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  • 1.
    Aitola, Kerttu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Domanski, Konrad
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo
    MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Saliba, Michael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Abate, Antonio
    Univ Fribourg, Adolphe Merkle Inst, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Graetzel, Michael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kauppinen, Esko
    Aalto Univ, Dept Appl Phys, POB 15100, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Johansson, Erik M.J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    High Temperature-Stable Perovskite Solar Cell Based on Low-Cost Carbon Nanotube Hole Contact2017In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 29, no 17, article id 1606398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed ion perovskite solar cells (PSC) are manufactured with a metal-free hole contact based on press-transferred single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film infiltrated with 2,2,7,-7-tetrakis(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,90-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD). By means of maximum power point tracking, their stabilities are compared with those of standard PSCs employing spin-coated Spiro-OMeTAD and a thermally evaporated Au back contact, under full 1 sun illumination, at 60 degrees C, and in a N-2 atmosphere. During the 140 h experiment, the solar cells with the Au electrode experience a dramatic, irreversible efficiency loss, rendering them effectively nonoperational, whereas the SWCNT-contacted devices show only a small linear efficiency loss with an extrapolated lifetime of 580 h.

  • 2.
    Aitola, Kerttu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL SB ISIC LSPM, CH G1 523,Chemin Alamb,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kaskela, Antti
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Appl Phys, POB 15100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Abate, Antonio
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photon & Interfaces, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, EPFL SB ISIC LPI, CH G1 526,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Tian, Ying
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Appl Phys, POB 15100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Graetzel, Michael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photon & Interfaces, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, EPFL SB ISIC LPI, CH G1 526,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kauppinen, Esko I.
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Appl Phys, POB 15100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL SB ISIC LSPM, CH G1 523,Chemin Alamb,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Carbon nanotube-based hybrid hole-transporting material and selective contact for high efficiency perovskite solar cells2016In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 461-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a high efficiency perovskite solar cell with a hybrid hole-transporting material-counter electrode based on a thin single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and a drop-cast 2,2,7,-7-tetrakis(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,90-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) hole-transporting material (HTM). The average efficiency of the solar cells was 13.6%, with the record cell yielding 15.5% efficiency. The efficiency of the reference solar cells with spin-coated Spiro-OMeTAD hole-transportingmaterials (HTMs) and an evaporated gold counter electrode was 17.7% (record 18.8%), that of the cells with only a SWCNT counter electrode (CE) without additional HTM was 9.1% (record 11%) and that of the cells with gold deposited directly on the perovskite layer was 5% (record 6.3%). Our results show that it is possible to manufacture high efficiency perovskite solar cells with thin film (thickness less than 1 mu m) completely carbon-based HTMCEs using industrially upscalable manufacturing methods, such as press-transferred CEs and drop-cast HTMs.

  • 3. Alarcón, H.
    et al.
    Hedlund, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    KTH, Fysikalisk kemi / Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit K.
    KTH, Fysikalisk kemi / Physical Chemistry.
    Modification of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes by electrochemical Al3+ insertion: Effects on dye-sensitized solar cell performance2007In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 111, no 35, p. 13267-13274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured TiO2 films were modified by insertion with aluminum ions using an electrochemical process. After heat treatment these films were found suitable as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. By means of a catechol adsorption test, as well as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), it was demonstrated that the density of Ti atoms at the metal oxide/electrolyte interface is reduced after Al modification. There is, however, not a complete coverage of aluminum oxide onto the TiO2, but the results rather suggest either the formation of a mixed Al−Ti oxide surface layer or formation of a partial aluminum oxide coating. No new phase could, however, be detected. In solar cells incorporating Al-modified TiO2 electrodes, both electron lifetimes and electron transport times were increased. At high concentrations of inserted aluminum ions, the quantum efficiency for electron injection was significantly decreased. Results are discussed at the hand of different models:  A multiple trapping model, which can explain slower kinetics by the creation of additional traps during Al insertion, and a surface layer model, which can explain the reduced recombination rate, as well as the reduced injection efficiency, by the formation of a blocking layer.

  • 4.
    Bai, Xue
    et al.
    Xian Univ Architecture & Technol, Sch Environm & Municipal Engn, Xian 710055, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Lei
    Xian Univ Architecture & Technol, Sch Environm & Municipal Engn, Xian 710055, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Jin, Pengkang
    Xian Univ Architecture & Technol, Sch Environm & Municipal Engn, Xian 710055, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    D35-TiO2 nano-crystalline film as a high performance visible-light photocatalyst towards the degradation of bis-phenol A2019In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 355, p. 999-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dye-sensitized photocatalytic suspension system for wastewater treatment is still limited in practice due to particle aggregation, fast charge carrier recombination, poor stability and recycling issue. In this study, we combine TiO2 nano-crystalline film with D35 organic dye to fabricate a new visible-light photocatalyst D35-TiO2, which exhibits excellent visible light absorption. Its transient photocurrent is almost 10 times higher than pure TiO2 under visible light illumination (lambda > 420 nm). Besides the well characterizations of the D35-TiO2 film, e.g., SEM, EDS, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis DRS, XPS, PL and I-T, degradation of bis-phenol A (BPA) is performed as the model reaction to test its photocatalytic activity. Meanwhile, we employ external bias in the reaction system to further enhance the photogenerated charge carrier separation, and improve the photocatalytic efficiency. Under the better experimental conditions of initial BPA concentration (5 mg/L), initial pH (pH 7), external bias (0.25 V) and sensitizer concentration (0.1 mM), BPA is almost completely degraded in 300 min, and the four intermediates are gradually mineralized. The ecotoxicity of BPA also decreases significantly after the photo-degradation. During the reaction, center dot O-2(-) plays a dominant role, meanwhile center dot OH and h(D35)(+) also contribute to the BPA degradation. After five cycles, the D35-TiO2 film still maintain the normal photocatalytic activity. Due to the high stability and recyclability, the D35-TiO2 nano-crystalline film provides a sustainable way for degrading micropollutants in wastewater.

  • 5.
    Bi, Dongqin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Schwarzmueller, Stefan
    Yang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Efficient and stable CH3NH3PbI3-sensitized ZnO nanorod array solid-state solar cells2013In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 5, no 23, p. 11686-11691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report for the first time the use of a perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) absorber in combination with ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) for solar cell applications. The perovskite material has a higher absorption coefficient than molecular dye sensitizers, gives better solar cell stability, and is therefore more suited as a sensitizer for ZnO NRAs. A solar cell efficiency of 5.0% was achieved under 1000 W m(-2) AM 1.5 G illumination for a solar cell with the structure: ZnO NRA/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-MeOTAD/Ag. Moreover, the solar cell shows a good long-term stability. Using transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements it was found that the electron transport time and lifetime vary with the ZnO nanorod length, a trend which is similar to that in dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs, suggesting a similar charge transfer process in ZnO NRA/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells as in conventional DSCs. Compared to CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 solar cells, ZnO shows a lower performance due to more recombination losses.

  • 6.
    Bi, Dongqin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Moon, Soo-Jin
    Häggman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.
    Graetzel, Michael
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Using a two-step deposition technique to prepare perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) for thin film solar cells based on ZrO2 and TiO2 mesostructures2013In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 3, no 41, p. 18762-18766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-step deposition technique is used for preparing CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Using ZrO2 and TiO2 as a mesoporous layer, we obtain an efficiency of 10.8% and 9.5%, respectively, under 1000 W m(-2) illumination. The ZrO2 based solar cell shows higher photovoltage and longer electron lifetime than the TiO2 based solar cell.

  • 7.
    Bi, Dongqin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Effect of Different Hole Transport Materials on Recombination in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite-Sensitized Mesoscopic Solar Cells2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 1532-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3-sensitized solid-state solar cells using spiro-OMeTAD, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and 4-(diethylamino)benzaldehyde diphenylhydrazone (DEH) as hole transport materials (HTMs) with a light to electricity power conversion efficiency of 8.5%, 4.5%, and 1.6%, respectively, under AM 1.5G illumination of 1000 W/m(2) intensity. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA) shows that hole transfer occurs from the (CH3NH3)PbI3 to HTMs after excitation of (CH3NH3)PbI3. The electron lifetime (tau(e)) in these devices are in the order Spiro-OMeTAD > P3HT > DEH, while the charge transport time (t(tr)) is rather similar. The difference in tau(e) can therefore explain the lower efficiency of the devices based on P3HT and DEH. This report shows that the nature of the HTM is essential for charge recombination and elucidates that finding an optimal HTM for the perovskite solar cell includes controlling the perovskite/HTM interaction. Design routes for new HTMs are suggested.

  • 8.
    Cappel, Ute B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Smeigh, Amanda L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Chemical Physics.
    Plogmaker, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Chemical Physics.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Characterization of the Interface Properties and Processes in Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing a Perylene Sensitizer2011In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 115, no 10, p. 4345-4358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently reported on a perylene sensitizer, ID176, which performs much better in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells than in those using liquid electrolytes with iodide/tri-iodide as the redox couple (J. Phys. Chem. C2009, 113, 14595-14597). Here, we present a characterization of the sensitizer and of the TiO2/dye interface by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, spectroelectrochemistry, photoelectron spectroscopy, electroabsorption spectroscopy, photoinduced absorption spectroscopy, and femtosecond transient absorption measurements. We report that the absorption spectrum of the sensitizer is red-shifted by addition of lithium ions to the surface due to a downward shift of the excited state level of the sensitizer, which is of the same order of magnitude as the downward shift of the titanium dioxide conduction band edge. Results from photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemistry suggest that the excited state is largely located below the conduction band edge of TiO2 but that there are states in the band gap of TiO2 which might be available for photoinduced electron injection. The sensitizer was able to efficiently inject into TiO2, when a lithium salt was present on the surface, while injection was much less effective in the absence of lithium ions or in the presence of solvent. In the presence of the hole conductor 2,2-,7,7-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) and LiTFSI, charge separation was monitored by the emergence of a Stark shift of the dye in transient absorption spectra, and both injection and regeneration appear to be completed within 1 ps. Regeneration by spiro-MeOTAD is therefore several orders of magnitude faster than regeneration by iodide, and ID176 can even be photoreduced by spiro-MeOTAD.

  • 9.
    Cappel, Ute
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Plogmaker, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Energy Alignment and Surface Dipoles of Rylene Dyes adsorbed to TiO2 nanoparticles2011In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 13, no 32, p. 14767-14774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy loss in dye-sensitized solar cells calculated from the energy difference between the lowest electronic transition of the dye and the obtained open-circuit voltage is often 1 eV or even more. To minimize this loss, it is important to accurately determine the energy alignment at the TiO2/dye/redox-mediator interface. In this study, we compared the results from electrochemistry and photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the energy alignment of three rylene dyes, two of which absorb relatively far in the red. The trends observed with the methods were different, as in the former, the energy alignment is measured relative to an external reference and includes contributions from solvent reorganization energies, while in the latter, it is measured relative to the energetics of the TiO2 and is lacking such contributions. The influence of the dyes' dipole moments on the energetics of the TiO2 was also measured and explained some of the differences in trends. Finally, we compared the injection efficiencies of the two red-absorbing dyes and found that the differences in injection efficiencies can be better explained using the energy alignment determined from photoelectron spectroscopy. This shows that the method for measuring the energetics of a DSC should be chosen according to what process one intends to study.

  • 10.
    Eriksson K., Susanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Josefsson, Ida
    Ellis, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Amat, Anna
    Pastore, Mariachiara
    Oscarsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Eriksson, Anna I. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Fantacci, Simona
    Odelius, Michael
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Geometrical and energetical structural changes in organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells probed with photoelectron spectroscopy and DFT2016In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 252-260Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of alkoxy chain length in triarylamine based donor acceptor organic dyes are investigated with respect to the electronic and molecular surface structures on the performance of solar cells and the electron lifetime. The dyes were investigated when adsorbed on TiO2 in a configuration that can be used for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Specifically, the two dyes D35 and D45 were compared using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The differences in solar cell characteristics when longer alkoxy chains are introduced in the dye donor unit are attributed to geometrical changes in dye packing while only minor differences were observed in the electronic structure. A higher dye load was observed for D45 on TiO2. However, D35 based solar cells result in higher photocurrent although the dye load is lower. This is explained by different geometrical structures of the dyes on the surface.

  • 11. Fan, Jiandong
    et al.
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Cabot, Andreu
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Cobalt(II/III) Redox Electrolyte in ZnO Nanowire-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2013In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 1902-1906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we explore the use of cobalt complex redox shuttles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on ZnO nanowires (NWs). Arrays of vertically aligned ZnO NWs produced by a low-cost hydrothermal method are used to fabricate DSCs with [Co(bpy)(3)](2+/3+) as electrolyte. A direct comparison of the performance of [Co(bpy)(3)](2+/3+)-based ZnO DSC with I-/I-3(-)-based ones demonstrates the higher suitability of the cobalt complex, both in terms of a larger open circuit voltage (V-OC) and a higher photocurrent. The [Co(bpy)(3)](2+/3+) electrolyte results in V-OC enhancements above 200 mV. This V-OC increase is associated to the better match between the cobalt complex redox potential and the oxidation potential of the dye. The incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) enhancement is attributed to a less competitive visible light absorption of the cobalt redox couple. Thus the present study opens new opportunities to improve energy conversion efficiency in ZnO-based DSCs.

  • 12. Fan, Jiandong
    et al.
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Munuera, Carmen
    Garcia-Hernandez, Mar
    Gueell, Frank
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Cabot, Andreu
    Influence of the Annealing Atmosphere on the Performance of ZnO Nanowire Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2013In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 117, no 32, p. 16349-16356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postsynthesis thermal treatments are key to promote crystallinity and reduce the defect density in solution-processed nanomaterials. In particular, the annealing atmosphere strongly influences the functional properties of ZnO nanowires (NWs) and specifically their performance as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). We prepared vertically aligned ZnO NWs by a low-cost, high-yield, and up-scalable hydrothermal method and studied the effect of the postannealing atmosphere on their optoelectronic properties and on their performance as electrodes in DSCs. When annealing ZnO NWs under argon, instead of air, significantly higher photoluminescence (PL) UV emission and relatively lower defects-related visible PL emission were obtained. At the same time, Ar-annealing rendered ZnO NWs with higher electrical conductivities, as observed from single NW measurements using conductive-atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, DSCs based on ZnO NWs annealed in argon were characterized by 50% higher photocurrents than those obtained from air-annealed ZnO. As a result 30% efficiency increases were systematically obtained when using argon as the annealing atmosphere. These results are discussed within the framework of a multiple trapping model for transport and charge transfer, taking into account differences in the defect concentration introduced during the annealing.

  • 13.
    Feldt, Sandra M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Cappel, Ute B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Characterization of surface passivation by poly(methylsiloxane) for dye-sensitized solar cells employing the ferrocene redox couple.2010In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 114, no 23, p. 10551-10558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-electron outer-sphere redox couples, such as ferrocene/ferrocenium, are an interesting alternative to the iodide/triiodide redox couple that is normally employed in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) because they should reduce the driving force needed to regenerate the dye. Unfortunately, one-electron redox couples also show enhanced recombination with photoinjected electrons, and methods to inhibit this recombination are needed for functioning DSCs. In this study, dye-sensitized titanium dioxide surfaces were passivated by a trichloromethylsilane reaction in order to decrease the fast recombination rates when using the ferrocene redox couple. The formation and binding of poly(methylsiloxane) on the dye-sensitized TiO2 surface was verified with infrared spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical characterization of the silanization method showed that the treatment decreased the recombination rate of photoinjected electrons with ferrocenium and thereby improved the efficiency of the DSC. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed, however, that the poly(methylsiloxane) coatings slowed down the regeneration of the oxidized dye by the ferrocene and prevented the regeneration of some of the dye molecules.

  • 14.
    Fredin, Kristofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Schölin, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Plogmaker, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Sun, Licheng
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Solid state dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by infiltrating a molten hole conductor into a mesoporous film at a temperature below 150 degrees C2011In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 161, no 21-22, p. 2280-2283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infiltration of a molten hole conductor in a mesoporous film at an elevated temperature exhibits good wetting performance and the procedure is therefore suitable as part of the preparation method for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells. Herein, we present a system prepared by infiltrating 4-(diethylamino)benzaldehyde-1,1)-diphenyl-hydrazone in its molten form at a temperature below 150 degrees C. The system displays a maximum photon-to-current conversion efficiency of about 35%, a value corresponding to an increase of about 5 times in comparison with a previously published system prepared by infiltrating a molten hole-conductor at a temperature exceeding 250 degrees C. By means of comparing charge transport and recombination with the results measured for a liquid analogue, we conclude that whereas the transport rates are similar, recombination is significantly more rapid in the solid-state device.

  • 15.
    Hahlin, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Odelius, M
    Magnuson, Martin
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Plogmaker, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Hagberg, D
    Sun, L
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Mapping the frontier electronic structures of triphenylamine basedorganic dyes at TiO2 interfaces2011In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 3534-3546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frontier electronic structures of a series of organic dye molecules containing a triphenylamine moiety, a thiophene moiety and a cyanoacrylic acid moiety have been investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (RPES). The experimental results were compared to electronic structure calculations on the molecules, which are used to confirm and enrich the assignment of the spectra. The approach allows us to experimentally measure and interpret the basic valence energy level structure in the dye, including the highest occupied energy level and how it depends on the interaction between the different units. Based on N 1s X-ray absorption and emission spectra we also obtain insight into the structure of the excited states, the molecular orbital composition and dynamics. Together the results provide an experimentally determined energy level map useful in the design of these types of materials. Included are also results indicating femtosecond charge redistribution at the dye/TiO(2) interface.

  • 16.
    Hao, Yan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Organ Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lohse, Peter William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Wenxing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Organ Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Res Ctr Mol Devices, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Peripheral Hole Acceptor Moieties on an Organic Dye Improve Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance2015In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, Vol. 2, no 11, article id 1500174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigation of charge transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells is of fundamental interest and the control of these dynamics is a key factor for developing more efficient solar cell devices. One possibility for attenuating losses through recombination between injected electrons and oxidized dye molecules is to move the positive charge further away from the metal oxide surface. For this purpose, a metal-free dye named E6 is developed, in which the chromophore core is tethered to two external triphenylamine (TPA) units. After photoinduced electron injection into TiO2, the remaining hole is rapidly transferred to a peripheral TPA unit. Electron-hole recombination is slowed down by 30% compared to a reference dye without peripheral TPA units. Furthermore, it is found that the added TPA moieties improve the electron blocking effect of the dye, retarding recombination of electrons from TiO2 to the cobalt-based electrolyte.

  • 17.
    Hedlund, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. Fysik1.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Effects of water in the Surface Adsorption of Dye molecules at Nanostructured TiO22006In: 16th International Conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy (IPS-16), 2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The dye-sensitized solar cell is a promising new alternative to conventional solar cells. However these molecular solar cells may suffer from long term stability problems. Some of these problems are believed to be linked to the presence of water. Recently, dyes possessing long hydrophobic chains have been introduced, as an effort to come to terms with problems related to water [1]. In this study the Ru-dyes N3, N719 and 520DN (an analog containing hydrophobic chains) bound to TiO2, have after being exposed to water, been investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). PES was used to understand on a molecular level, how the introduction of water influences the molecular and electronic structure of these dye sensitized surfaces.

    In general, the surface sensitized with 520DN does not give signs of any major changes after being subjected to water. The investigation therefore found that the hydrophobic chains in the dye surface with 520DN effectively protect the molecular structure of the surface. However the surfaces of N3 and N719 do show large changes after exposing the surface to water. More specifically, it has been found that the outermost molecular orbitals (HOMO), which are vital for the function of the solar cell, are affected by water by shifting towards higher binding energies.

    Also, changes in the thiocyanate group can be found in the N3 and N719 dyes after being exposed to water. Specifically, the sulphur S2p energy levels have a substantially larger amount of a second spin-orbit split peak after being exposed to water. The nitrogen N1s peak relating to the thiocyanate group also changes shape. Moreover, in the case of N719, the counter ion TBA+ is not present on the dye sensitized surface after being subjected to water.

    Finally, the amount of dye on the TiO2 surfaces is also important for the efficiency of the solar cell. It was found that the coverage of N3 and N719 dye decreases when exposed to water, but the coverage of the 520DN dye remains the same.

  • 18.
    Hultqvist, Adam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Aitola, Kerttu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Saki, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Sharif Univ Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Atomic Layer Deposition of Electron Selective SnOx and ZnO Films on Mixed Halide Perovskite: Compatibility and Performance2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 35, p. 29707-29716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compatibility of atomic layer deposition directly onto the mixed halide perovskite formamidinium lead iodide:methylammonium lead bromide (CH(NH2)(2), CH3NH3)Pb(I,Br)(3) (FAPbI(3):MAPbBr(3)) perovskite films is investigated by exposing the perovskite films to the full or partial atomic layer deposition processes for the electron selective layer candidates ZnO and SnOx. Exposing the samples to the heat, the vacuum, and even the counter reactant of H2O of the atomic layer deposition processes does not appear to alter the perovskite films in terms of crystallinity, but the choice of metal precursor is found to be critical. The Zn precursor Zn(C2H5)(2) either by itself or in combination with H2O during the ZnO atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is found to enhance the decomposition of the bulk of the perovskite film into PbI2 without even forming ZnO. In contrast, the Sn precursor Sn(N(CH3)(2))(4) does not seem to degrade the bulk of the perovskite film, and conformal SnOx films can successfully be grown on top of it using atomic layer deposition. Using this SnOx film as the electron selective layer in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a lower power conversion efficiency of 3.4% than the 8.4% for the reference devices using phenyl-C-70-butyric acid methyl ester. However, the devices with SnOx show strong hysteresis and can be pushed to an efficiency of 7.8% after biasing treatments. Still, these cells lacks both open circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the references, especially when thicker SnOx films are used. Upon further investigation, a possible cause of these losses could be that the perovskite/SnOx interface is not ideal and more specifically found to be rich in Sn, O, and halides, which is probably a result of the nucleation during the SnOx growth and which might introduce barriers or alter the band alignment for the transport of charge carriers.

  • 19.
    Jain, Sagar Motilal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Park, Byung-Wook
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vapor phase conversion of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3: spectroscopic evidence for formation of an intermediate phase2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 2630-2642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI(3)) from its precursors is probably the most significant step in the control of the quality of this semiconductor perovskite material, which is highly promising for photovoltaic applications. Here we investigated the transformation of spin coated PbI2 films to MAPbI(3) using a reaction with MAI in vapor phase, referred to as vapor assisted solution process (VASP). The presence of a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold on the substrate was found to speed up reaction and led to complete conversion of PbI2, while reaction on glass substrates was slower, with some PbI2 remaining even after prolonged reaction time. Based on data from UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the formation of an X-ray amorphous intermediate phase is proposed, which is identified by an increasing absorption from 650 to 500 nm in the absorption spectrum. This feature disappears upon long reaction times for films on planar substrates, but persists for films on mesoporous TiO2. Poor solar cell performance of planar VASP prepared devices was ascribed to PbI2 remaining in the film, forming a barrier between the perovskite layer and the compact TiO2/FTO contact. Good performance, with efficiencies up to 13.3%, was obtained for VASP prepared devices on mesoporous TiO2.

  • 20. Jiang, Xiao
    et al.
    Karlsson, Karl Martin
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Quintana, Maria
    Karlsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Triphenylamine Dyes2011In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 21, no 15, p. 2944-2952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two triphenylamine-based metal-free organic sensitizers, D35 with a single anchor group and M14 with two anchor groups, have been applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with a solid hole transporting material or liquid iodide/triiodide based electrolyte. Using the molecular hole conductor 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), good overall conversion efficiencies of 4.5% for D35 and 4.4% for M14 were obtained under standard AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). Although M14 has a higher molar extinction coefficient (by similar to 60%) and a slightly broader absorption spectrum compared to D35, the latter performs slightly better due to longer lifetime of electrons in the TiO(2), which can be attributed to differences in the molecular structure. In iodide/triiodide electrolyte-based DSCs, D35 outperforms M14 to a much greater extent, due to a very large increase in electron lifetime. This can be explained by both the greater blocking capability of the D35 monolayer and the smaller degree of interaction of triiodide (iodine) with D35 compared to M14. The present work gives some insight into how the molecular structure of sensitizer affects the performance in solid-state and iodide/triiodide-based DSCs.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    TiO2/Ru-dye/Conducting Polymer Heterojunctions Electron Spectroscopic, Quantum Chemical and Photovoltaic Studies2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 22.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Hedlund, Maria
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Electronic and molecular surface structure of Ru(tcterpy)(NCS)3 and Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2 adsorbed from solution onto nanostructured TiO2 – A Photoelectron spectroscopy study2005In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 149, no 47, p. 22256-22263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. Fysik 1.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. Fysik1.
    Hedlund, Maria
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. Fysik 1.
    Ryan, Declan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. Fysik 1.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. Fysik 1.
    PHOTOVOLTAIC AND INTERFACIAL PROPERTIES OF HETEROJUNCTIONS COMPRISING DYE-SENSITIZED DENSE TiO2 AND TRIARYLAMINE DERIVATIVES IN SOLID AND LIQUID STATE.1996Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Different triarylamine derivatives have successfully been used as solid hole-conductor materials in dye-sensitized solar cells with efficiencies up to 4% [1-3]. In the present work TiO2/dye/ hole-conductor heterojunctions is assembled to form model systems for solid state DSSC and the interfacial structure at the molecular level. A series of triarylamine molecules is used to investigate the influence of small differences in the hole-conductor material structure on the photovoltaic and molecular surface properties. Both solid state and liquid state junctions with the triarylamine molecules were investigated. In the solid state heterojunctions the hole-conductor molecules were evaporated on the substrate and in the liquid state heterojunctions the hole-conductor molecules were solvated in an organic solvent. The photovoltaic properties of the heterojunction largely depend on the electron transfer rates at the interfaces between the different materials (semiconductor, dye and hole-conductor). Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) measurements was used to investigate the molecular and electronic interface structure. In the figure below the valence electronic structure of interfaces with the different hole-conductors are shown.

    From the valence PES the interaction and the energy level matching between the dyes and the hole-conductors is studied. The results show large differences in the energy matching of the different holconducting materials with respect to the dye molecules partly explaining the differences in efficiency. The valence structure also shows that when combining different materials their individual properties adjust slightly to their new environment. From the core level PES we observe differences molecular surface structure. Specifically it was found that the smaller holecondctors are able to penetrate the dye layer and contact the TiO2 surface.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Atomic and Electronic Structures of Interfaces in Dye-Sensitized, Nanostructured Solar Cells2014In: ChemPhysChem, ISSN 1439-4235, E-ISSN 1439-7641, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1006-1017Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key processes in nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells occur at material interfaces containing, for example, oxides, dye molecules, and hole conductors. A detailed understanding of interfacial properties is therefore important for new developments and device optimization. The implementation of X-ray-based spectroscopic methods for atomic-level understanding of such properties is reviewed. Specifically, the use of the chemical and element sensitivity of photoelectron spectroscopy, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy for investigating interfacial molecular and electronic properties are described; examples include energy matching, binding configurations, and molecular orbital composition. Finally, results from the complete oxide/dye/hole-conductor systems are shown and demonstrate how the assembly itself can affect the molecular and electronic structure of the materials.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Pradhan, Sulena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Wang, Ergang
    Unger, Eva L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Efficient infiltration of low molecular weight polymer in nanoporous TiO22011In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 502, no 4-6, p. 225-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polymer APFO(3) was prepared with different molecular weights to study how the infiltration into nanoporous TiO2 films of different thickness depends on the size of the polymer. Also two different sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated to understand the effect of different pore size. It was observed that the lowest molecular weight polymer dissolved in chlorobenzene could infiltrate the nanoporous TiO2 network up to several micrometer thick films. It was concluded that efficient polymer infiltration into thick nanoporous layers was possible for the polymers with an estimated average chain length smaller than the diameter of the nanoparticles.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Erik M .J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Sandell, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Mahrov, B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    Figgemeier, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    Jönsson, S.K.M.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Interfacial Properties of Photovoltaic TiO2/dye/PEDOT-PSS Heterojunctions2005In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 149, no 2-3, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems comprising a dense TiO2 film electrode, a ruthenium polypyridine dye and a PEDOT–PSS(poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(4-styrenesulphonate)) film were prepared. The heterojunctions were shown to have photovoltaicproperties, with the dye absorbing the light, the TiO2 acting as an electron conducting material and PEDOT–PSS acting as a hole transport material. A series of dyes was used to investigate their influence on the photocurrent and the photovoltage characteristics of the heterojunction. These results were compared to a photoelectrochemical system in which the PEDOT–PSS was replaced by a liquid electrolyte containing triiodide/iodide redox-couple.

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) was used to monitor the interfacialproperties of the heterojunction and the investigation points out effects of importance when assembling the materials together to a functional unit. Specifically, it was concluded that the interaction with the dye clearly affects the structure ofPEDOT–PSS, both with respect to the surface composition of PSS relative to PEDOT and with respect to the chemical state of the sulphur in the polymers. Moreover, a comparison of the Ru3d and the valence band spectra of the two different interfaces (dye/TiO2 and dye/PEDOT–PSS) indicates that the energy level structure of the dyes compared to the substrate is different for the two surfaces. Thus, in the combined energy level picture under dark conditions, the energy levels in TiO2 relative to the energy levels inPEDOT–PSS depend on the dye.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Schölin, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Energy level alignment in TiO(2)/dipole-molecule/P3HT interfaces2011In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 515, no 1-3, p. 146-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling the energy levels at the interface between an inorganic and an organic material is of importance to improve the properties in devices based on such hybrid interfaces, and can be obtained by the incorporation of dipole molecules between the materials. In this report interfaces containing TiO(2), a dipole molecule (benzoic acid or 4-nitrobenzoic acid) and a polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were investigated using high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy. We could successfully measure through all materials in the fully assembled systems, and thereby experimentally quantify the dipole induced change in the energy level alignment of the polymer and the TiO(2).

  • 28.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Lohse, Peter W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Combining a Small Hole-Conductor Molecule for Efficient Dye Regeneration and a Hole-Conducting Polymer in a Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell2012In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 116, no 34, p. 18070-18078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) an efficient transfer of dioles from the oxidized dye to the contact is necessary, which in solid-state DSC is performed by hole-conductor molecules. In this report we use photoinduced absorption and transient absorption spectroscopy to show that a small hole-conducting molecule, tris(p-anisyl)amine, regenerates dye molecules in the pores of the dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticle electrode efficiently even for thick (>5 mu m) electrodes. For similar thicknesses we observe incomplete regeneration using a larger polymer hole-conductor. However, the performance of the solar cells with the small hole-conductor molecules is poor due to that inefficient hole conduction in these small molecules may limit the collection of the charges at the contacts. Polymer hole-conductors, which may have a good hole conductivity, also have a high molecular weight, which makes these polymers difficult to infiltrate into the smallest pores in the electrode. We show that a conducting polymer, P3HT, may be added to the small molecule hole-conductor, to enable better transport of the charges to the contact and to reduce recombination and therefore increase the photocurrent. This new device construction with a small molecule efficiently regenerating the dye molecules, and a polymer conducting the holes to the contact is therefore a promising pathway for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

  • 29.
    Johansson, Erik M.J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Odelius, M.
    Hagberg, Daniel P.
    KTH, Organisk kemi / Organic chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Organisk kemi / Organic chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    KTH, Fysikalisk kemi / Physical Chemistry.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Electronic and Molecular Surface Structure of a Polyene-diphenylaniline Dye Adsorbed from Solution onto Nanoporous TiO22007In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 111, no 24, p. 8580-8586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface electronic and molecular structure of a new organic chromophore useful for dye-sensitized nanostructured solar cells has been investigated by means of electron spectroscopy. Initially the use of a simple molecular system containing the polyene-diphenylaniline chromophore in a solar cell device was verified. The electronic and molecular surface structure of the functional dye-sensitized interface was then investigated in detail by a combination of core level spectroscopy, valence level spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and resonant photoemission spectroscopy. The results indicate a dominating orientation of the molecule at the surface, having the diphenylaniline moiety pointing out from the surface. Valence level spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and resonant photoemission spectroscopy were used to experimentally delineate the frontier electronic structure of the molecule, and the experimental spectra were analyzed against theoretical spectra, based on density functional theory. Together the investigation gives insight into energy matching of the molecular electronic states with respect to the TiO2 substrate as well as the localization of the frontier electronic states and the direction of the charge-transfer absorption process with regards to the TiO2 surface.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Malin B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bitter, S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Göthelid, Mats
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    From Quantum Dots to Micro Crystals: Organolead TriiodidePerovskite Crystal Growth from Isopropanol Solution2016In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 5, no 10, p. P614-P620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth mechanism and dependence on precursor conditions are vital for creation of high quality crystalline materials in many fields. Here the growth from nano sized quantum dots to micro crystalline methyl ammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI(3)) perovskites prepared from isopropanol solution are reported. Isopropanol is more environmental friendly compared to the commonly used solvents DMF or DMSO, both with relatively high toxicity and the proposed method can be a useful new route to prepare hybrid perovskites. Three different molar ratios of MAPbI3 perovskite solution (MAI:PbI2 of 1: 1, 2: 1 and 0.5: 1) were applied to give insights in the crystal formation mechanism also under non-stoichiometric conditions. Perovskite crystal growth is followed by TEM. From XRD powder diffraction the lattice constants have been determined and compared with results from electron diffraction (ED). Interestingly, there seems to be an occurrence of the cubic phase besides the common tetragonal phase at room temperature.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Malin B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Phuyal, Dibya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Chakraborty, Sudip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Cameau, Mathis
    Zhu, Huimin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Cesium bismuth iodide, CsxBiyIz, solar cell compounds from systematic molar ratio variationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Johansson, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Div Phys Chem, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bitter, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Eriksson, Anna I. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Göthelid, M.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Mat & Nano Phys, SE-16440 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nano Crystals to Micro Crystals: Organolead Triiodide Perovskite Crystal Growth from Isopropanol Solution2016In: HIGH PURITY AND HIGH MOBILITY SEMICONDUCTORS 14 / [ed] Simoen, E Falster, R Kononchuk, O Nakatsuka, O Claeys, C, ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC , 2016, no 4, p. 161-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth mechanism and dependence on precursor conditions are vital for creation of high quality crystalline materials in many fields. Here the growth from nano sized quantum dots to micro crystalline methyl ammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI(3)) perovskites prepared from isopropanol solution are reported. Isopropanol is more environmental friendly compared to the commonly used solvents DMF or DMSO, both with relatively high toxicity and the proposed method can be a useful new route to prepare hybrid perovskites. Three different molar ratios of MAPbI3 perovskite solution (MAI: PbI2 of 1: 1, 2: 1 and 0.5: 1) were applied to give insights in the crystal formation mechanism also under non-stoichiometric conditions. Perovskite crystal growth is followed by TEM. From XRD powder diffraction the lattice constants have been determined and compared with results from electron diffraction (ED). Interestingly, there seems to be an occurrence of the cubic phase besides the common tetragonal phase at room temperature.

  • 33.
    Karimipour, M.
    et al.
    Vali E Asr Univ Rafsanjan, Dept Phys, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Bagheri, M.
    Vali E Asr Univ Rafsanjan, Dept Phys, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Molaei, M.
    Vali E Asr Univ Rafsanjan, Dept Phys, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Excellent growth of ZnS shell on Ag2S QDs using a photochemical-microwave irradiation approach and fabrication of their indoor QD thin film solar cells2018In: Materials technology (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1066-7857, E-ISSN 1753-5557, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 784-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, a new two pots method using microwave-photochemical approaches was suggested for the fabrication of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells. UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies clearly proved the growth of ZnS shell on Ag2S cores. X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy also indicated the formation of core-shell structure. To identify excellence growth of ZnS shell, Ag2S@ZnS core-shells were implemented for the fabrication of thin film solar cells. The fabricated cells showed a J-V character with 0.4%, 1 mA.cm(-2) and 0.43V and 54% as efficiency, J(SC), V-OC and fill factor, respectively. The cells showed also an increasing efficiency up to 0.8% upon the decrease of incident solar intensity to 10% of its standard. The results proved the cells are stable under sun light illumination that is promising for environmentally friendly fabrication of QD thin film solar cells.

  • 34. Kuzmych, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nonomura, Kazuteru
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Skompska, Magdalena
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material into nanotubular TiO2 electrode for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells2014In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 187, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiO2 nanotubes grown by anodic oxidation of Ti thin film deposited on conducting transparent fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate were used as a unique geometrically organized template to study the infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material (HTM) inside straight pores. The TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array electrode was compared with a mesoporous one in terms of loading with an organic dye of high extinction coefficient. It was shown that it is possible to build a working solid state dye sensitized solar cell device with such a combination of materials and its performance was compared with a device in which the solid state HTM was replaced by a liquid state electrolyte. 

  • 35.
    Kuzmych, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, Polen.
    Nonomura, Kazuteru
    Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Skompska, Magdalena
    Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, Polen.
    Defect minimization and morphology optimization in TiO2 nanotube thin films, grown on transparent conducting substrate, for dye synthesized solar cell application2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 522, p. 71-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays have proven to be a perspective material for dye-or semiconductor sensitized solar cells. Although their preparation by anodic oxidation method is well elaborated for Ti foil substrate, the synthesis of high quality, homogeneous TNT arrays on a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is still associated with some experimental challenges. In this paper we present a way of preparation of defect-free, homogenous TNT film on a TCO substrate by a combination of high temperature Ti sputtering and controlled "interrupted" anodization in viscous electrolyte. High temperature of the substrate during Ti sputter coating was found crucial for good adhesion between the Ti thin film and TCO, which seems to be the most important condition for synthesis of TNTs from a Ti thin film. The reason of poor adhesion of the Ti layer sputtered at room temperature is discussed in terms of internal stress forces. An Ar-ion sputtering was proposed as a method for removal of the non-organized top porous layer to reveal a well organized tubular geometry of TNTs and control their final lengths. Such control of morphology of the top layer is important for preparation of solid state solar cells.

  • 36. Leijtens, Tomas
    et al.
    Stranks, Samuel D.
    Eperon, Giles E.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    McPherson, Ian J.
    Rensmo, Hakan
    Ball, James M.
    Lee, Michael M.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Electronic Properties of Meso-Superstructured and Planar Organometal Halide Perovskite Films: Charge Trapping, Photodoping, and Carrier Mobility2014In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 7147-7155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solution-processed organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells are attracting increasing interest, leading to high performances over 15% in thin film architectures. Here, we probe the presence of sub gap states in both solid and mesosuperstructured perovskite films and determine that they strongly influence the photoconductivity response and splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels in films and solar cells. We find that while the planar perovskite films are superior to the mesosuperstructured films in terms of charge carrier mobility (in excess of 20 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) and emissivity, the planar heterojunction solar cells are limited in photovoltage by the presence of sub gap states and low intrinsic doping densities.

  • 37.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Bi, Dongqin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Park, Byung-wook
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Oscarsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Gorgoi, Mihaela
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Odelius, Michael
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Electronic Structure of TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cell Interfaces2014In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 648-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure and chemical composition of efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell materials deposited onto mesoporous TiO2 were studied using photoelectron spectroscopy with hard X-rays. With this technique, it is possible to directly measure the occupied energy levels of the perovskite as well as the TiO2 buried beneath and thereby determine the energy level matching of the interface. The measurements of the valence levels were in good agreement with simulated density of states, and the investigation gives information on the character of the valence levels. We also show that two different deposition techniques give results indicating similar electronic structures.

  • 38.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Cappel, Ute
    O'Mahony, Flannan
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Haque, Saif A.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Energy level alignment in TiO2/metal sulfide/polymer interfaces for solar cell applications2014In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 16, no 32, p. 17099-17107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor sensitized solar cell interfaces have been studied with photoelectron spectroscopy to understand the interfacial electronic structures. In particular, the experimental energy level alignment has been determined for complete TiO2/metal sulfide/polymer interfaces. For the metal sulfides CdS, Sb2S3 and Bi2S3 deposited from single source metal xanthate precursors, it was shown that both driving forces for electron injection into TiO2 and hole transfer to the polymer decrease for narrower bandgaps. The energy level alignment results were used in the discussion of the function of solar cells with the same metal sulfides as light absorbers. For example Sb2S3 showed the most favourable energy level alignment with 0.3 eV driving force for electron injection and 0.4 eV driving force for hole transfer and also the most efficient solar cells due to high photocurrent generation. The energy level alignment of the TiO2/Bi2S3 interface on the other hand showed no driving force for electron injection to TiO2, and the performance of the corresponding solar cell was very low.

  • 39.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Jena, Naresh K
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Oscarsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Bi, Dongqin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Mandal, Suman
    Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Pal, Banabir
    Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Sarma, Dipankar Das
    Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Karis, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Johansson, Erik M.J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Odelius, Michael
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Electronic Structure of CH3NH3PbX3 Perovskites: Dependence on the Halide Moiety2015In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 1818-1825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of measurements using photoelectron spectroscopy and calculations using density functional theory (DFT) was applied to compare the detailed electronic structure of the organolead halide perovskites CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3. These perovskite materials are used to absorb light in mesoscopic and planar heterojunction solar cells. The Pb 4f core level is investigated to get insight into the chemistry of the two materials. Valence level measurments are also included showing a shift of the valence band edges where there is a higher binding energy of the edge for the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite. These changes are supported by the theoretical calculations which indicate that the differences in electronic structure are mainly caused by the nature of the halide ion rather than structural differences. The combination of photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and electronic structure calculations is essential to disentangle how the valence band edge in organolead halide perovskites is governed by the intrinsic difference in energy levels of the halide ions from the influence of chemical bonding.

  • 40.
    Liu, Jianhua
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Qisen
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Kyi Thein, Nan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Mandalay Univ, Res Lab, Dept Phys Mat Sci, Mandalay, Myanmar.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Jia, Donglin
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    In situ growth of perovskite stacking layers for high-efficiency carbon-based hole conductor free perovskite solar cells2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 22, p. 13777-13786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfacial properties between a perovskite layer and carbon electrode are critical for the photovoltaic performance of carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a methylammonium lead mixed halide (MAPbIxBr3−x) perovskite layer is in situ grown on the top of a methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite layer forming a MAPbI3/MAPbIxBr3−x perovskite stacking structure (PSS) to improve the interfacial properties at the perovskite/carbon electrode interface. The charge carrier dynamics in both the perovskite and the PSC device induced by the MAPbIxBr3−x perovskite stacking layer are studied using extensive characterization. The charge interfacial recombination at the perovskite/carbon electrode interface is significantly diminished using the PSS within the PSC, resulting in largely improved charge extraction and therefore high photovoltaic performance. The PSS-based PSC shows a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.2% (increased by 43% compared with that of a conventional MAPbI3-based PSC), which is among the highest efficiencies of carbon electrode-based hole conductor free PSCs. Meanwhile, the PSS-based PSC also exhibits good stability under both continuous illumination and storage under dark conditions. This work may provide a new avenue to fine tune the interfacial properties of carbon electrode-based PSCs for further improving their photovoltaic performance.

  • 41. Marinado, Tannia
    et al.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Surface and Interface Science.
    Jiang, Xiao
    Quintana, Maria
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Surface and Interface Science.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Plogmaker, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Surface and Interface Science.
    Hagberg, P
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Zakeeruddin, M
    Gratzel, Michael
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Surface and Interface Science.
    Sun, Licheng
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Surface and Interface Science.
    Surface Molecular Quantification and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Mixed Organic Dye and Coadsorbent Layers on TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2010In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 114, no 27, p. 11903-11910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different molecular layers on TiO2 were prepared by using the p-dimethylaniline triphenylamine based organic dye, D29, together with the coadsorbents decylphosphonic acid (DPA), dineohexyl bis(3,3-dimethylbutyl)phosphinic acid (DINHOP), and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The surface molecular structure of dye and coadsorbent layers on TiO2 was investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). A focus was to determine the surface molecular concentrations using characteristic photoelectron core levels. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were prepared from the same substrate and were further characterized by photoelectrochemical methods. Together the investigation gives information on the arrangement of the mixed molecular layer and a first insight to the extent to which the coadsorbents exchange with dye molecules on the TiO2 surface for the examined conditions.

  • 42.
    Oscarsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Eriksson K., Susanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Anna I. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Interface Structure Effects upon Co-Adsorption of Black Dye and D35 on TiO2Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Oscarsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Fredin, Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Ahmadi, Sareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Eriksson, Anna I. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Molecular degradation of D35 and K77 sensitizers when exposed to temperatures exceeding 100 °C investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy2016In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 8598-8607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of the materials in dye-sensitized solar cells at elevated temperatures is critical for use in real applications. Both during fabrication of the solar cell and under real working conditions the solar cells will be exposed to heat. In this work, mesoporous TiO2 electrodes sensitized with the dyes D35 and K77 were subject to heat-treatment and the effects of this were thereafter investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. For D35 it was found that heat-treatment changes the binding configuration inducing an increased interaction between the sulfur of the linker unit and the TiO2 surface. The interaction resulting from the change in binding configuration also affects the position of the HOMO level, where a shift of + 0.2 eV is observed when heated to 200 degrees C. For K77, parts of the thiocyanate units are detached and the nitrogen atom leaves the electrode whereas sulfur remains on the surface in various forms of sulfurous oxides. The total dye coverage of K77 gets reduced by heat-treatment. The HOMO level gets progressively less pronounced due to a loss of HOMO level electrons as a consequence of the lower dye coverage when heat-treated, which leads to a lower excitation rate and lower efficiency. The results are discussed in the context of performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  • 44.
    Oscarsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Susanna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Eriksson, Anna I. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Zia, Azhar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Coadsorption of Dye Molecules at TiO2 Surfaces: A Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 23, p. 12484-12494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of coadsorbing the amphiphilic ruthenium-based dye Z907 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)(2,20-bipyridy1-4,40-dicarboxylato)(4,40-dinony1-20-bipyridy1)-ruthenium(II)) with the coadsorbent DPA (n-decylphosphonic acid) and with the organic dye D35 ((E)-3-(5-(4-(bis(2',4'-dibutoxybiphenyl-4-yl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid) on mesoporous TiO2 were investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Z907 is expected to adsorb to the TiO2 surface via the carboxylic acid groups. However, Z907 also shows signs of interacting with the TiO2 via the sulfur of the thiocyanate groups, and this interaction is affected by both the addition of DPA and D35. DPA, when added, exchanges with Z907 at the TiO2 surface, and each Z907 is replaced by six DPA molecules, but it does not affect the energy level alignment between Z907 and TiO2 substantially. Adding D35 to Z907 induces changes in the adsorption configuration of Z907 by the means of suppressing the interaction of the thiocyanate ligands and the TiO2 surface. The HOMO level of Z907 is shifted by the addition of D35. Coadsorbing Z907 with D35 thus gives changes at a molecular level, meaning that this is an example of collaborative sensitization.

  • 45.
    Park, Byung-wook
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pazoki, Meysam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Aitola, Kerttu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Jeong, Seunghee
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Understanding Interfacial Charge Transfer between Metallic PEDOT Counter Electrodes and a Cobalt Redox Shuttle in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 2074-2079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with iron(111) tris-p-toluenesulfonate (PEDOT:Tos) having metallic conductivity was coated onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and plain glass substrates and used as a counter electrode (CE) in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) with a [Co(bpy)(3)](3+/2+) complex redox shuttle. DSCs with PEDOT:Tos/glass CE yielded power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 6.3%, similar to that of DSCs with platinized FTO glass CE (6.1%). The PEDOT:Tos-based counter electrodes had 5 to 10 times lower charge-transfer resistance than the Pt/FTO CE in DSCs, as analyzed by impedance spectroscopy. More detailed studies in symmetrical CE-CE cells showed that the PEDOT:Tos layers are nanoporous. Not all internal area can be used catalytically under solar cell conditions and effective charge-transfer resistance was similar to that of Pt/FTO.

  • 46.
    Park, Byung-wook
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Enhanced Crystallinity in Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites on Mesoporous TiO2 via Disorder-Order Phase Transition2014In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 26, no 15, p. 4466-4471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite (OIHP) compounds are very interesting materials for device application in, for example, solar cells, electro-optics, and electronic circuits. In this report, we investigated OIHPs reported as CH3NH3PbI3-xClx (MAPbI(3-x)Cl(x)) and CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI(3)) prepared from solution on mesoporous TiO2/glass substrates. A long-term conversion from disordered to more crystalline OIHPs was observed for both types of samples from XRD patterns over 5 weeks. The conversion rate to more crystalline OIHPs could be increased by increasing the temperature of the sample. SEM analyses of the two types of OIHPs show remarkably different surface microstructures. The X-ray diffractograms suggest that both samples are dominated by the similar crystal structure, although the preferential orientation for the crystal structure is different. Moreover, the results suggest that the material reported as MAPbI(3-x)Cl(x) is a combination of MAPbI(3) and MAPbCl(3). The crystal structure and exact nature of the material is important for the understanding and optimization of devices, and the possibility for enhanced crystallinity of the OIHPs shown in this report will therefore be important for further improvement and understanding of the devices.

  • 47.
    Park, Byung-Wook
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Bismuth Based Hybrid Perovskites A(3)Bi(2)I(9) (A: Methylammonium or Cesium) for Solar Cell Application2015In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 27, no 43, p. 6806-6813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-toxic bismuth-based perovskites are prepared for the possible replacement of lead perovskite in solar cells. The perovskites have a hexagonal crystalline phase and light absorption in the visible region. A power conversion efficiency of over 1% is obtained for a solar cell with Cs3Bi2I9 perovskite, and it is concluded that bismuth perovskites have very promising properties for further development in solar cells.

  • 48.
    Park, Byung-wook
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Chams, Amani
    Perruchot, Christian
    Jouini, Mohamed
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Neutral, Polaron, and Bipolaron States in PEDOT Prepared by Photoelectrochernical Polymerization and the Effect on Charge Generation Mechanism in the Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell2013In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 117, no 44, p. 22484-22491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on PEDOT as hole conductor and prepared by photoelectrochemical polymer deposition at different light intensities. We specifically investigate the effect of light intensity on the PEDOT polymer and in turn the efficiency of the solar cells. We find that the PEDOT prepared by this method is largely oxidized and contains significant amounts of polarons and bipolarons and only a small fraction of neutral PEDOT. Photoelectrochemical polymer deposition under low light intensity leads to a particularly low fraction of neutral PEDOT and a high fraction of bipolarons as measured in the UV-vis spectra. The solar cells based on PEDOT as a hole conductor prepared under these conditions are the most efficient with a higher power conversion efficiency, which can be explained by a longer electron lifetime, faster charge transport, and higher transparency of the PEDOT. Interestingly, we conclude that in this type of solid-state DSSCs the mechanism of dye regeneration occurs from PEDOT polarons that then form bipolarons, which is different from the mechanism of dye regeneration proposed in standard solid-state DSSCs.

  • 49.
    Park, Byung-wook
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Ulsan Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Sch Energy & Chem Engn, UNIST Gil 50, Ulsan, South Korea.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci LSPM, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Seok, Sang Il
    Ulsan Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Sch Energy & Chem Engn, UNIST Gil 50, Ulsan, South Korea.;KRICT, Div Adv Mat, 141 Gajeong Ro, Daejeon 305600, South Korea..
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Analysis of crystalline phases and integration modelling of charge quenching yields in hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cell materials2017In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 40, p. 596-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic inorganic metal halide perovskites (OIHPs) has emerged as promising photovoltaic materials the latest years. Many OIHPs, however, have complex material compositions with mixed cation and halide compositions, phase mixtures, as well as beneficial remains of PbI2 in the final solar cell materials where the complex material composition with dual conduction and valence band states and its effects on the performance remain unclear. Here, we report an approach to analyze the phase mixture, order-disorder phases and the emissive electronic states via a 4-state model of the photoluminescence yield. The approach is applied to scaffold layer perovskite materials with different mixed halide composition. The optical transitions and the full emission spectra are de-convoluted to quantify the band gaps and charge quenching yields in the OIHPs. An approach to extract the excited state coupling parameters within the 4-state model is also briefly given. The integration model is finally utilized in charge quenching yield analysis for the different materials and correlated with solar cell performance from MAPbI(3) and MAPbI(3-x)Cl(x) in mesoporous TiO2 layers where inclusion of Cl improves crystal formation and is compared to alternative approaches using optimized solvents and anti-solvent methods. A band gap grading effect was found to be present for the scaffold MAPbI(3) and increased for MAPbI(3-x)Cl(x), beneficial for decreased hole concentration at the back contact and thus reducing back contact recombination.

  • 50.
    Pazoki, Meysam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Cappel, Ute B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, SB ISIC LSPM, Chemin Alambics, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Characterization techniques for dye-sensitized solar cells2017In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 672-709Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have been widely studied in the last two decades and start to be commercialized in the photovoltaic market. Comprehensive characterization is needed to fully understand and optimize the device performance and stability. In this review, we summarize different characterization methods for dye-sensitized solar cells with liquid redox electrolytes or solid state hole transporting materials, most of which can also be used for similar devices such as perovskite based thin film solar cells. Limitations and advantages of relevant methods for studying the energy levels and time scales involved in charge transfer processes as well as charge transport related characteristic lengths are discussed. A summary of recent developments in DSCs and the importance of measured parameters for the device optimization procedure are mentioned at the end.

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