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  • 1. Avia, Komlan
    et al.
    Karkkainen, Katri
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Savolainen, Outi
    Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)2014In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers.

  • 2. Axeisson, T
    et al.
    Shavorskaya, O
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Multiple flowering time QTLs within several Brassica species could be the result of duplicated copies of one ancestral gene.2001In: Genome, ISSN 0831-2796, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 856-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Axelsson, T
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Bowman, C M
    Sharpe, A G
    Lydiate, D J
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Amphidiploid Brassica juncea contains conserved progenitor genomes.2000In: Genome, ISSN 0831-2796, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 679-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Berlin, S.
    et al.
    Trybush, S. O.
    Fogelqvist, J.
    Gyllenstrand, N.
    Hallingbaeck, H. R.
    Ahman, I.
    Nordh, N-E
    Shield, I.
    Powers, S. J.
    Weih, M.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Roennberg-Waestljung, A-C
    Karp, A.
    Hanley, S. J.
    Genetic diversity, population structure and phenotypic variation in European Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae)2014In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1595-1610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the potential of association genetics for willow breeding, Salix viminalis germplasm was assembled from UK and Swedish collections (comprising accessions from several European countries) and new samples collected from nature. A subset of the germplasm was planted at two sites (UK and Sweden), genotyped using 38 SSR markers and assessed for phenological and biomass traits. Population structure, genetic differentiation (F-ST) and quantitative trait differentiation (Q(ST)) were investigated. The extent and patterns of trait adaptation were assessed by comparing F-ST and Q(ST) parameters. Of the 505 genotyped diploid accessions, 27 % were not unique. Genetic diversity was high: 471 alleles was amplified; the mean number of alleles per locus was 13.46, mean observed heterozygosity was 0.55 and mean expected heterozygosity was 0.62. Bayesian clustering identified four subpopulations which generally corresponded to Western Russia, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Sweden. All pairwise F-ST values were highly significant (p<0.001) with the greatest genetic differentiation detected between the Western Russian and the Western European subpopulations (F-ST = 0.12), and the smallest between the Swedish and Eastern European populations (F-ST = 0.04). The Swedish population also had the highest number of identical accessions, supporting the view that S. viminalis was introduced into this country and has been heavily influenced by humans. Q(ST) values were high for growth cessation and leaf senescence, and to some extent stem diameter, but low for bud burst time and shoot number. Overall negative clines between longitudinal coordinates and leaf senescence, bud burst and stem diameter were also found.

  • 5.
    Berlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fogelqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann Christin
    Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Polymorphism and divergence of two willow species, Salix viminalis L. and Salix schwerinii E. Wolf2011In: G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, ISSN 2160-1836, E-ISSN 2160-1836, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 387-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated species divergence, present and past gene flow, levels of nucleotide polymorphism, and linkage disequilibrium in two willows from the plant genus Salix. Salix belongs together with Populus to the Salicaceae family; however, most population genetic studies of Salicaceae have been performed in Populus, the model genus in forest biology. Here we present a study on two closely related willow species Salix viminalis and S. schwerinii, in which we have resequenced 33 and 32 nuclear gene segments representing parts of 18 nuclear loci in 24 individuals for each species. We used coalescent simulations and estimated the split time to around 600,000 years ago and found that there is currently limited gene flow between the species. Mean intronic nucleotide diversity across gene segments was slightly higher in S. schwerinii (πi = 0.00849) than in S. viminalis (πi = 0.00655). Compared with other angiosperm trees, the two willows harbor intermediate levels of silent polymorphisms. The decay of linkage disequilibrium was slower in S. viminalis compared with S. schwerinii, and we speculate that this is due to different demographic histories as S. viminalis has been partly domesticated in Europe.

  • 6. Berlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    von Arnold, Sara
    Öst, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann Christin
    High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus2010In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 129-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar) are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. RESULTS: We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12) between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary. Estimated silent substitution rates were 1.28 x 10-9 and 1.68 x 10-9 per site and year, which are close to rates found in other perennials but much lower than rates in annuals.

  • 7.
    Bodare, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Photoperiodic control of bud set and FTL2 expression in a tropical spruce species  (Picea morrisonicola)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8. Bowman, John L
    et al.
    Kohchi, Takayuki
    Yamato, Katsuyuki T
    Jenkins, Jerry
    Shu, Shengqiang
    Ishizaki, Kimitsune
    Yamaoka, Shohei
    Nishihama, Ryuichi
    Nakamura, Yasukazu
    Berger, Frédéric
    Adam, Catherine
    Aki, Shiori Sugamata
    Althoff, Felix
    Araki, Takashi
    Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario A
    Balasubrmanian, Sureshkumar
    Barry, Kerrie
    Bauer, Diane
    Boehm, Christian R
    Briginshaw, Liam
    Caballero-Perez, Juan
    Catarino, Bruno
    Chen, Feng
    Chiyoda, Shota
    Chovatia, Mansi
    Davies, Kevin M
    Delmans, Mihails
    Demura, Taku
    Dierschke, Tom
    Dolan, Liam
    Dorantes-Acosta, Ana E
    Eklund, D. Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Florent, Stevie N
    Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo
    Fujiyama, Asao
    Fukuzawa, Hideya
    Galik, Bence
    Grimanelli, Daniel
    Grimwood, Jane
    Grossniklaus, Ueli
    Hamada, Takahiro
    Haseloff, Jim
    Hetherington, Alexander J
    Higo, Asuka
    Hirakawa, Yuki
    Hundley, Hope N
    Ikeda, Yoko
    Inoue, Keisuke
    Inoue, Shin-Ichiro
    Ishida, Sakiko
    Jia, Qidong
    Kakita, Mitsuru
    Kanazawa, Takehiko
    Kawai, Yosuke
    Kawashima, Tomokazu
    Kennedy, Megan
    Kinose, Keita
    Kinoshita, Toshinori
    Kohara, Yuji
    Koide, Eri
    Komatsu, Kenji
    Kopischke, Sarah
    Kubo, Minoru
    Kyozuka, Junko
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lin, Shih-Shun
    Lindquist, Erika
    Lipzen, Anna M
    Lu, Chia-Wei
    De Luna, Efraín
    Martienssen, Robert A
    Minamino, Naoki
    Mizutani, Masaharu
    Mizutani, Miya
    Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi
    Monte, Isabel
    Mosher, Rebecca
    Nagasaki, Hideki
    Nakagami, Hirofumi
    Naramoto, Satoshi
    Nishitani, Kazuhiko
    Ohtani, Misato
    Okamoto, Takashi
    Okumura, Masaki
    Phillips, Jeremy
    Pollak, Bernardo
    Reinders, Anke
    Rövekamp, Moritz
    Sano, Ryosuke
    Sawa, Shinichiro
    Schmid, Marc W
    Shirakawa, Makoto
    Solano, Roberto
    Spunde, Alexander
    Suetsugu, Noriyuki
    Sugano, Sumio
    Sugiyama, Akifumi
    Sun, Rui
    Suzuki, Yutaka
    Takenaka, Mizuki
    Takezawa, Daisuke
    Tomogane, Hirokazu
    Tsuzuki, Masayuki
    Ueda, Takashi
    Umeda, Masaaki
    Ward, John M
    Watanabe, Yuichiro
    Yazaki, Kazufumi
    Yokoyama, Ryusuke
    Yoshitake, Yoshihiro
    Yotsui, Izumi
    Zachgo, Sabine
    Schmutz, Jeremy
    Insights into Land Plant Evolution Garnered from the Marchantia polymorpha Genome2017In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 171, no 2, p. 287-304.15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of land flora transformed the terrestrial environment. Land plants evolved from an ancestral charophycean alga from which they inherited developmental, biochemical, and cell biological attributes. Additional biochemical and physiological adaptations to land, and a life cycle with an alternation between multicellular haploid and diploid generations that facilitated efficient dispersal of desiccation tolerant spores, evolved in the ancestral land plant. We analyzed the genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of a basal land plant lineage. Relative to charophycean algae, land plant genomes are characterized by genes encoding novel biochemical pathways, new phytohormone signaling pathways (notably auxin), expanded repertoires of signaling pathways, and increased diversity in some transcription factor families. Compared with other sequenced land plants, M. polymorpha exhibits low genetic redundancy in most regulatory pathways, with this portion of its genome resembling that predicted for the ancestral land plant. PAPERCLIP.

  • 9. Carlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Sundström, Jens
    Teixeira, Rita
    Wellmer, Frank
    Meyerowitz, Elliot M.
    Glimelius, Kristina
    Microarray analysis reveals altered expression of a large number of nuclear genes in developing cytoplasmic male sterile Brassica napus flowers2007In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 452-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain new insights into the mechanism underlying cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we compared the nuclear gene expression profiles of flowers of a Brassica napus CMS line with that of the fertile B. napus maintainer line using Arabidopsis thaliana flower-specific cDNA microarrays. The CMS line used has a B. napus nuclear genome, but has a rearranged mitochondrial (mt) genome consisting of both B. napus and A. thaliana DNA. Gene expression profiling revealed that a large number of genes differed in expression between the two lines. For example, nuclear genes coding for proteins that are involved in protein import into organelles, genes expressed in stamens and pollen, as well as genes implicated in either cell-wall remodeling or architecture, were repressed in the CMS line compared with B. napus. These results show that the mt genome of the CMS line strongly influences nuclear gene expression, and thus reveal the importance of retrograde signalling between the mitochondria and the nucleus. Furthermore, flowers of the CMS line are characterized by a replacement of stamens with carpelloid organs, and thus partially resemble the APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) mutants. In accordance with this phenotype, AP3 expression was downregulated in the stamens, shortly before these organs developed carpelloid characteristics, even though it was initiated correctly. Repression of PI succeeded that of AP3 and might be a consequence of a loss of AP3 activity. These results suggest that AP3 expression in stamens depends on proper mt function and a correct nuclear-mt interaction, and that mt alterations cause the male sterility phenotype of the CMS line.

  • 10.
    Chen, Jun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ma, Xiaofei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Zaina, Giusi
    Morgante, Michele
    Bousquet, Jean
    Eckert, Andrew
    Wegrzyn, Jill
    Neale, David
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Disentangling the Roles of History and Local Selection in Shaping Clinal Variation of Allele Frequencies and Gene Expression in Norway Spruce (Picea abies)2012In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 191, no 3, p. 865-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We confirmed that variation in bud set is strongly clinal, using a subset of five populations. Genotypes for 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen from 18 candidate genes putatively affecting bud set and 308 control SNPs chosen from 264 random genes were analyzed for patterns of genetic structure and correlation to environment. Population genetic structure was low (F(ST) = 0.05), but latitudinal patterns were apparent among Scandinavian populations. Hence, part of the observed clinal variation should be attributable to population demography. Conditional on patterns of genetic structure, there was enrichment of SNPs within candidate genes for correlations with latitude. Twenty-nine SNPs were also outliers with respect to F(ST). The enrichment for clinal variation at SNPs within candidate genes (i.e., SNPs in PaGI, PaPhyP, PaPhyN, PaPRR7, and PaFTL2) indicated that local selection in the 18 populations, and/or selection in the ancestral populations from which they were recently derived, shaped the observed cline. Validation of these genes using expression studies also revealed that PaFTL2 expression is significantly associated with latitude, thereby confirming the central role played by this gene in the control of phenology in plants.

  • 11.
    Chen, Jun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Uebbing, Severin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L.) reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms compared to angiosperms2012In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 13, p. 589-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A detailed knowledge about which genes are expressed in which tissues and at which developmental stage is important for understanding both the function of genes and their evolution. For the vast majority of species, transcriptomes are still largely uncharacterized and even in those where substantial information is available it is often in the form of partially sequenced transcriptomes. With the development of next generation sequencing, a single experiment can now give both a snap-shot of the transcribed part of a species genome and simultaneously estimate levels of gene expression.

    Results: mRNA from actively growing needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. In total, close to 70 million fragments with a length of 76 bp were sequenced resulting in 5 Gbp of raw data. A de novo assembly of these reads were, together with publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) data from Norway spruce, used to create a reference transcriptome. Of the 38,419 PUTs (putative unique transcripts) longer than 150 bp in this reference assembly, 59% show similarity to ESTs from other spruce species and of the remaining PUTs, 3,704 show similarity to protein sequences from other plant species, leaving 4,167 PUTs with limited similarity to currently available plant proteins. By predicting coding frames and comparing not only the Norway spruce PUTs, but also PUTs from the close relatives Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis to both Pinus taeda and Taxus mairei, we obtained estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among conifer species. In addition, we detected close to 15,000 SNPs of high quality and estimated gene expression difference between samples collected during dark and light conditions.

    Conclusions: Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 × 10-09 and 1.1 × 10-09) is an order of magnitude smaller than values reported for angiosperm herbs, but if one takes generation time in to account, most of this difference disappear. The estimates of the non-synonymous over the synonymous divergence (dN/dS ratio) reported here is in general much lower than 1 and only a few genes showed a ratio larger than 1.

  • 12. Das, S
    et al.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Evolutionär Funktionsgenomik.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Evolutionär Funktionsgenomik.
    Black mustard2006In: Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants: Oilseeds, Springer, , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13. Dun, Xiaoling
    et al.
    Shen, Wenhao
    Hu, Kaining
    Zhou, Zhengfu
    Xia, Shengqian
    Wen, Jing
    Yi, Bin
    Shen, Jinxiong
    Ma, Chaozhi
    Tu, Jinxing
    Fu, Tingdong
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Neofunctionalization of Duplicated Tic40 Genes Caused a Gain-of-Function Variation Related to Male Fertility in Brassica oleracea Lineages2014In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 166, no 3, p. 1403-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes.

  • 14. Eklund, D. Magnus
    et al.
    Ishizaki, Kimitsune
    Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo
    Kikuchi, Saya
    Takebayashi, Yumiko
    Tsukamoto, Shigeyuki
    Hirakawa, Yuki
    Nonomura, Maiko
    Kato, Hirotaka
    Kouno, Masaru
    Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Kasahara, Hiroyuki
    Kohchi, Takayuki
    Bowman, John L.
    Auxin Produced by the Indole-3-Pyruvic Acid Pathway Regulates Development and Gemmae Dormancy in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorph2015In: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1650-1669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plant hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) has previously been suggested to regulate diverse forms of dormancy in both seed plants and liverworts. Here, we use loss-and gain-of-function alleles for auxin synthesis-and signaling-related genes, as well as pharmacological approaches, to study how auxin regulates development and dormancy in the gametophyte generation of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. We found that M. polymorpha possess the smallest known toolkit for the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway in any land plant and that this auxin synthesis pathway mainly is active in meristematic regions of the thallus. Previously a Trp-independent auxin synthesis pathway has been suggested to produce a majority of IAA in bryophytes. Our results indicate that the Trp-dependent IPyA pathway produces IAA that is essential for proper development of the gametophyte thallus of M. polymorpha. Furthermore, we show that dormancy of gemmae is positively regulated by auxin synthesized by the IPyA pathway in the apex of the thallus. Our results indicate that auxin synthesis, transport, and signaling, in addition to its role in growth and development, have a critical role in regulation of gemmae dormancy in M. polymorpha.

  • 15.
    Eklund, D. Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Kanei, Masakazu
    Tokyo Univ Agr, Dept Biosci, Tokyo 1568502, Japan.
    Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Ishizaki, Kimitsune
    Kobe Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Kobe, Hyogo 6578501, Japan.
    Nishihama, Ryuichi
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Kohchi, Takayuki
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umea Plant Sci Ctr, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Sakata, Yoichi
    Tokyo Univ Agr, Dept Biosci, Tokyo 1568502, Japan.
    Bowman, John L.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    An Evolutionarily Conserved Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway Regulates Dormancy in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha2018In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 3691-3699.e3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dormancy is a key process allowing land plants to adapt to changing conditions in the terrestrial habitat, allowing the cessation of growth in response to environmental or physiological cues, entrance into a temporary quiescent state, and subsequent reactivation of growth in more favorable environmental conditions [1-3]. Dormancy may be induced seasonally, sporadically (e.g., in response to drought), or developmentally (e.g., seeds and apical dominance). Asexual propagules, known as gemmae, derived via clonal reproduction in bryophytes, are often dormant until displaced from the parent plant. In the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, gemmae are produced within specialized receptacles, gemma cups, located on the dorsal side of the vegetative thallus [4]. Mature gemmae are detached from the parent plant but may remain in the cup, with gemma growth suppressed as long as the gemmae remain in the gemma cup and the parental plant is alive [5]. Following dispersal of gemmae from gemma cups by rain, the gemmae germinate in the presence of light and moisture, producing clonal offspring [6]. In land plants, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of dormancy and water balance [7]. Here, we demonstrate that ABA plays a central role in the control of gemma dormancy as transgenic M. polymorpha gemmae with reduced sensitivity to ABA fail to establish and/or maintain dormancy. Thus, the common ancestor of land plants used the ABA signaling module to regulate germination of progeny in response to environmental cues, with both gemmae and seeds being derived structures co-opting an ancestral response system.

  • 16. Ghelardini, Luisa
    et al.
    Berlin, Sofia
    Weih, Martin
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Ronnberg-Wastljung, Ann Christin y
    Genetic architecture of spring and autumn phenology in Salix2014In: BMC Plant Biology, ISSN 1471-2229, E-ISSN 1471-2229, Vol. 14, p. 31-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In woody plants from temperate regions, adaptation to the local climate results in annual cycles of growth and dormancy, and optimal regulation of these cycles are critical for growth, long-term survival, and competitive success. In this study we have investigated the genetic background to growth phenology in a Salix pedigree by assessing genetic and phenotypic variation in growth cessation, leaf senescence and bud burst in different years and environments. A previously constructed linkage map using the same pedigree and anchored to the annotated genome of P. trichocarpa was improved in target regions and used for QTL analysis of the traits. The major aims in this study were to map QTLs for phenology traits in Salix, and to identify candidate genes in QTL hot spots through comparative mapping with the closely related Populus trichocarpa. Results: All traits varied significantly among genotypes and the broad-sense heritabilities ranged between 0.5 and 0.9, with the highest for leaf senescence. In total across experiment and years, 80 QTLs were detected. For individual traits, the QTLs explained together from 21.5 to 56.5% of the variation. Generally each individual QTL explained a low amount of the variation but three QTLs explained above 15% of the variation with one QTL for leaf senescence explaining 34% of the variation. The majority of the QTLs were recurrently identified across traits, years and environments. Two hotspots were identified on linkage group (LG) II and X where narrow QTLs for all traits co-localized. Conclusions: This study provides the most detailed analysis of QTL detection for phenology in Salix conducted so far. Several hotspot regions were found where QTLs for different traits and QTLs for the same trait but identified during different years co-localised. Many QTLs co-localised with QTLs found in poplar for similar traits that could indicate common pathways for these traits in Salicaceae. This study is an important first step in identifying QTLs and candidate genes for phenology traits in Salix.

  • 17.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Clapham, David
    SLU.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    A Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog is implicated in control of growth rhythm in conifers2007In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 144, no 1, p. 248-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants.

  • 18.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    et al.
    Växtbiologi och skogsgenetik, Plant Biology and Forest Genetics.
    Karlgren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Clapham, David
    Växtbiologi och skogsgenetik, Plant Biology and Forest Genetics.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hall, Anthony
    Gould, Peter D.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    No time for spruce: rapid dampening of circadian rhythms in Picea abies (L. Karst)2014In: Plant and Cell Physiology, ISSN 0032-0781, E-ISSN 1471-9053, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 535-550Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hallingback, Henrik R.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fogelqvist, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Powers, Stephen J.
    Rothamsted Res, Computat & Syst Biol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Turrion-Gomez, Juan
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Rossiter, Rachel
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Amey, Joanna
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Martin, Tom
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Weih, Martin
    Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Karp, Angela
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hanley, Steven J.
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Berlin, Sofia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Roennberg-Wastljung, Ann-Christin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Association mapping in Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae) - identification of candidate genes associated with growth and phenology2016In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 670-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Willow species (Salix) are important as short-rotation biomass crops for bioenergy, which creates a demand for faster genetic improvement and breeding through deployment of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). To find markers associated with important adaptive traits, such as growth and phenology, for use in MAS, we genetically dissected the trait variation of a Salix viminalis (L.) population of 323 accessions. The accessions were sampled throughout northern Europe and were established at two field sites in Pustnas, Sweden, and at Woburn, UK, offering the opportunity to assess the impact of genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) on trait-marker associations. Field measurements were recorded for growth and phenology traits. The accessions were genotyped using 1536 SNP markers developed from phenology candidate genes and from genes previously observed to be differentially expressed in contrasting environments. Association mapping between 1233 of these SNPs and the measured traits was performed taking into account population structure and threshold selection bias. At a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.2, 29 SNPs were associated with bud burst, leaf senescence, number of shoots or shoot diameter. The percentage of accession variation explained by these associations ranged from 0.3% to 4.4%, suggesting that the studied traits are controlled by many loci of limited individual impact. Despite this, a SNP in the EARLY FLOWERING 3 gene was repeatedly associated (FDR<0.2) with bud burst. The rare homozygous genotype exhibited 0.4-1.0 lower bud burst scores than the other genotype classes on a five-grade scale. Consequently, this marker could be promising for use in MAS and the gene deserves further study. Otherwise, associations were less consistent across sites, likely due to their small estimates and to considerable GxE interactions indicated by multivariate association analyses and modest trait accession correlations across sites (0.32-0.61).

  • 20.
    Holm, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish Agricultural University.
    Hedman, Harald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Does the core circadian clock in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) comprise a single loop?2010In: BMC Plant Biology, ISSN 1471-2229, E-ISSN 1471-2229, Vol. 10, p. 109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The endogenous circadian clock allows the organism to synchronize processes both to daily and seasonal changes. In plants, many metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, as well as photoperiodic responses, are under the control of a circadian clock. Comparative studies with the moss Physcomitrella patens provide the opportunity to study many aspects of land plant evolution. Here we present a comparative overview of clock-associated components and the circadian network in the moss P. patens.

    Results: The moss P. patens has a set of conserved circadian core components that share genetic relationship and gene expression patterns with clock genes of vascular plants. These genes include Myb-like transcription factors PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b, pseudo-response regulators PpPRR1-4, and regulatory elements PpELF3, PpLUX and possibly PpELF4. However, the moss lacks homologs of AtTOC1, AtGI and the AtZTL-family of genes, which can be found in all vascular plants studied here. These three genes constitute essential components of two of the three integrated feed-back loops in the current model of the Arabidopsis circadian clock mechanism. Consequently, our results suggest instead a single loop circadian clock in the moss. Possibly as a result of this, temperature compensation of core clock gene expression appears to be decreased in P. patens.

    Conclusions: This study is the first comparative overview of the circadian clock mechanism in a basal land plant, the moss P. patens. Our results indicate that the moss clock mechanism may represent an ancestral state in contrast to the more complex and partly duplicated structure of subsequent land plants. These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of circadian network topology.

  • 21.
    Höglund, Solveig
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann Christin
    Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Larsson, Stig
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    A rare major plant QTL determines non-responsiveness to a gall-forming insect in willow2012In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1051-1060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth and defence are plant traits that determine attack success by sessile herbivorous insects. Models of plant resistance suggest induced resistance to be an especially important mechanism in growth-dominated plant species. Little is known, however, about the effects of absence of induced responses as an alternative resistance mechanism. Large genetically based intraspecific variation in resistance (neonate larval mortality) occurs in Salix viminalis against the gall midge Dasineura marginemtorquens. In certain resistant genotypes, larval mortality is associated with formation of necrotic lesions and biochemical changes commonly found in hypersensitive response (HR). More detailed studies, however, have shown that resistance can occur without HR symptoms. By means of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, this study tested whether (1) resistance is caused by the HR or (2) by the failure of the midge to initiate a gall (non-responsiveness). One QTL explained 68 and 18 % of the variation in resistance in the experimental population during 2 years of investigation. Co-location of QTLs for resistance and HR was found in only one of the years, i.e. when HR was suppressed. The data suggest that the mechanism of resistance involves non-responsiveness, implying that the insect starves to death due to lack of resources. Such symptomless defence may be more important than previously thought because it is difficult to observe in nature.

  • 22. Ingouff, M
    et al.
    Farbos, I
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    von Arnold, S
    PaHB1 is an evolutionary conserved HD-GL2 homeobox gene expressed in the protoderm during Norway spruce embryo development.2001In: Genesis, ISSN 1526-954X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 220-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Karlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Växtbiologi och skogsgenetik, Plant Biology and Forest Genetics.
    Clapham, David
    Växtbiologi och skogsgenetik, Plant Biology and Forest Genetics.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-Like Genes Affect Growth Rhythm and Bud Set in Norway Spruce2013In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 163, no 2, p. 792-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of bud set, as one determinant of the annual growth rhythm, is critical for local adaptation of the conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies). Previous gene expression and population genetic studies have suggested a role for P. abies FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-Like2 (PaFTL2) in the control of growth cessation and bud set in Norway spruce as well as in local adaptation resulting in clinal variation for timing of bud set. Using transgenic plants with PaFTL2 driven by an inducible promoter, we found that PaFTL2 indeed induces bud set and most probably also growth cessation. PaFTL2 shows high expression around the procambium and vascular tissue and in the crown region in buds of both seedlings and older trees. Furthermore, PaFTL2 expression is induced in vegetative shoots and all bud types in late summer, when growth cessation occurs. This supports the notion that PaFTL2 is involved in growth cessation. A close paralog to PaFTL2, PaFTL1, is strongly expressed in meristems during the summer, possibly to repress meristem activity and the formation of needle primordia during this period. The temporal and spatial expression of PaFTL1 and PaFTL2 largely complement each other, which suggests that they act in concert to control perennial growth in Norway spruce.

  • 24.
    Karlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Växtbiologi och skogsgenetik, Plant Biology and Forest Genetics.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst)2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 3, p. e60110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partlyconserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of thethree-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present beforethe split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  • 25.
    Karlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sundström, Jens F.
    Moore, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Evolution of the PEBP Gene Family in Plants: Functional Diversification in Seed Plant Evolution2011In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 156, no 4, p. 1967-1977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family is present in all eukaryote kingdoms, with three subfamilies identified in angiosperms (FLOWERING LOCUS T [FT], MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 [MFT], and TERMINAL FLOWER1 [TFL1] like). In angiosperms, PEBP genes have been shown to function both as promoters and suppressors of flowering and to control plant architecture. In this study, we focus on previously uncharacterized PEBP genes from gymnosperms. Extensive database searches suggest that gymnosperms possess only two types of PEBP genes, MFT-like and a group that occupies an intermediate phylogenetic position between the FT-like and TFL1-like (FT/TFL1-like). Overexpression of Picea abies PEBP genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggests that the FT/TFL1-like genes (PaFTL1 and PaFTL2) code for proteins with a TFL1-like function. However, PaFTL1 and PaFTL2 also show highly divergent expression patterns. While the expression of PaFTL2 is correlated with annual growth rhythm and mainly confined to needles and vegetative and reproductive buds, the expression of PaFTL1 is largely restricted to microsporophylls of male cones. The P. abies MFT-like genes (PaMFT1 and PaMFT2) show a predominant expression during embryo development, a pattern that is also found for many MFT-like genes from angiosperms. P. abies PEBP gene expression is primarily detected in tissues undergoing physiological changes related to growth arrest and dormancy. A first duplication event resulting in two families of plant PEBP genes (MFT-like and FT/TFL1-like) seems to coincide with the evolution of seed plants, in which independent control of bud and seed dormancy was required, and the second duplication resulting in the FT-like and TFL1-like clades probably coincided with the evolution of angiosperms.

  • 26.
    Kemi, Ulla
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Niittyvuopio, Anne
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Tiovainen, Tuomas
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Pasanen, Anu
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Savolainen, Outi
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Kuittinen, Helmi
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Role of vernalization and of duplicated Flowering Locus C in the perennial Arabidopsis lyrata2013In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 197, no 1, p. 323-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is one of the main genes influencing the vernalization requirement and natural flowering time variation in the annual Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we studied the effects of vernalization on flowering and its genetic basis in the perennial Arabidopsis lyrata. Two tandemly duplicated FLC genes (FLC1 and FLC2) were compared with respect to expression and DNA sequence. The effect of vernalization on flowering and on the expression of FLC1 was studied in three European populations. The genetic basis of the FLC1 expression difference between two of the populations was further studied by expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and sequence analysis. FLC1 was shown to have a likely role in the vernalization requirement for flowering in A. lyrata. Vernalization decreased its expression and the northern study populations showed higher FLC1 expression than the southern one. eQTL mapping between two of the populations revealed one eQTL affecting FLC1 expression in the genomic region containing the FLC genes. Most FLC1 sequence differences between the study populations were found in the promoter region and in the first intron. Variation in the FLC1 sequence may cause differences in FLC1 expression between late- and early-flowering A. lyrata populations.

  • 27.
    Kruskopf-Österberg, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Shavorskaya, O
    Lascoux, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Naturally occurring indel variation in the B. nigra COL1 gene is associated with variation in flowering time.2002In: Genetics, Vol. 161, p. 299-306Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Kryvokhyzha, Dmytro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Cornille, Amandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Univ Montpellier, CNRS IRD EPHE, ISEM UMR 5554, Inst Sci Evolut, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34075 Montpellier, France..
    Wright, Stephen I.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolut, 25 Willcocks St, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada..
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The influence of population structure on gene expression and flowering time variation in the ubiquitous weed Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae)2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1106-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population structure is a potential problem when testing for adaptive phenotypic differences among populations. The observed phenotypic differences among populations can simply be due to genetic drift, and if the genetic distance between them is not considered, the differentiation may be falsely interpreted as adaptive. Conversely, adaptive and demographic processes might have been tightly associated and correcting for the population structure may lead to false negatives. Here, we evaluated this problem in the cosmopolitan weed Capsella bursa-pastoris. We used RNA-Seq to analyse gene expression differences among 24 accessions, which belonged to a much larger group that had been previously characterized for flowering time and circadian rhythm and were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique. We found that clustering of accessions for gene expression retrieved the same three clusters that were obtained with GBS data previously, namely Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Moreover, the three groups were also differentiated for both flowering time and circadian rhythm variation. Correction for population genetic structure when analysing differential gene expression analysis removed all differences among the three groups. This may suggest that most differences are neutral and simply reflect population history. However, geographical variation in flowering time and circadian rhythm indicated that the distribution of adaptive traits might be confounded by population structure. To bypass this confounding effect, we compared gene expression differentiation between flowering ecotypes within the genetic groups. Among the differentially expressed genes, FLOWERING LOCUS C was the strongest candidate for local adaptation in regulation of flowering time.

  • 29.
    Kryvokhyzha, Dmytro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Salcedo, Adriana
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Eriksson, Mimmi C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Duan, Tianlin
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Tawari, Nilesh
    ASTAR, Genome Inst Singapore, Computat & Syst Biol Grp, Singapore, Singapore.
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Guerrina, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kreiner, Julia M.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Kent, Tyler V.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Stinchcombe, John R.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6553, ECOBIO,Ecosyst,Biodivers,Evolut, F-35000 Rennes, France.
    Wright, Stephen I.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Parental legacy, demography, and admixture influenced the evolution of the two subgenomes of the tetraploid Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae)2019In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 15, no 2, article id e1007949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allopolyploidy is generally perceived as a major source of evolutionary novelties and as an instantaneous way to create isolation barriers. However, we do not have a clear understanding of how two subgenomes evolve and interact once they have fused in an allopolyploid species nor how isolated they are from their relatives. Here, we address these questions by analyzing genomic and transcriptomic data of allotetraploid Capsella bursa-pastoris in three differentiated populations, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. We phased the two subgenomes, one descended from the outcrossing and highly diverse Capsella grandiflora (Cbp(Cg)) and the other one from the selfing and genetically depauperate Capsella orientalis (Cbp(Co)). For each subgenome, we assessed its relationship with the diploid relatives, temporal changes of effective population size (N-e), signatures of positive and negative selection, and gene expression patterns. In all three regions, N-e of the two subgenomes decreased gradually over time and the Cbp(Co) subgenome accumulated more deleterious changes than Cbp(Cg). There were signs of widespread admixture between C. bursa-pastoris and its diploid relatives. The two subgenomes were impacted differentially depending on geographic region suggesting either strong interploidy gene flow or multiple origins of C. bursa-pastoris. Selective sweeps were more common on the Cbp(Cg) subgenome in Europe and the Middle East, and on the Cbp(Co) subgenome in Asia. In contrast, differences in expression were limited with the Cbp(Cg) subgenome slightly more expressed than Cbp(Co) in Europe and the Middle-East. In summary, after more than 100,000 generations of co-existence, the two subgenomes of C. bursa-pastoris still retained a strong signature of parental legacy but their evolutionary trajectory strongly varied across geographic regions. Author summary Allopolyploid species have two or more sets of chromosomes that originate from hybridization of different species. It remains largely unknown how the two genomes evolve in the same organism and how strongly their evolutionary trajectory depends on the initial differences between the two parental species and the specific demographic history of the newly formed allopolyploid species. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomic and gene expression variation of the shepherd's purse, a recent allopolyploid species, in three regions of its natural range. After approximate to 100,000 generations of co-existence within the same species, the two subgenomes had still retained part of the initial difference between the two parental species in the number of deleterious mutations reflecting a history of mating system differences. This difference, as well as differences in patterns of positive selection and levels of gene expression, also strongly depended on the specific histories of the three regions considered. Most strikingly, and unexpectedly, the allopolyploid species showed signs of hybridization with different diploid relatives or multiple origins in different parts of its range. Regardless if it was hybridization or multiple origins, this profoundly altered the relationship between the two subgenomes in different regions. Hence, our study illustrates how both the genomic structure and ecological arena interact to determine the evolutionary trajectories of allopolyploid species.

  • 30.
    Källman, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    A significant fraction of 21-nucleotide small RNA originates from phased degradation of resistance genes in several perennial species2013In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 162, no 2, p. 741-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNA (miRNA) and short-interfering RNA (siRNA), are important in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Comparative studies of sRNAs from plants have mainly focused on miRNA, even though they constitute a mere fraction of the total sRNA diversity. In this study, we report results from an in-depth analysis of the sRNA population from the conifer spruce (Picea abies) and compared the results with those of a range of plant species. The vast majority of sRNA sequences in spruce can be assigned to 21-nucleotide-long siRNA sequences, of which a large fraction originate from the degradation of transcribed sequences related to nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat-type resistance genes. Over 90% of all genes predicted to contain either a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor or nucleotide-binding site domain showed evidence of siRNA degradation. The data further suggest that this phased degradation of resistance-related genes is initiated from miRNA-guided cleavage, often by an abundant 22-nucleotide miRNA. Comparative analysis over a range of plant species revealed a huge variation in the abundance of this phenomenon. The process seemed to be virtually absent in several species, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and nonvascular plants, while particularly high frequencies were observed in spruce, grape (Vitis vinifera), and poplar (Populus trichocarpa). This divergent pattern might reflect a mechanism to limit runaway transcription of these genes in species with rapidly expanding nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat gene families. Alternatively, it might reflect variation in a counter-counter defense mechanism between plant species.

  • 31.
    Källman, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Major difference in short RNA populations among plants - the results of interaction with pathogen?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small RNA (sRNA) including miRNA and siRNA are important in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Comparative studies of sRNA from plants have mainly focused on miRNA even though this group in most cases is just a mere fraction of the total sRNA diversity. In the present study we report results from an in-depth analysis of the sRNA population from the conifer Picea abies and compared the results to those of a range of species from the plant kingdom. The vast majority of sRNA in P. abies was 21 nucleotides long siRNA, of which a large fraction originate from degradation of transcribed sequences related to TIR-NBS-LRR (Toll/Interleukin-1-Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeats) type resistance genes. Over 90% of all genes predicted to contain either a TIR or an NBS domain showed evidence of siRNA degradation. Data further suggests that those phased siRNA are initiated from miRNA guided cleavage, often by an abundant 22 nt miRNA. Comparative analysis over a range of divergent plant species revealed a large variation between species in the abundance of this phenomenon. The process seemed to be virtually absent in several species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and non-vascular plants, while particularly high frequencies were observed in Vitis vinifera and Populus thrichocarpa. This divergent pattern between species might reflect a mechanism to limit runaway transcription of these genes in species with rapidly expanding NBS-LRR gene families. Alternatively it might reflect variation in a counter-counter defence mechanism partly affected by differences in life history traits, e.g. perennial versus annual life cycles. A major difference between annuals and perennials, affecting the evolution of resistance, is that perennials will with almost certainty encounter many different pathogens before reproduction, and that the long generation times confers problems in matching the evolutionary rates of the pathogens.

  • 32.
    Källman, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    De Mita, Stéphane
    INRA Nancy, 54280 Champenoux, France.
    Larsson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Heuertz, Myriam
    Forest Research Centre INIA-CIFOR, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
    Parducci, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Suyama, Yoshihisa
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Japan.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in the conifer Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) (Karst)]2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, p. e95306-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce

  • 33.
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Comparative mapping between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica nigra indicates that Brassica genomes have evolved through extensive genome replication accompanied by chromosome fusions and frequent rearrangements.1998In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 1217-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lagercrantz, U
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Axelsson, T
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Rapid evolution of the family of CONSTANS LIKE genes in plants.2000In: Mol Biol Evol, ISSN 0737-4038, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1499-507Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lagercrantz, U
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Putterill, J
    Coupland, G
    Lydiate, D
    Comparative mapping in Arabidopsis and Brassica, fine scale genome collinearity and congruence of genes controlling flowering time.1996In: Plant J, ISSN 0960-7412, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lagercrantz, U
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Österberg, MK
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Lascoux, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Sequence variation and haplotype structure at the putative flowering-time locus COL1 of Brassica nigra2002In: Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 1474-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Lydiate, DJ
    Comparative genome mapping in Brassica1996In: GENETICS, ISSN 0016-6731, Vol. 144, no 4, p. 1903-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Brassica nigra genetic linkage map was developed from a highly polymorphic cross analyzed with a set of low copy number Brassica RFLP probes. The Brassica genome is extensively duplicated with eight distinct sets of chromosomal segments, each present in

  • 38.
    Linde, Anna-Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eklund, D. Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kubota, Akane
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Pederson, Eric R. A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nishihama, Ryuichi
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Cronberg, Nils
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Muranaka, Tomoaki
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Oyama, Tokitaka
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Kohchi, Takayuki
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Early evolution of the land plant circadian clock2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 216, no 2, p. 576-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While angiosperm clocks can be described as an intricate network of interlocked transcriptional feedback loops, clocks of green algae have been modelled as a loop of only two genes. To investigate the transition from a simple clock in algae to a complex one in angiosperms, we performed an inventory of circadian clock genes in bryophytes and charophytes. Additionally, we performed functional characterization of putative core clock genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the hornwort Anthoceros agrestis. Phylogenetic construction was combined with studies of spatiotemporal expression patterns and analysis of M. polymorpha clock gene mutants. Homologues to core clock genes identified in Arabidopsis were found not only in bryophytes but also in charophytes, albeit in fewer copies. Circadian rhythms were detected for most identified genes in M. polymorpha and A. agrestis, and mutant analysis supports a role for putative clock genes in M. polymorpha. Our data are in line with a recent hypothesis that adaptation to terrestrial life occurred earlier than previously expected in the evolutionary history of charophyte algae. Both gene duplication and acquisition of new genes was important in the evolution of the plant circadian clock, but gene loss has also contributed to shaping the clock of bryophytes.

  • 39. Samils, B
    et al.
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Lascoux, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Gullberg, U
    Genetic diversity and the relative importance of sexual and asexual reproduction in populations of Melampsora epitea.2001In: Eur. J. Plant Path, Vol. 107, p. 871-881Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Samils, B
    et al.
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Lascoux, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Gullberg, U
    Genetic structure of Melampsora epitea populations in Swedish Salix viminalis populations2001In: Eur. J. For. Path., Vol. 107, p. 399-404Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Semerikov, VL
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Tsahouras, V
    Rönnberg-Wästljung, A
    Alström-Rapaport, A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Lascoux, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Genetic mapping of sex-linked markers in Salix viminalis2003In: Heredity, Vol. 91, p. 293-299Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Shavorskaya, Oksana
    et al.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Sequence divergence at the putative flowering time locus COL1 in Brassicaceae.2006In: Mol Phylogenet Evol, ISSN 1055-7903, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 846-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Sjödin, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Hedman, Harald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Shavorskaya, O.
    Finet, Cédric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Recent degeneration of an old duplicated flowering time gene in Brassica nigra2007In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 98, no 6, p. 375-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene and genome duplications play a major role in the evolution of plant species. The Brassica nigra genome is highly replicated as a result of ancient polyploidization events. Two copies of the flowering time gene CONSTANS (COa and COb) have been identified in B. nigra, and previous studies showed that COa is functional. In the present study, the polymorphism of 92 COb alleles sampled in seven populations was analyzed. Both polymorphism and recombination levels were elevated and varied strongly among populations and 8% of COb alleles exhibit apparently disabling mutations. Sequence data, however, do not provide unambiguous support for the presence of relaxed selective constraint on COb as compared to known functional CO genes. On the one hand, some of the disabling mutations reached high-frequency arguing for a loss of function but, on the other hand, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide polymorphism and diversity is low and similar to that observed in other B. nigra CO and CO-like genes, supporting the conservation of some function. We also showed that COb is still transcribed. Finally, the flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana co mutant plants transformed with COb alleles with and without apparent disabling mutations was similar. We propose that COb was retained for a long period after duplication, but a recent fixation of a detrimental mutation, possibly as an effect of a bottleneck, resulted in its nonfunctionalization. We also speculate as to the presence of subsequent selection for rapid degeneration of the gene.

  • 44.
    Slotte, Tanja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    McIntyre, Lauren
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Differential expression of genes important for adaptation in Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae)2007In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 145, no 1, p. 160-173Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic basis of natural variation is of primary interest for evolutionary studies of adaptation. In Capsella bursa-pastoris, a close relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), variation in flowering time is correlated with latitude, suggestive of an adaptation to photoperiod. To identify pathways regulating natural flowering time variation in C. bursa-pastoris, we have studied gene expression differences between two pairs of early- and late-flowering C. bursa-pastoris accessions and compared their response to vernalization. Using Arabidopsis microarrays, we found a large number of significant differences in gene expression between flowering ecotypes. The key flowering time gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) was not differentially expressed prior to vernalization. This result is in contrast to those in Arabidopsis, where most natural flowering time variation acts through FLC. However, the gibberellin and photoperiodic flowering pathways were significantly enriched for gene expression differences between early- and late-flowering C. bursa-pastoris. Gibberellin biosynthesis genes were downregulated in late-flowering accessions, whereas circadian core genes in the photoperiodic pathway were differentially expressed between early- and late-flowering accessions. Detailed time-series experiments clearly demonstrated that the diurnal rhythm of CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSIONI (TOC1) expression differed between flowering ecotypes, both under constant light and long-day conditions. Differential expression of flowering time genes was biologically validated in an independent pair of flowering ecotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis or parallel evolution of similar regulatory differences. We conclude that genes involved in regulation of the circadian clock, such as CCA1 and TOC1, are strong candidates for the evolution of adaptive flowering time variation in C. bursa-pastoris.

  • 45.
    Slotte, Tanja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Huang, Hui-Run
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Ceplitis, Alf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Onge, Kate St
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Splicing variation at a FLOWERING LOCUS C homeolog is associated with flowering time variation in the tetraploid Capsella bursa-pastoris2009In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 183, no 1, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term fates of duplicate genes are well studied both empirically and theoretically, but how the short-term evolution of duplicate genes contributes to phenotypic variation is less well known. Here, we have studied the genetic basis of flowering time variation in the disomic tetraploid Capsella bursa-pastoris. We sequenced four duplicate candidate genes for flowering time and 10 background loci in samples from western Eurasia and China. Using a mixed-model approach that accounts for population structure, we found that polymorphisms at one homeolog of two candidate genes, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and CRYPTOCHROME1 (CRY1), were associated with natural flowering time variation. No potentially causative polymorphisms were found in the coding region of CRY1; however, at FLC two splice site polymorphisms were associated with early flowering. Accessions harboring nonconsensus splice sites expressed an alternatively spliced transcript or did not express this FLC homeolog. Our results are consistent with the function of FLC as a major repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana and imply that nonfunctionalization of duplicate genes could provide an important source of phenotypic variation.

  • 46. Sohlberg, Joel J
    et al.
    Myrenås, Mattias
    Kuusk, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Fysiologisk botanik.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Kowalczyk, Mariusz
    Sandberg, Göran
    Sundberg, Eva
    STY1 regulates auxin homeostasis and affects apical-basal patterning of the Arabidopsis gynoecium.2006In: Plant J, ISSN 0960-7412, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 112-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Tsarouhas,
    et al.
    Gullberg,
    Lagercrantz,
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    An AFLP and RFLP linkage map and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of growth traits in Salix.2002In: Theor Appl Genet, ISSN 0040-5752, Vol. 105, no 2-3, p. 277-288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Tsarouhas, Vasilios
    et al.
    Gullberg, Urban
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling timing of bud flush in Salix.2003In: Hereditas, ISSN 0018-0661, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 172-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Tsarouhas, Vasilios
    et al.
    Gullberg, Urban
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. Evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) affecting autumn freezing resistance and related traits in Salix2004In: Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 198, p. 1335-1342Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Wiweger, M
    et al.
    Farbos, I
    Ingouff, M
    Lagercrantz, U
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics. evolutionär funktionsgenomik.
    Von Arnold, S
    Expression of Chia4-Pa chitinase genes during somatic and zygotic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies): similarities and differences between gymnosperm and angiosperm class IV chitinases.2003In: J Exp Bot, ISSN 0022-0957, Vol. 54, no 393, p. 2691-9Article in journal (Refereed)
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