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  • 1.
    Barbu, Andreea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Quach, My
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    The use of hydrogen gas clearance for blood flow measurements in single endogenous and transplanted pancreatic islets2015In: Microvascular Research, ISSN 0026-2862, E-ISSN 1095-9319, Vol. 97, p. 124-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The blood perfusion of pancreatic islets is regulated independently from that of the exocrine pancreas, and is of importance for multiple aspects of normal islet function, and probably also during impaired glucose tolerance. Single islet blood flow has been difficult to evaluate due to technical limitations. We therefore adapted a hydrogen gas washout technique using microelectrodes to allow such measurements. Platinum micro-electrodes monitored hydrogen gas clearance from individual endogenous and transplanted islets in the pancreas of male Lewis rats and in human and mouse islets implanted under the renal capsule of male athymic mice. Both in the rat endogenous pancreatic islets as well as in the intra-pancreatically transplanted islets, the vascular conductance and blood flow values displayed a highly heterogeneous distribution, varying by factors 6-10 within the same pancreas. The blood flow of human and mouse islet grafts transplanted in athymic mice was approximately 30% lower than that in the surrounding renal parenchyma. The present technique provides unique opportunities to study the islet vascular dysfunction seen after transplantation, but also allows for investigating the effects of genetic and environmental perturbations on islet blood flow at the single islet level in vivo. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 2.
    Barbu, Andreea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Bodin, Bbirgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Källskog, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Börjesson, Joey Lau
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Blood flow in endogenous and transplanted pancreatic islets in anesthetized rats: Effects of lactate and pyruvate2012In: Pancreas, ISSN 0885-3177, E-ISSN 1536-4828, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1263-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exogenously administered lactate and pyruvate on blood perfusion in endogenous and transplanted islets. METHODS: Anesthetized Wistar-Furth rats were given lactate or pyruvate intravenously, and regional blood perfusion was studied 3 or 30 minutes later with a microsphere technique. Separate rats received a 30-minute infusion of pyruvate or lactate into the portal vein before blood flow measurements. We also administered these substances to islet-implanted rats 4 weeks after transplantation and measured graft blood flow with laser Doppler flowmetry. The expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 and lactate dehydrogenase A was analyzed. RESULTS: The expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 and lactate dehydrogenase A was markedly up-regulated in transplanted as compared with endogenous islets. Administration of pyruvate, but not lactate, increased mesenteric blood flow after 3 minutes. Pyruvate decreased mesenteric blood flow after 30 minutes, whereas lactate decreased only islet blood flow. These responses were absent in transplanted animals. A continuous intraportal infusion of lactate or pyruvate increased selectively islet blood flow but did not affect blood perfusion of transplanted islets. CONCLUSIONS: Lactate and pyruvate affect islet blood flow through effects mediated by interactions between the liver and the nervous system. Such a response can help adjust the release of islet hormones during excess substrate concentrations.

  • 3.
    Christoffersson, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Waldén, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Opdenakker, Ghislain
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is Essential for Physiological Beta Cell Function and Islet Vascularization in Adult Mice2015In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 185, no 4, p. 1094-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of paracrine factors in the islets of Langerhans, and the constitution of the beta cell basement membrane can both be affected by proteolytic enzymes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the extraceaular matrix-degrading enzyme gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9) on islet function in mice. Islet function of Mmp9-deficient (Mmp9(-/-)) mice and their wild-type Littermates was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. The pancreata of Mmp9(-/-) mice did not differ from wild type in islet mass or distribution. However, Mmp9(-/-) mice had an impaired response to a glucose toad in vivo, with lower serum insulin levels. The glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was reduced also in vitro in isolated Mmp9(-/-) islets. The vascular density of Mmp9(-/-) islets was lower, and the capillaries had fewer fenestrations, whereas the islet blood flow was threefold higher. These alterations could partly be explained by compensatory changes in the expression of matrix-related proteins. This in-depth investigation of the effects of the loss of MMP9(-/-) function on pancreatic islets uncovers a deteriorated beta cell function that is primarily due to a shift in the beta cell phenotype, but also due to islet vascular aberrations. This likely reflects the importance of a normal islet matrix turnover exerted by MMP-9, and concomitant release of paracrine factors sequestered on the matrix.

  • 4.
    Fred, Rikard G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Pelletier, Jerry
    Welsh, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    The human insulin mRNA is partly translated via a cap- and eIF4A-independent mechanism2011In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 412, no 4, p. 693-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cap-independent insulin mRNA translation occurs in human pancreatic islets at basal conditions, during stimulation at a high glucose concentration and at conditions of nitrosative stress. We also aimed at correlating cap-independent insulin mRNA translation with binding of the IRES trans-acting factor polypyrimidine tract binding protein (FTB) to the 5'-UTR of insulin mRNA. For this purpose, human islets were incubated for 2 h in the presence of low (1.67 mM) or high glucose (16.7 mM). Nitrosative stress was induced by addition of 1 mM DETA/NO and cap-dependent mRNA translation was inhibited with hippuristanol. Insulin biosynthesis rates were determined by radioactive labeling and immunoprecipitation. PTB affinity to insulin mRNA 5'-UTR was assessed by a magnetic micro bead pull-down procedure. We observed that in the presence of 1.67 mM glucose, approximately 70% of the insulin mRNA translation was inhibited by hippuristanol. Corresponding value from islets incubated at 16.7 mM glucose was 93%. DETA/NO treatment significantly decreased the translation of insulin by 85% in high glucose incubated islets, and by 50% at a low glucose concentration. The lowered insulin biosynthesis rates of DETA/NO-exposed islets were further suppressed by hippuristanol with 55% at 16.7 mM glucose but not at 1.67 mM glucose. Thus, hippuristanol-induced inhibition of insulin biosynthesis was less pronounced in DETA/NO-treated islets as compared to control islets. We observed also that PTB bound specifically to the insulin mRNA 5'-UTR in vitro, and that this binding corresponded well with rates of cap-independent insulin biosynthesis at the different conditions. In conclusion, our studies show that insulin biosynthesis is mainly cap-dependent at a high glucose concentration, but that the cap-independent biosynthesis of insulin can constitute as much as 40-100% of all insulin biosynthesis during conditions of nitrosative stress. These data suggest that the pancreatic beta-cell is able to uphold basal insulin synthesis at conditions of starvation and stress via a cap- and eIF4A-independent mechanism, possibly mediated by the binding of FIB to the 5'-UTR of the human insulin mRNA.

  • 5.
    Gao, Xiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Persson, A. Erik G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Short-term glucosamine infusion increases islet blood flow in anesthetized rats2013In: ISLETS, ISSN 1938-2014, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in rodents are associated with increased islet blood flow. If this is important for modulation of the endocrine function is at present unknown. We evaluated if glucosamine infusion, which induces peripheral insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, could be used to acutely increase islet blood flow. We infused anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 h with glucosamine (6 mg/kg body weight), in some cases followed by glucose administration. The former induced a 2-fold increase in serum insulin concentrations while plasma glucose remained unchanged. In vitro an augmented insulin response to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin content in batch type islet incubations with glucosamine for 24 h were seen. After 2 h glucosamine exposure in vitro, insulin release was decreased. In vivo glucosamine infusion increased islet blood flow, without affecting other regional blood flow values. Glucose increased islet blood flow to the same extent in control and glucosamine-infused rats. When exposed to 10 mmol/L glucosamine arterioles of isolated perfused islets showed a 10% dilation of their vascular smooth muscle. Thus, application of this model leads to acute hyperinsulinemia in vivo but a decreased insulin release in vitro, which suggests that effects not located to beta cells are responsible for the effects seen in vivo. An increased islet blood flow in previously healthy animals was also seen after glucose administration, which can be used to further dissect the importance of blood flow changes in islet function.

  • 6.
    Gao, Xiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Groop, Leif
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Wierup, Nils
    Lund Univ, Diabet Ctr, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Effects of GIP on regional blood flow during normoglycemia and hyperglycemia in anesthetized rats2018In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e13685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and affects -cell turnover. This study aimed at evaluating if some of the beneficial effects of GIP on glucose homeostasis can be explained by modulation of islet blood flow. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with different doses of GIP (10, 20, or 60ng/kg*min) for 30min. Subsequent organ blood flow measurements were performed with microspheres. In separate animals, islets were perfused exvivo with GIP (10(-6)-10(-12)mol/L) during normo- and hyperglycemia and arteriolar responsiveness was recorded. The highest dose of GIP potentiated insulin secretion during hyperglycemia, but had no effect in normoglycemic rats. The highest GIP concentration decreased blood perfusion of whole pancreas, pancreatic islets, duodenum, colon, liver and kidneys. The decrease in blood flow was unaffected by ganglion blockade or adenosine receptor inhibition. In contrast to this, in single perfused islets GIP induced a dose-dependent arteriolar dilation. Thus, high doses of GIP exert a direct dilatory effect on islet arterioles in isolated islets, but induce a generalized vasoconstriction in splanchnic organs, including the whole pancreas and islets, invivo. The latter effect is unlikely to be mediated by adenosine, the autonomic nervous system, or endothelial mediators.

  • 7.
    Gao, Xiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Bodin, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Persson, A. Erik G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Important role of P2Y receptors for islet blood flow regulation in anesthetized rats during acute and chronic hyperglycemiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic islet blood flow is regulated through a complex interplay between nervous, metabolic and local endothelial factors. We have previously shown that adenosine is an important vasodilator in the metabolic regulation of islet blood flow and now wanted to examine whether also ATP/ADP/AMP could affect islet blood perfusion through P2Y receptors. To achieve this we examined local blood flow values in normoglycemic and acutely hyperglycemic Sprague-Dawley rats as well as GK rats, a type 2 diabetes model. We inhibited P2Y receptors in general with suramine and, since P2Y13 receptors are known to inhibit insulin secretion, we also examined the effects of a selective P2Y13 receptor inhibitor, viz. MRS2211. We found that all GK rats were hyperglycemic and hypertensive when compared to SD rats. Basal islet blood flow in SD rats was decreased by MRS2211, and there was a trend for this to occur also after suramine administration. The glucose-induced islet blood flow increase in SD rats was impaired after suramine and MRS2211 treatment. GK rats had higher islet blood flow, but not islet vascular conductance, than SD rats, which did not react to acute hyperglycemia or the P2Y receptor inhibitors. Similar findings were made in an islet arteriole perfusion model, suggesting that local P2Y receptors are involved. A surprising finding was that especially suramine markedly increased colonic blood flow in SD rats, and decreased this blood flow in GK rats. We conclude that not only adenosine, but also also ATP and especially ADP stimulate both basal and glucose-stimulated islet blood flow in anesthetized SD rats, but this response is not seen in GK rats. Also colonic blood flow seems to be sensitive to P2Y receptors and increase its blood flow when these receptors are inhibited. The mechanisms behind this are unknown.

  • 8.
    Gao, Xiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Quach, My
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Bodin, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Effects of Mn-DPDP and manganese chloride on hemodynamics and glucose tolerance in anesthetized rats2014In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 328-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging may be a method of choice to visualize transplanted pancreatic islets. However, contrast agents may interfere with microcirculation and affect graft function. Purpose To evaluate the effects manganese-containing contrast media on regional blood flow and glucose tolerance. Material and Methods Anesthetized rats were injected intravenously with MnCl2 (10 mu M/kg body weight) or Mn-DPDP (Teslascan; 5 mu M/kg body weight). Blood flow measurements were made with a microsphere technique 10min later. In separate animals vascular arteriolar reactivity in isolated, perfused islets was examined. Furthermore, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in separate rats. Results Glucose tolerance was unaffected by both agents. No changes in regional blood flow were seen after administration of Mn-DPDP, except for an increase in arterial liver blood flow. MnCl2 increased all blood flow values except that of the kidney. MnCl2, but not Mn-DPDP, caused a vasoconstriction in isolated rat islet arterioles but only at very high doses. Conclusion Mn-DPDP administration does not affect glucose tolerance or regional blood flow, besides an increase in arterial hepatic blood flow, and may therefore be suitable for visualization of islets.

  • 9.
    Gao, Xiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Yang, Ting
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Zollbrecht, Christa
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Zhang, Xing-Mei
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hezel, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Liu, MIng
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Paleli, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lai, En-Yin
    Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA.
    Harris, Robert A.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Persson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Fredholm, Bertil B.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jansson, Leif
    Carlström, Mattias
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Abrogation of adenosine A1 receptor signaling improves metabolic regulation in mice by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responsesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Jansson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Barbu, Andreea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Bodin, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Drott, Carl Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Espes, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Gao, Xiang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Kallskog, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lau, Joey Börjesson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Liljebäck, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Quach, My
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Strömberg, Victoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Ullsten, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 81-95Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting beta-cells, endothelium derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future.

  • 11. Lai, Enyin
    et al.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Verdugo, Alberto Delgado
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Bodin, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Källskog, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Persson, Erik G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Blood lipids affect rat islet blood flow regulation through beta(3)-adrenoceptors2014In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 307, no 8, p. E653-E663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic islet blood perfusion varies according to the needs for insulin secretion. We examined the effects of blood lipids on pancreatic islet blood flow in anesthetized rats. Acute administration of Intralipid to anesthetized rats increased both triglycerides and free fatty acids, associated with a simultaneous increase in total pancreatic and islet blood flow. A preceding abdominal vagotomy markedly potentiated this and led acutely to a 10-fold increase in islet blood flow associated with a similar increase in serum insulin concentrations. The islet blood flow and serum insulin response could be largely prevented by pretreatment with propranolol and the selective beta(3)-adrenergic inhibitor SR-59230A. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester prevented the blood flow increase but was less effective in reducing serum insulin. Increased islet blood flow after Intralipid administration was also seen in islet and whole pancreas transplanted rats, i.e., models with different degrees of chronic islet denervation, but the effect was not as pronounced. In isolated vascularly perfused single islets Intralipid dilated islet arterioles, but this was not affected by SR-59230A. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are important for the coordination of islet blood flow and insulin release during hyperlipidemia, with a previously unknown role for beta(3)-adrenoceptors.

  • 12.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Two-week treatment with the β3-adrenoceptor antagonist SR59230A normalizes the increased pancreatic islet blood flow in type 2 diabetic GK rats2012In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 14, no 10, p. 960-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a type 2 diabetes model, has increased pancreatic islet and white adipose tissue (WAT) blood flow, and this can be normalized by acute administration of SR59230A, a beta(3)-adrenoceptor antagonist. We now implanted osmotic pumps which allowed a constant release of saline or SR59230A (0.6 mg/kg x day) for 2 weeks. A decrease in islet blood flow was seen also after 2 weeks of continuous SR59230A treatment in the GK rat. However, no improvement in glucose tolerance was seen in the GK rats. Neither did SR59230A affect insulin secretion from isolated islets in vitro. WAT blood flow was not affected by the 2-week SR59230A treatment. Thus, the increased islet blood flow seen in the GK rat can be normalized for up to 2 weeks, which opens the possibilities for further studies on the long-term functional role on the islet blood flow increase in this type 2 diabetes model.

  • 13.
    Rydgren, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Öster, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandler, Stellan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Administration of IL-1 Trap prolongs survival of transplanted pancreatic islets to type 1 diabetic NOD mice2013In: Cytokine, ISSN 1043-4666, E-ISSN 1096-0023, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 123-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We previously reported that IL-1 Trap (a hybrid molecule consisting of the extracellular domain of IL-1 receptor accessory protein and IL-1 receptor type 1 arranged inline and fused to the Fc-portion of IgG1) can protect rat pancreatic islets in vitro against noxious effects induced by IL-1 beta. In this study we tested the effect of administration of a murine IL-1 Trap on the recurrence of disease (ROD) model in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Spontaneously diabetic female NOD mice received implantation of a curative number (600) of syngeneic pancreatic islets beneath their left kidney capsule from young healthy NOD mouse donors. Once a day, the mice were injected subcutaneously with IL-1 Trap (30 mg/kg bodyweight), or an equimolar dose Fc-control protein (8.4 mg/kg bodyweight) or saline. The treatments were maintained until ROD (i.e. a blood glucose value >= 11.1 mM for 2 consecutive days) or until 5 days after transplantation. 3 out of 11 mice treated with IL-1 Trap showed a significantly increased graft survival compared to all other mice, and analysis of relative cytokine mRNA levels in isolated spleen cells showed elevated IL-4 mRNA levels, but no differences in FoxP3 or iNOS staining of grafts, from mice treated with IL-1 Trap, at both endpoints, compared to both control groups. Administration of IL-1 Trap counteracts islet cell destruction in the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In part this could be due to a shift towards Th2 cytokine production seen in IL-1 Trap treated animals. 

  • 14.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lysosomes and Intracellular Degradation of Insulin in Pancreatic Islets2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    Sandberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Borg, L.A. Håkan
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Intracellular degradation of insulin and crinophagy are maintained by nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase 2 activity in isolated pancreatic islets2006In: Biology of the Cell, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Pancreatic beta-cells require an optimal insulin content to allow instantaneous secretion of insulin. This is maintained by insulin biosynthesis and intracellular degradation of insulin. Degradation may be effected by crinophagy, i.e. the fusion of secretory granules with lysosomes. IL-1beta (interleukin 1beta) induces distinct changes of beta-cell lysosomes. To study the mechanisms for intracellular insulin degradation and crinophagy, isolated mouse pancreatic islets were exposed to IL-1beta and known pathways for IL-1beta actions were blocked. Intracellular insulin degradation was determined by following the fate of radioactively labelled insulin. Crinophagy was studied by ultrastructural analysis. The effects of blocking pathways for IL-1beta were monitored by measurements of nitrite and PGE(2) (prostaglandin E(2)). RESULTS: IL-1beta caused an enhancement of islet intracellular insulin degradation and an increase in the lysosomal incorporation of beta-cell secretory granules. The effects of IL-1beta were abolished by aminoguanidine, a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (nitric oxide synthase), or by rofecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase 2). In the absence of IL-1beta, nitroarginine, which is a selective inhibitor of constitutive NOS, caused a decrease in intracellular degradation of insulin in parallel with a decreased production of NO and PGE(2) by the islets. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between the enhanced intracellular insulin degradation and lysosomal changes caused by IL-1beta suggests that insulin degradation may be effected by crinophagy. Under physiological conditions, significant beta-cell degradation of insulin may depend on the activity of COX-2, possibly stimulated by endogenous NO.

  • 16.
    Sandberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition on insulin release and pancreatic islet blood flow in rats2014In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 316-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To examine the effects of inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) on islet hormone secretion in vitro and on pancreatic islet blood flow in vivo. Methods. Insulin release was measured in a static incubation system of islets isolated from Wistar-F rats after inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 with SC 560 (COX-1), FR 122047 (COX-1), rofecoxib (COX-2), or indomethacin (both COX-1 and COX-2). In other rats organ blood flow values were measured with a microsphere technique during both normo- and hyperglycemia after administration of these enzyme inhibitors. Results. Serum insulin values were lower after pretreatment with a COX-1 inhibitor or a non-selective COX inhibitor in both control and glucose-injected rats in vivo, whereas COX-2 inhibition had no such effects. However, inhibition of COX had only minor effects on insulin release in vitro. Inhibition of COX affected neither total pancreatic nor islet blood flow in normoglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia caused an increase in both these flow values and in the duodenum. The increase in total pancreatic and duodenal blood flow was prevented by inhibition of COX-2 or non-selective COX inhibition. However, no effects on islet blood flow were seen after COX inhibition. Conclusion. Inhibition of COX affects insulin release and blood glucose concentrations in vivo. However, COX inhibition has only minor effects on pancreatic islet blood flow, but prevents the glucose-induced increase in total pancreatic blood flow.

  • 17.
    Sandberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Johansson, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Q Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sagulin, Lisbeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Scavenging Endothelium of Pancreatic Islets Differential Expression of Stabilin-1 and Stabilin-2 in Mice and Humans2017In: Pancreas, ISSN 0885-3177, E-ISSN 1536-4828, Vol. 46, no 1, p. E4-E5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Sandberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lau, Joey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Draft Copy Incorporation of Gelatin Scaffolds with Islets for Transplantation Improves Islet Engraftment and Post Transplant Function2013In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 96, no 6, p. S127-S127Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Sandberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Henriksnas, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    The alpha(2)-Adrenoceptor Antagonist Yohimbine Normalizes Increased Islet Blood Flow in GK Rats: A Model of Type 2 Diabetes2013In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 252-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexpression of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors contributes to type 2 diabetes in GK rats. We aimed to investigate if alpha(2)-adrenoceptor inhibition affected islet blood flow in these rats. Anesthetized GK and Wistar-F rats were given the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor inhibitor yohimbine (2.5 mg/kg BW) intravenously. The GK rats had higher blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations than WF rats. Yohimbine affected neither of these values in WF rats, but decreased blood glucose and increased serum insulin concentrations in GK rats. Total pancreatic and islet blood flows, measured with microspheres, were increased in GK when compared to WF rats. Yohimbine affected none of the blood flow values in WF rats, whereas islet blood flow in GK rats was reduced to values similar to those seen in WF rats. Overexpression of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors may contribute to the increased islet blood flow seen in GK rats, and may be eligible for pharmacologic intervention.

  • 20. Spegel, Peter
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Wierup, Nils
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide lowers branched chain amino acids in hyperglycemic rats2014In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 189, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypersecretion of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been associated with obesity and glucose intolerance. This condition has been suggested to be linked to GIP resistance. Besides its insulinotropic effect, GIP also directly affects glucose uptake and lipid metabolism. This notwithstanding, effects of GIP on other circulating metabolites than glucose have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we examined effects of infusion of various concentrations of GIP in normo- and hyperglycemic rats on serum metabolite profiles. We found that, despite a decrease in serum glucose levels (-26%, p < 0.01), the serum metabolite profile was largely unaffected by GIP infusion in normoglycemic rats. Interestingly, levels of branched chain amino acids and the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate were decreased by 21% (p < 0.05) and 27% (p < 0.001), respectively, in hyperglycemic rats infused with 60 ng/ml GIP. Hence, our data suggest that GIP provokes a decrease in BCAA levels and ketone body production. Increased concentrations of these metabolites have been associated with obesity and T2D.

  • 21.
    Ullsten, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Schwann cells regulate angiogenesis and blood vessel structure in native and transplanted pancreatic2015In: Xenotransplantation, ISSN 0908-665X, E-ISSN 1399-3089, Vol. 22, p. S46-S46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ullsten, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Schwann Cells Regulate Angiogenesis And Blood Vessel Structure In Native And Transplanted Pancreatic Islets2015In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 99, no 11, p. S75-S75Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23. Yang, Ting
    et al.
    Gao, Xiang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Zollbrecht, Christa
    Zhang, Xing-Mei
    Hezel, Michael
    Liu, Ming
    Peleli, Maria
    Lai, En-Yin
    Harris, Robert A.
    Persson, Erik G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Fredholm, Bertil B.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlstrom, Mattias
    Abrogation of adenosine A(1) receptor signalling improves metabolic regulation in mice by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses2015In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 1610-1620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Adenosine is an important regulator of metabolism; however, the role of the A(1) receptor during ageing and obesity is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A(1) signalling in modulating metabolic function during ageing. Methods Age-matched young and aged A (1) (also known as Adora1)-knockout (A (1) (-/-)) and wild-type (A (1) (+/+)) mice were used. Metabolic regulation was evaluated by body composition, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Isolated islets and islet arterioles were used to detect islet endocrine and vascular function. Oxidative stress and inflammation status were measured in metabolic organs and systemically. Results Advanced age was associated with both reduced glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity, as well as increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in A (1) (+/+) compared with A (1) (-/-) mice. Islet morphology and insulin content were similar between genotypes, but relative changes in in vitro insulin release following glucose stimulation were reduced in aged A (1) (+/+) compared with A (1) (-/-) mice. Islet arteriolar responses to angiotensin II were stronger in aged A (1) (+/+) mice, this being associated with increased NADPH oxidase activity. Ageing resulted in multiple changes in A (1) (+/+) compared with A (1) (-/-) mice, including enhanced NADPH oxidase-derived O-2 (-) formation and NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (Nox2) protein expression in pancreas and VAT; elevated levels of circulating insulin, leptin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-12); and accumulation of CD4(+) T cells in VAT. This was associated with impaired insulin signalling in VAT from aged A (1) (+/+) mice. Conclusions/interpretation These studies emphasise that A(1) receptors regulate metabolism and islet endocrine and vascular functions during ageing, including via the modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, among other things.

  • 24.
    Zang, Guangxiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Welsh, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Barbu, Andreea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Activated pancreatic stellate cells can impair pancreatic islet function in mice2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 169-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Pancreatic or islet fibrosis is often associated with activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). PSCs are considered not only to promote fibrosis, but also to be associated with glucose intolerance in some diseases. We therefore evaluated morphological and functional relationships between islets and PSCs in the normal mouse pancreas and transplanted islets. Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to map the presence of PSCs in the normal mouse pancreas and islets implanted under the renal capsule. We isolated and cultured mouse PSCs and characterized them morphologically by immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, we measured their cytokine production and determined their effects on insulin release from simultaneously cultured islets. Results. PSCs were scattered throughout the pancreas, with occasional cells within the islets, particularly in the islet capsule. In islet transplants they were found mainly in the graft periphery. Cultured PSCs became functionally activated and produced several cytokines. Throughout the culture period they linearly increased their production of interleukin-6 and mammalian keratinocyte-derived chemokine. PSC cytokine production was not affected by acute hyperglycemia. Syngeneic islets cocultured with PSCs for 24-48 h increased their insulin release and lowered their insulin content. However, short-term insulin release in batch-type incubations was unaffected after 48 h of co-culture. Increased islet cell caspase-3 activation and a decreased islet cell replication were consistently observed after co-culture for 2 or 7 days. Conclusion. Activated PSCs may contribute to impaired islet endocrine function seen in exocrine pancreatitis and in islet fibrosis associated with some cases of type 2 diabetes.

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