Sirkka
    Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to southern Sweden2014In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 7, 102- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Pålsson, Katinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa1999In: Acta Tropica, Vol. 72, 39-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Pålsson, Katinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Systematisk zoologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Systematisk zoologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
    Dias, Francisco
    Laugen, Ane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Populationsbiologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
    Björkman, Anders
    Endophilic Anopheles mosquitoes in Guinea Bissau, West Africa in relation to human housing conditions2004In: Journal of Medical Entomology, ISSN 0022-2585, Vol. 41, no 4, 746-752 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Severinsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Pettersson, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Falk, Kerstin
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Detection and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks in seven study areas in Sweden2010In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 3, no 1, 66- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Tick-borne Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. are considered to be emerging human pathogens, but only limited data are available on their occurrence in Sweden. Two real-time PCR assays followed by nested PCR and sequence analysis were carried out to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and spotted fever rickettsiae in ticks from seven areas in Sweden.

    RESULTS: In 139 pooled samples, representing a total of 1245 Ixodes ricinus ticks (204 larvae, 963 nymphs, 38 males, 40 females), the overall positive mean infection prevalence was 1.3-15.0% for A. phagocytophilum and 1.5-17.3% for R. helvetica. A. phagocytophilum was only detected in nymphs (1.7-19.4%), whereas R. helvetica was detected in all three tick stages. Support for vertical and transstadial transmission was only obtained for R. helvetica. Both agents showed similar infection rates across study areas, although infection rates were greater in coastal areas.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results show that both pathogens occurred in all seven locations, indicating that they are prevalent in Sweden and should be considered etiological agents in patients recently bitten by ticks.

  • 43. Terenius, Olle
    et al.
    Börklund, Niklas
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Nordlander, Göran
    Premature Proposal of the Pine Weevil as a Vector of a Human Pathogen2014In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 58, no 11, 4115-4115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Terenius, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Museums etc., Museum of Evolution. Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Systematisk zoologi.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Zoology. Systematisk zoologi.
    New and earlier records of ticks (Acari: Ixodidæ, Argasidæ) from Guinea-Bissau2000In: J. Med. Entomol., Vol. 37, 973-976 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Tälleklint, Lars
    et al.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Zoology.
    Transmission of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete at the mammal reservoir: tick vector interface in Sweden1995In: Proceedings of the 2:nd International Conference on tick-borne pathogens at the host-vector interface: a global perspective, 1995Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During 1988 to 1995 we examined the density of questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 12 areas in southern and southcentral Sweden. There were great differences in the density of questing Borrelia-infected I. ricinus nymphs between these areas, i.e., from <10 to >500 infected nymphs per hectare. The density of I. ricinus nymphs had a greater impact on this variation than the prevalence of Borrelia-infection in the nymphs, suggesting that reservoir incompetent cervids, which are important hosts for adult female I. ricinus, indirectly increase the risk of encountering Borrerlia-infected nymphal ticks despite the ability of cervids to divert larval ticks from reservoir competent mammals. There was a strong correlation between the mean number of Borrelia-infected nymphs per hectare and the mean number of nymphs per hectare, suggesting that it may be possible to assess the risk of encountering Borrelia-infected ticks in different areas without examining the prevalence of spirochetal infection.

  • 46.
    Vongsombath, Chanda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Palsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Repellency Field Tests of Essential Oils From Plants Traditionally Used in Laos2012In: Journal of medical entomology, ISSN 0022-2585, E-ISSN 1938-2928, Vol. 49, no 6, 1398-1404 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 mu g/cm(2), 3.3 mu g/cm(2), and 6.3 mu g/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 mu g/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 mu g/cm(2), 3.3 mu g/cm(2), and 6.3 mu g/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 mu g/cm(2) and 6.3 mu g/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 mu g/cm(2) and 6.3 mu g/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  • 47.
    Wallmenius, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Barboutis, Christos
    Fransson, Thord
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area2014In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 7, 318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods: Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results: Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 +/- 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions: Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination.

  • 48.
    Wallménius, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Pettersson, John H-O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Prevalence of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Coxiella burnetii in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks from 29 study areas in central and southern Sweden2012In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 3, no 2, 100-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 887 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks (469 females and 418 males) from 29 different localities in Sweden were screened for Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella DNA using PCR and then subjected to gene sequencing. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 9.5–9.6% of the ticks. Most of the positive ticks were infected with Rickettsia helvetica. One tick harbored another spotted fever rickettsia, closely related to or identical with R. sibirica not previously found in I. ricinus nor in Sweden. Six of the ticks (0.7%) were infected with an Anaplasma sp., presumably A. phagocytophilum. Coxiella burnetii DNA was not detected in any of the ticks. The detection of R. helvetica and A. phagocytophilum in several of the localities sampled suggests that these potentially human-pathogenic agents are common in Sweden.

  • 49.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nyman, Dag
    Åland.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans in Northern Europe: seasonal pattern of infestation, attachment sites and duration of feeding2013In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 6, 362- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The common tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of the tick-borne encephalitis virus and of several species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis. The risk to contract bites of I. ricinus is dependent on many factors including the behaviour of both ticks and people. The tick’s site of attachment on the human body and the duration of tick attachment may be of clinical importance. Data on I. ricinus ticks, which were found attached to the skin of people, were analysed regarding potentially stage-specific differences in location of attachment sites, duration of tick attachment (= feeding duration), seasonal and geographical distribution of tick infestation in relation to age and gender of the tick-infested hosts.

    Methods

    During 2008–2009, 1770 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands removed 2110 I. ricinus ticks. Participants provided information about the date of tick detection and location on their body of each attached tick. Ticks were identified to species and developmental stage. The feeding duration of each nymph and adult female tick was microscopically estimated based on the scutal and the coxal index.

    Results

    In 2008, participants were tick-bitten from mid-May to mid-October and in 2009 from early April to early November. The infestation pattern of the nymphs was bimodal whereas that of the adult female ticks was unimodal with a peak in late summer. Tick attachment site on the human body was associated with stage of the tick and gender of the human host. Site of attachment seemed to influence the duration of tick feeding. Overall, 63% of nymphs and adult female ticks were detected and removed more than 24 hours after attachment. Older persons, compared to younger ones, and men, compared to women, removed “their” ticks after a longer period of tick attachment.

    Conclusions

    The infestation behaviour of the different tick stages concerning where on the host’s body the ticks generally will attach and when such ticks generally will be detected and removed in relation to host age and gender, should be of value for the development of prophylactic methods against tick infestation and to provide relevant advice to people on how to avoid or reduce the risk of tick infestation.

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