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  • 1.
    Berg, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Edquist, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Mays, Christin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åkerlund, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    The History of Educational Finance2015In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 2, no 1, 3-22 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Berg, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Larsson, Esbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Örebro universitet.
    Att studera omvälvande förändringar: Revolutioner, paradigmskiften och epistemiska brott i studiet av utbildning2017In: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Berg, Anne et al., Uppsala: Uppsala Studies of History and Education (SHED) , 2017, 13-18 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Fredriksson (Westberg), Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Christine Quarfood, Positivism med mänskligt ansikte2007In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Fredriksson [Westberg], Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Ett passande syfte2007In: Att rätt förfoga över tingen: Historiska studier av styrning och maktutövning / [ed] Johannes Fredriksson & Esbjörn Larsson, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2007, 5-9 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Fredriksson (Westberg), Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Från undervisning till lek: Barnet, folkskolan och förskolepedagogikens förändring, ca 1860-19002005In: Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy, ISSN 1652-2729, Vol. 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Fredriksson [Westberg], Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Maktbegreppets bruk: analysen av fängelsestraffet i "Övervakning och straff"2007In: Att rätt förfoga över tingen: historiska studier av styrning och maktutövning, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2007, 33-60 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Fredriksson [Westberg], Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    The Second Biennial Conference of the International Froebel Society2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Fredriksson (Westberg), Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Larsson, EsbjörnUppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Att rätt förfoga över tingen: Historiska studier av styrning och maktutövning2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ska vi förstå den omsorg som ägnas åt den enskilda individen i vårt moderna samhälle? Det sätt på vilket Michel Foucault närmat sig denna fråga i termer av maktutövning och styrning har under de senaste åren erhållit ett ökat intresse inom humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.

    Avsikten med detta samlingsverk är att presentera aktuell svensk forskning som tar sin utgångspunkt i Foucaults begreppsapparat. Antologin inleds med två bidrag som teoretisk och historiografiskt reflekterar över analysen av makt och styrning. Därefter följer en rad empiriska studier som ger spännande inblickar i bland annat svensk sinnessjukvårds rutiner under tidigt 1900-tal, 1800-talets förändrade definitioner av socialpolitik samt hur Ferdinand Tönnies distinktion mellan Gesellschaft och Gemeinschaft återanvänts i olika politiska och vetenskapliga sammanhang. Antologin avslutas med en artikel som med utgångspunkt i de övriga bidragen ställer frågor om vad det innebär att utföra studier i Foucaults anda

  • 9. Klose, Gunilla
    et al.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Folkundervisningens finansiering före 18422011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the Elemenary School Ordinance (Folkskolestadgan) of June 18, 1842, various forms of education were available to the people of rural Sweden. Who were the actors and what were their motives for teaching Swedish commoners to read, and sometimes even to write? Who took financial responsibility for teachers’ salaries and the building of schools, and what was the extent of their endeavours? What categories of teachers were there, and were there regional differences? Did the funds come from taxation, fees, or private donations? What changes occurred over time, and can we see any domino effects?

    In the years 1768, 1812, 1825, and 1839, Royal committees were established to survey rural educational activities. The information provided to the committees by bishops, chapters, and the clergy has been a source of answers to most of the central questions of this thesis.

    The geographical extent of the study is the Dioceses of Lund, Växjö, Kalmar, Göteborg, Västerås, and Halland. A comprehensive analysis of conditions in each diocese is supple¬mented by reports on financial conditions at the parish level. Despite the fact that there is considerable variation in both questions and answers at the different points in time and between regions, some patterns can be discerned, such as:

    •number of schoolchildren, time spent at school, different categories of teacher, construction and upkeep of school buildings•teachers’ income and other conditions of employment, such as resident or itinerant, payment in cash or in natura as well as other benefits such as meals, lodging, and fuel•cost of salaries, school buildings and upkeep, fees extracted per parishioner and/or per child taught, and monies donated by the church, crown, or private citizens.

    The church and, later, the state, were eager to regulate and govern the education of the populace, but neither seems to have been forthcoming in contributing to its financing. The parishioners were obliged to cover most of the costs themselves. The Diocese of Lund is in all respects in the forefront, for example with regard to the number of children in schools, permanent school buildings, and resident teachers. The Diocese of Västerås was also strong; according to the last investigation every parish had some form of resident teacher. The remaining dioceses in the study rarely had the means to finance general education outside of the home, although some progress was made in individual parishes.

  • 10. Larsson, Esbjörn
    et al.
    Westberg, JohannesUppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Utbildningens sociala och kulturella historia: Meddelanden från den fjärde nordiska utbildningshistoriska konferensen2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Larsson, Esbjörn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Utbildningshistoria: en introduktion2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildningshistoria – en introduktion ger en lättillgänglig presentation av och fördjupande resonemang kring det svenska utbildningssystemets historia.

    I boken ges närmare beskrivningar av olika utbildningsformer som inkluderar förskolan, grundskolan, folkbildning och universitetet samt introduktioner till skolämnens historia, däribland svenska,historia och samhällskunskap. Därutöver anlägger författarna,flertalet ledande specialister inom de ämnen de skriver om,övergripande och tvärgående perspektiv på utbildningshistorien.Det handlar om frågor som rör utbildningens ekonomiska historia,lärarkårens utveckling, sociala förhållandens betydelse för utbildning, utbildningspolitik samt betyg och bedömning. Den andra upplagan är uppdaterad och innehåller dess­utom tre nya kapitel, vilka behandlar utbildningsväsendets förhållande till minoriteter samt yrkesutbildningens och matematikens historia.

    Till boken hör en webbplats där bland annat kapitelsammanfattningar i form av bildspel, övningsuppgifter,tester och en grafisk beskrivning av utbildningssystemets utveckling bidrar till lärandet.

    Boken vänder sig till blivande lärare samt studenter i exempelvis historia och pedagogik som behöver kunna placera skolans situation i ett vidare sammanhang och i ett längre tidsperspektiv.

  • 12.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    1800-talets ideala folkskolehus2012In: Vägval i skolans historia, ISSN 1652-0610, Vol. 12, no 2-3, 27-32 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    A changing concept of childhood? : The introduction of Froebelian practices into Swedish pre-schools.2007In: SHCY 2007 In the name of the child”: The social and cultural history of children and youth, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The public upbringing of children in Swedish pre-schools went through a series of transformations 1830-1930. A series of transformations that, among other things, consisted in a shift from an education, similar to that in nineteenth century schools, to a pedagogy primarily centred on children’s play, handicrafts, painting pictures and singing children songs. The primary aim of this paper is to account for this transformation using the foucauldian concepts of power, governmentality and problematization, and a kind of structuralistic approach.

    With this as my point of departure, the subject of my paper is the discursive conditions which made the above mentioned transformation possible. Using different materials from early pre-schools (i e infant schools), I argue that the expansion of the Swedish public school (“folkskolan”), a concept of “common good” and the economic and organisational limitations of the pre-schools were necessary conditions for the transformation.

  • 14.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att bygga ett skolväsende: Folkskolans förutsättningar och framväxt 1840-19002014 (ed. 1000)Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Building a little red school house: Swedish school building between state and local society, c. 1842-19002012In: International Standing Conference in the History of Education, 27-30 June 2012, Geneva, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elementary schoolhouse was a phenomenon that gained both national and international importance during the nineteenth century. It was attributed great significance as a beacon of civilization, and was often perceived as a symbol for the entire school system. The iconic North American little red schoolhouse is perhaps the most famous example of this. 

    The establishment of a national mass education system in Sweden during the nineteenth century entailed an increased interest in the design of school buildings. Accordingly, numerous international study tours were made. For example, the physicist and teacher Per Adam Siljeström (1815-92) and author Fredrika Bremer (1801-65) travelled around the western world observing elementary schools’ architecture and organization. The Swedish central government also began to pay attention to elementary school buildings. In 1861, government school inspectors were introduced, and in 1865 the first building plans were issued. 

    The national and local adaptations of transnational visions of the schoolhouse have been examined by the expanding research on the space and material cultures of schooling. These studies have contributed immensely to our understanding of the schoolhouse as architecture, experience, educational discourse and practice. Despite this, there are still a number of fundamental issues of economic and organizational character that requires further studies. This paper addresses some of them through a study of schoolhouse building projects in Sweden, 1842-1900, examining the funding, organization, technology and materials of these ventures. 

    This paper focuses mainly on how the increased government involvement, as well as the socioeconomical transformation of the Swedish society, affected the building process and its results. What impact did, for example, the growing industrial sector and the modernization of the credit market have on the Swedish schoolhouses? Of particular interest is the role played by government inspectors and architectural plans. How did they affect the building projects, and how was the government’s directives altered in the process? 

    Adding this perspective of economic history to the existing research on school buildings, this study addresses themes such as the local translation of national and international phenomenon and the changing role of the State in education. It examines the changes in central government and local community involvement which made an increasing standardization of the schoolhouses possible. It thus shows how the local Swedish adaption of the internationally recognized concept of schoolhouse was a matter of both explicit resistance towards the powers of central government, and factors such as modernized taxation and the emergence of construction firms. Thereby both the specificity and the generality of this translation process will be highlighted. 

    Methodologically, this paper utilizes source materials that have been under-studied in the research on the material culture of schooling, including building accounts, cost estimates, insurance policies, title deeds and school board records. These materials have been gathered from an extensive study of 73 building project’s in one of Sweden's most rapidly changing areas in the 1800s: The saw mill district of the Sundsvall region.

  • 16.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Building systems of mass schooling: An analysis of the preconditions common to school systems and the school building process in Sweden, 1840-19002015In: International Standing Conference in the History of Education, 24-27 June, 2015, Istanbul, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of mass schooling during the eighteenth- and nineteenth centuries is well-known. School enrolments rose, the number of teachers increased and schoolhouses were built in village after village. It became common for parents to send their children to schools where they were presented with a basic education and instilled with patriotism and bourgeois values. 

    This development, fundamental to the historiography of education, has been explained in different ways as a functional requirement, as a means of social control, a result of status group competition or state formation processes. This paper intends to shed new light upon the emergence of mass schooling during the nineteenth century, using the school building process in Sweden, 1840-1900, as point of departure. As a result of this novel approach, mass schooling is tied not only to well-known factors such as population growth, proletarisation and the intervention of nation-states, but to a broader socioeconomic and cultural context that includes the organization of the Swedish parishes, the political culture of the school districts, the modernization of the credit market, changes in local tax systems, the liberalization of the real property market, and the expansion of the construction materials market. Instead of being portrayed as a response to a need to moralize the poor, schooling appears as motivated by factors such as the social position of farmers and the sense of rivalry between school districts. Thus, a broader and more comprehensive explanation to the emergence of mass schooling and national school systems is accomplished. 

    This study rests on an in-depth case study of 66 school building projects in the twelve rural parishes of the Sundsvall region, Västernorrland county, located in the north of Sweden. As this study deals with the school building process, its theoretical point of departure is the historical study of building activities in early modern and modern times. To ensure that the study has sufficient depth and breadth, a large amount of printed and unprinted materials have been consulted, including primary statistical data from the Ministry of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs, information from the Demographic Data Base in Umeå, fire insurance documents from the former Fire Insurance Agency, maps from the Land Survey Office, documents from rural courts and the multitude of documents found in church archives.

  • 17.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Den svenska importen av Fröbel: Om kindergartenpedagogikens mottagande i Sverige2011In: Kulturtransfer och kulturpolitik: Sverige och Tyskland under det tjugonde århundradet / [ed] Andreas Åkerlund, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala , 2011, 17-38 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Det uppfostrande rummet: om liberala och disciplinära styrningsrationaliteters materiella kultur i svenska förskolor under första hälften av 1900-talet2010In: Fostran i skola och utbildning: historiska perspektiv / [ed] Anna Larsson, Uppsala: Föreningen för svensk undervisningshistoria , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    En introduktion till folkundervisningens finansiering2011In: Folkundervisningens finansiering före 1842 / [ed] Johannes Westberg, Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings- och kultursociologi, Uppsala universitet , 2011, 11-35 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    En politisk illusion?: 1842 års folkskolestadga och den svenska folkskolan2014In: Uddannelseshistorie, ISSN 0900-226X, Vol. 48, 52-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of the Elementary School Act of 1842 (1842 års folkskolestadga) is one of the fundamental issues in the historiography of Swedish elementary schooling. In this study, I argue that the school act did not merely confirm an already pending process, but actually resulted in a radical change. Based upon an analysis of available statistical data and the implementation of the school act in local school districts, this article claims that the school act contributed to the establishment of a school system in large parts of Sweden, and that it was the factor that triggered the spread of elementary schooling across the country during the ten-year period that followed the school act. Its impact was, however, dependent on wider societal structures. Without a number of conditions, including the organisation of the parishes, the labour of landless groups and an expanding credit system, the demands of the school act would not have been met, and the Swedish elementary school system (folkskoleväsendet) would not have been able to emerge.

  • 21.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Ett förtydligande om förskolans historia: genmäle till Ingrid Åberg2010In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 3Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    “Freedom for all! injustice for none!”: the Peasant Estate and the funding of public elementary schools in rural Sweden, 1840-412011In: Erziehung und Bildung in ländlichen Regionen/Rural Education / [ed] Claudia Gerdenitsch & Johanna Hopfner, Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Förskolans aktörer: Stat, kår och individ i förskolans historia2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Förskolans historia2011In: Utbildningshistoria: en introduktion / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson och Johannes Westberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 87-102 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Förskolans historia: En introduktion till ett växande forskningsfält2011In: Förskolans aktörer: Stat, kår och individ i förskolans historia / [ed] Johannes Westberg, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen , 2011, 800, 5-22 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Förskolepedagogikens etablering: Pedagogisk förändring i svenska förskolor, ca 1835-19452008In: Ny utbildningshistorisk forskning: Tio bidrag från Nationella forskarskolan i utbildningshistoria, Uppsala: Föreningen för Svensk undervisningshistoria , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Förskolorna som försvann: småbarnsskolornas marginalisering, 1860-19372009In: Vägval i skolans historia, ISSN 1652-0610, Vol. 9, no 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    “How could a teacher survive on a salary consisting of 8 barrels of grains and 53 riksdaler 16 skilling in cash? A question answered”,2016In: Räume für Bildung. Räume der Bildung.: DGfE-Kongress 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Elementary School Act of 1842 changed the conditions for the teaching profession in Swedish elementary schools. It set a minimum wage for teachers, which included housing, firewood and summer grazing for a cow, and established a regulatory framework for hiring teachers. In order to be employed as a teacher at an elementary school, a degree had to be obtained from a teachers’ college. Apart from this formal requirement, teachers were also expected to have a wide range of abilities, far exceeding the elementary school’s minimum level. In addition to having a personality characterized by piety and moral conduct, the future teacher was to have a complete mastery of his reading and writing skills, and should also have full knowledge of the catechism, biblical history, science, geography and arithmetic. 

    In our paper, Iwill shed light upon the social, economic and cultural conditions under which Swedish teachers lived and worked following the school act of 1842. Special attention will be paid to issues such as the teacher’s wages (in kind and in cash), their living conditions and their position in the local community and relationships with the school district’s inhabitants. The empirical basis of this paper will be found in published statistical data and government questionnaires as well as case studies delving deeper into the realities of individual school districts and teachers.

  • 29.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    How much did a Swedish Schoolhouse Cost to Build?: Rewriting the history of 19th-century rural schoolhouses2014In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 39, no 4, 448-471 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How much did the 19th-century rural schoolhouse cost to build? On the basis of a study of schoolhouse building in the Sundsvall region in the period 1842–1900, this article shows how the cost of school buildings increased over time, both overall and by schoolhouse, largely because of the marginalization of cheaper and simpler redevelopment projects, as well as the construction of a number of more expensive schoolhouses. Through the use of extensive source material, preserved from the building of 66 schoolhouses, a more detailed analysis of these developments has demonstrated differences in price levels between purchased schoolhouses, redevelopments of existing buildings and new building projects, and buildings intended for different types of schools. Insights are also given into labour and material costs. In addition to establishing basic facts about a main feature of the expanding system of mass education, this study thus makes a reinterpretation of the 19th-century rural schoolhouse which emphasizes new patterns of development and fundamental distinctions, presenting schoolhouses as a social and economic issue, rather than an architectural or pedagogical concern. Instead of being described as rather simple buildings, in comparison with the major buildings in the cities, schoolhouses thus appear as a major item of expenditure for local government.

  • 30.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Konstruktionen av utbildningshistoriens hjältar: Om systrarna Mobergs upphöjelse till pionjärer i den svenska förskolans historia2011In: Förskolans aktörer: Stat, kår och individ i förskolans historia / [ed] Johannes Westberg, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen , 2011, 800, 197-222 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Making mass schooling affordable: in-kind taxation and the establishment of an elementary school system in Sweden, 1840–18702016In: Paedagogica historica, ISSN 0030-9230, E-ISSN 1477-674X, Vol. 52, no 4, 349-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the significance of in-kind taxation and payments in kind for the establishment of an elementary school system in Sweden, in the 1840-1870 period. By analysing the funding of teachers' wages, the heating of the school facilities, and school building construction in the 12 rural school districts of the Sundsvall region, this study shows that schooling to a large extent relied on in-kind transactions in this area. Despite the practical problems that such transactions entailed, the author has argued that they were instrumental in the establishment of schooling in the Sundsvall region. Apart from making schooling affordable for the school districts, since in-kind taxation and payment made it possible to avoid extensive cash expenditure, the natural economy presented an opportunity to align the school funding to the school districts' local resources, price levels and social structure. In contrast to the historiography of schooling that has mainly linked the emergence of mass schooling to the modernisation of society, this work reveals that age-old customs of in-kind transactions are an important factor to acknowledge when explaining the educational revolution that mass schooling entailed.

  • 32.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Multiplying the origins of mass education: An analysis of the preconditions common to school systems and the school building process in Sweden, 1842-19002015In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 44, no 4, 415-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of mass schooling is undoubtedly one of the most significant transformations that took place during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This article takes a new approach to this fundamental issue by analysing the historical conditions required for the construction of school buildings and the advent of mass schooling, in the 1840-1900 period. Using the school building process as a point of departure, the growth of schooling is tied not only to well-known factors such as industrialisation, state formation processes and the decentralisation of school systems, but also to the expansion of the market economy, modernisation of the credit market, liberalisation of the real property market, changes in local tax systems, and the expansion of the building materials market. Thus, a broader and largely novel explanation of the emergence of mass schooling is accomplished.

  • 33.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Och fram växer en "småskog af otuktade telningar": hemmen, formbarheten och inrättandet av småbarnsskolor2009In: Det mångsidiga verktyget: elva utbildningshistoriska uppsatser, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2009, 123-135 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Pedagogisk förändring: barnträdgårdsrörelsens förtjänst?2009In: TAM-Revy. Meddelanden från TAM-Arkiv, ISSN 1654-6989, no 3, 18-19 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Referring to international examples, adjusting to local realities: Swedish nineteenth century rural schoolhouses2015In: IJHE Bildungsgeschichte: International Journal for the Historiography of Education, ISSN 2192-4295, Vol. 5, no 1, 25-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Review: Archibald, Robert B.; Feldman, David H.: Why Does College Cost So Much?2012In: H-Soz-u-KultArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Schooling - an international, national, and local issue2012In: History of Schooling: Politics and local practice / [ed] Carla Aubry, Johannes Westberg, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, 7-11 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research pertaining to the history of education. In this volume, the authors examine this issue from a multitude of perspectives, presenting a broad and comprehensive picture of schooling on international, national and local levels. Three issues of great significance, both in the history of schooling, and for educational policy—‘School Finance’, ‘School Reform’ and ‘School Media’—are discussed in relation to five European countries, by addressing topics such as textbook supply in the eighteenth century, the spread of monitorial education, the rise of educational expenditure during the nineteenth century, and the internationalization of educational policy during the twentieth century.

  • 38.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Stimulus or impediment?: The impact of matching grants on the funding of elementary schools in Sweden during the nineteenth century2013In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 42, no 1, 1-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What was the impact of government grants on the emerging national elementaryschool systems of the nineteenth century? This article deals with this question through a study ofthe introduction of matching government grants in Sweden during the latter part of the nineteenthcentury. The analysis shows that, although the government grants increased rapidly with theintroduction of matching grants, they did not crowd out local funding. Instead, the grantsstimulated local taxation, increasing the number of teachers as well as their salaries. This occurred because the grants were perceived as an incentive by local school boards and because the financial control of the Swedish elementary school system remained at a local level. Thus, this article also contributes to the research on the expansion of mass education during thenineteenth century, commenting on the significance of both state intervention and a decentralised organisation.

  • 39.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Taxation, loans and donations: The funding of Swedish schoolhouses, 1840-19002014In: European Social Science History Conference, 23-26 April, Vienna, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As systems of mass education expanded during the nineteenth century, the elementary schoolhouse gained national and international importance, both in discourse and sheer numbers. In France, the number of elementary schools increased from 52,900 (1837) to 81,400 (1891), and at the turn of the century there were 212,000 single-teacher schools in the United States (1913), 39,000 rural schools in European Russia (1894), 32,500 primary schools in Imperial Germany (1911) and 8,900 elementary schools in Sweden (1900).

    Using the expanding Swedish nineteenth century elementary school system as a point of departure, this paper deals with the funding of school building projects, which is a fundamental issue both in respect to the history of schoolhouses, and the history of the expanding systems of mass education during the nineteenth century. Despite the attention that has been devoted to the social- and architectural history of schoolhouses, the funding of school building has only been treated in passing.

    Through an extensive study of 66 school building project in the Sundsvall region 1840-1900, this paper aims to show how the funding of school building changed over time as a result of development within the school system as such, and the wider societal developments of the agrarian- and industrial revolution. From being primarily funded by in kind and monetary taxes, schoolhouses were to a large extent funded using loans from the expanding credit market. Special attention will be devoted to the relation between these sources of funding and the donations (land plots, building materials and money) that the building projects received from wealthy farmers and industrialists. Despite that these donations were relatively small, this study shows that they could play a disproportionately large role when a schoolhouse was to be erected.

  • 40.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The distribution of government grants in Sweden, 1865-19002012In: European Social Science History Conference, 13-16 April 2012, Glasgow, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the nineteenth century, state controlled systems of popular education were established throughout Europe. In Sweden, this development was marked by the Elementary School Act of 1842. Through this act, the State turned parishes into school districts, and required every parish to establish an elementary school (folkskola) within five years. These schools would be administered by a school board, chaired by the vicar. 

    In order to enhance the quality of schooling, the Swedish State took measures. Through decrees, regulations and the renewed elementary school acts of 1882 and 1897, the State’s demands on the school districts were heightened. The State’s control over the Swedish elementary school system was tightened establishing a system of State inspectors following the decree of 1861, and in order to reward ambitious school districts, and support the poor ones, State grants were implemented in 1844 and reformed several times during the remainder of the century. This paper deals with these government grants, 1844-1900. 

    Firstly, this paper addresses questions regarding the development of these state grants. How did the state’s investments through government grants change during the period? To what extent can one speak of an increasing state control over school districts' finances? Secondly, it deals with the consequences of these changes. For example, the State grants were raised in order to increase the quality of schooling, but what intended or unintended strategic behaviour did such measures result in? Did the raised State grants result in more schools, higher teacher salaries, longer semesters, or did it just make it possible for the school districts to lower their local taxes? Thirdly, this paper will examine how the conditions of the school districts affected the consequences of the State’s measures. Which school districts benefitted most from raised State grants, and changes in the conditions of funding? 

    Using national statistical material, and sources from local school districts, this paper contributes to the literature on the history of social spending on public schooling, and state’s role in the emerging systems of mass education.

  • 41.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    The distribution of government grants in Sweden, 1865–19002012In: History of Schooling: Politics and local practice / [ed] Carla Aubry, Johannes Westberg, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, 15-37 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    "The floor is not a toy": On the material culture of individualizing technologies2007In: Nordic Perspectives of Lifelong Learning in the New Europe: comparative considerations of the educational space, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early eighties the independent and responsible individual has been problematized in terms of ‘genealogy’, ‘history of the present’ and ‘governmentality’. A number of important studies have shed light upon how individuals have come to be governed less trough limitations on their freedom, and more through ”technologies of the self” and ”individualizing technologies” that creates subjects who are capable of governing themselves. My intention with this paper is to examine the material and spatial aspects of these individualizing technologies; the ”governmateriality” of individualizing technologies. This is to be done through a study of the material culture of the Swedish preschool in the first half of the twentieth century. Among other things this paper will pay attention to how the design of water closets, the glass windows of the doors and the construction of toys was intended to mould children that participated in their own subordination.

  • 43.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    The Fourth Nordic Conference in the History of Education2010In: H-Net Discussion List on History of Education H-EDUCATION@H-NET.MSU.EDU, 11 mars 2010Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Funding of Early Care and Education Programmes in Sweden, 1845–19432011In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 40, no 4, 465-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What significance did donations, bequests, tuition fees and fund-raising events have for early care and education programmes during the nineteenth and early twentieth century? Through an examination of 24 Swedish infant schools, day nurseries and free kindergartens, this article verifies that donations and bequests were essential for the economy of these programmes. Revenues from fundraisers were, however, not as important as previous research suggests. Balls, concerts and coffee parties were arranged quite frequently, but their function was to create publicity rather than to raise revenues. Instead, fees and interest revenues played a larger part in the economy of these programmes than previous research has suggested. Thus, this article raises a series of questions regarding the funding of such programmes, national differences in this respect and the development of fund-raising strategies over time, opening up the field for further studies in this area of research.

  • 45.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Funding of Early Care and Education Programs in Sweden, 1845-19452009In: ISCHE 2009: An international conference about the history of popular education, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What significance did donations, bequest, tuition fees and fund raising events have for early care and education programs during the nineteenth and early twentieth century? Through an examination of 24 Swedish infant schools, day nurseries and free-kindergartens, this article verifies that donations and bequest was of uttermost importance for the economy of these programs. Revenues from fund raisers was, however, not as important as previous research suggests. Balls, concerts and coffee-parties were arranged quite frequent, but their function was rather to create publicity than raising revenues. Instead, fees and specially revenues from interest played a larger part in the economy of these programs than previous research have suggested. Thus, this article raises a series of questions regarding the funding of such programs, national differences in this respect, and the development of fundraising strategies over time, opening up for further studies in this area of research.

  • 46.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Making of Froebelian Heroes: Ellen and Maria Moberg in the history of Swedish kindergartens2010In: Internationaler Fröbelkongress, 8-10 April 2010, Jena, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellen (1874-1955) and Maria (1877-1948) Moberg are important figures in the history of Swedish kindergartens. Their reputation as kindergarten-pioneers and as founders of the Swedish National Froebel Society grew strong already in their lifetime, and they are still being portrayed as central actors in Swedish historical narratives.

     

    The aim of this paper is to study how these women were constructed as heroes in the history of Swedish early childhood education, and how this construction has changed over time. How have their lives, their work and their personalities been depicted? How have changing circumstances, for example developments in the historical sciences and early years education, affected these narratives?

     

    Using material from the archives of the Swedish National Froebel Society and the narratives of historical research on Swedish early childhood education, this paper demonstrates how, among other things, the advent of women’s history and the changing sources of the history of these two women, altered the way they were construed as heroes. From being self-sacrificing women with a vocation and hearts of gold during the first half of the twentieth century, the Moberg-sisters transformed into being strong and rational entrepreneurs. Despite this, their position as pioneers remained.

  • 47.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    The Making of Froebelian Heroes: Ellen and Maria Moberg in the history of Swedish kindergartens2010In: Fröbelpädagogik im Kontext der Moderne: Bildung, erziehung und soziales handeln / [ed] Karl Neumann, Ulf Sauerbrey & Michael Winkler, Jena: Verlag IKS Garamond , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The school act of 1842 and emergence of mass schooling in Sweden2015In: Sjätte nordiska utbildningshistoriska konferense, 20-21 augusti 2015, Uppsala, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of the Elementary School Act of 1842 (1842 års folkskolestadga) is one of the fundamental issues in the historiography of Swedish elementary schooling. In this study, I argue that the school act did not merely confirm an already pending process, but actually resulted in a radical change. Based upon an analysis of available statistical data and the implementation of the school act in local school districts, this article claims that the school act contributed to the establishment of a school system in large parts of Sweden, and that it was the factor that triggered the spread of elementary schooling across the country during the ten-year period that followed the school act. Its impact was, however, dependent on wider societal structures. Without a number of conditions, including the organisation of the parishes, the labour of landless groups and an expanding credit system, the demands of the school act would not have been met, and the Swedish elementary school system (folkskoleväsendet) would not have been able to emerge.

  • 49.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Thrifty or fair? : The economic thinking of Swedish school districts, 1840-19002016In: European Social Science History Conference, 30 March - 2 April 2016, Valencia., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic considerations of local school districts and their school boards were an important factor in the emergence of mass schooling during the nineteenth century. Consequently, both econometric analyses and historical studies have dealt with issues such as local fiscal capacity and the limited funds of school boards. Studies have, for example, drawn attention to the thriftiness of farmers in matters of schooling, and pointed out how school districts pursued a school system geared towards low teacher salaries, short semesters and cheap school buildings. In this context, the global diffusion of monitorial education has been explained by its inexpensive nature. 

    In this paper, I present a study of school districts’ economic activity and thinking in Sweden, 1840-1900. Using A. V. Chayanov’s and Eric R. Wolf’s classic analyses of peasant economy, and a case study of 12 school districts in northern Sweden as a starting point, this paper analyses how school districts balanced income with expenditures, how they understood the limited resources of their local community, and discussed their own financial budget. Thus I will be able to show that the school districts not only aspired to implement a school system at a minimum cost, but desired an economic practice that was righteous, just, sensible, moderate and justifiable. This meant that available resources were not the only, or, main guiding principle of the school boards. Instead, the school boards pursued a politics of schooling that catered to the needs of teachers, parents and children. The economy of the Swedish school districts was in this respect a complex social, economic and cultural practice. 

    In addition to being a contribution to the economic history of schooling, analyzing how issues of educational expenditure and fiscal capacity was discussed and dealt with by school boards, this paper also has wider relevance to the history of schooling. Since teachers’ salaries and the building and maintenance of schoolhouses were the main expenditure items of the Swedish school districts, this paper addresses issues that is of particular interest for the history of teachers and the history of schoolhouses.

  • 50.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Uma luta por mudanças: a escolarização e as regras da política local na Suécia (1840-1900)2015In: Revista História & Perspectivas, ISSN 2176-4352, Vol. 28, no 52, 83-107- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through an extensive study of 12 parishes in the Sundsvall region, this article, with the bias of the economic and social history studies of education, examines the changes and continuities of school policies during the nineteenth century. Using the Sundsvall region in Sweden’s northeastern as a starting point, this article analyzes how the basic conflicts have transformed, when the social structure and the political franchise have changed in the second half the nineteenth century.

12 1 - 50 of 63
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