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  • 1.
    Axelson, Hans W
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Intraoperative Cavernous Nerve Stimulation and Laser-Doppler Flowmetry during Radical Prostatectomy2013In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 2842-2848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. 

    Erectile dysfunction is a common side effect following radical prostatectomy mainly due to damage of the pelvic autonomic nerve fibers (cavernous nerves). Intraoperative electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerves while measuring changes in penile girth has previously been shown to provide the surgeon with feedback of nerve integrity.

    Aim. 

    To test the feasibility of recording changes in glans penis blood flow by Laser Doppler flowmetry from cavernous nerve stimulation.

    Methods. 

    Fifteen patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy had electrical stimulation of the proximal and distal parts of the neurovascular bundles after prostate removal. The stimulation consisted of 30-40 seconds biphasic constant current (10-30 mA) with 0.5 millisecond pulse duration.

    Main Outcome Measures. 

    Stimulus induced changes in penile blood flow was recorded from a Laser Doppler probe attached to the glans penis. Changes in penile girth were simultaneously recorded from a mercury-in rubber strain gauge. Erectile function was evaluated three months after surgery.

    Results. 

    Ten patients had stimulus induced increase in Laser Doppler flow unilaterally (N = 7) or bilaterally (N = 3). Out of 10 patients, 6 reported some preserved erectile function postoperatively at 3 months follow-up (indicating 6 true and 4 false positives). Three patients had no Doppler response from stimulation and had no postoperative erectile function postoperatively (indicating three true negatives). Two patients were excluded from the study due to bad signal quality in the Laser Doppler signal. In the majority of patients, stimulation produced increase in penile girth sensed by the strain gauge.

    Conclusion. 

    This preliminary report provides evidence that Laser Doppler Flowmetry is able to detect increased penile blood flow from intraoperative electrical stimulation of the neurovascular bundles. However, further improvement in the recording technique is required. Laser Doppler Flowmetry may also be feasible to confirm autonomic nerve sparing in women undergoing pelvic surgery.

  • 2.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Regional Cancer Center, Uppsala-Örebro, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Lars
    King's College London, Medical School, Division of Cancer Studies, London, UK.
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Rider, Jennifer R
    Long-term Distress After Radical Prostatectomy Versus Watchful Waiting in Prostate Cancer: A Longitudinal Study from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 Randomized Clinical Trial2013In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 920-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Studies enumerating the dynamics of physical and emotional symptoms following prostate cancer (PCa) treatment are needed to guide therapeutic strategy. Yet, overcoming patient selection forces is a formidable challenge for observational studies comparing treatment groups.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To compare patterns of symptom burden and distress in men with localized PCa randomized to radical prostatectomy (RP) or watchful waiting (WW) and followed up longitudinally.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

    The three largest, Swedish, randomization centers for the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 trial conducted a longitudinal study to assess symptoms and distress from several psychological and physical domains by mailed questionnaire every 6 mo for 2 yr and then yearly through 8 yr of follow-up.

    INTERVENTION:

    RP compared with WW.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

    A questionnaire was mailed at baseline and then repeatedly during follow-up with questions concerning physical and mental symptoms. Each analysis of quality of life was based on a dichotomization of the outcome (yes vs no) studied in a binomial response, generalized linear mixed model.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:

    Of 347 randomized men, 272 completed at least five questionnaires during an 8-yr follow-up period. Almost all men reported that PCa negatively influenced daily activities and relationships. Health-related distress, worry, feeling low, and insomnia were consistently reported by approximately 30-40% in both groups. Men in the RP group consistently reported more leakage, impaired erection and libido, and fewer obstructive voiding symptoms. For men in the WW group, distress related to erectile symptoms increased gradually over time. Symptom burden and distress at baseline was predictive of long-term outlook.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Cancer negatively influenced daily activities among almost all men in both treatment groups; health-related distress was common. Trade-offs exist between physiologic symptoms, highlighting the importance of tailored treatment decision-making. Men who are likely to experience profound long-term distress can be identified early in disease management.

  • 3. Bratt, Ola
    et al.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Holmberg, Erik
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Nilsson, Annika
    Nyberg, Maria
    Robinsson, David
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Sandblom, Dag
    Stattin, Par
    The Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS): A randomized study comparing two different follow-up schedules for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology, ISSN 2168-1805, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 347-355Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Only a minority of patients with low-risk prostate cancer needs treatment, but the methods for optimal selection of patients for treatment are not established. This article describes the Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS), which aims to improve those methods. Material and methods. SAMS is a prospective, multicentre study of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer. It consists of a randomized part comparing standard rebiopsy and follow-up with an extensive initial rebiopsy coupled with less intensive follow-up and no further scheduled biopsies (SAMS-FU), as well as an observational part (SAMS-ObsQoL). Quality of life is assessed with questionnaires and compared with patients receiving primary curative treatment. SAMS-FU is planned to randomize 500 patients and SAMS-ObsQoL to include at least 500 patients during 5 years. The primary endpoint is conversion to active treatment. The secondary endpoints include symptoms, distant metastases and mortality. All patients will be followed for 10-15 years. Results. Inclusion started in October 2011. In March 2013, 148 patients were included at 13 Swedish urological centres. Conclusions. It is hoped that the results of SAMS will contribute to fewer patients with indolent, low-risk prostate cancer receiving unnecessary treatment and more patients on active surveillance who need treatment receiving it when the disease is still curable. The less intensive investigational follow-up in the SAMS-FU trial would reduce the healthcare resources allocated to this large group of patients if it replaced the present standard schedule.

  • 4. Carlsson, S.
    et al.
    Nilsson, A. E.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Nyberg, T.
    Akre, O.
    Steineck, G.
    Self-perceived penile shortening after radical prostatectomy2012In: International journal of impotence research, ISSN 0955-9930, E-ISSN 1476-5489, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 179-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The postoperative effect on penile length after radical prostatectomy has been the subject of studies with conflicting results. We analyzed self-perceived penile shortening, quality of life and self-esteem after radical prostatectomy. In this cross-sectional study of a cohort of 1411 men who underwent a radical prostatectomy at Karolinska University Hospital between 2002 and 2006, we used a study-specific questionnaire. Patients and controls were asked about their perceived penile shortening by comparing present penile length now and at age 30 years. All subjects were also asked about their present quality of life and self-esteem. Patients were compared with 442 age-matched population-based controls. Among 1288 who underwent radical prostatectomy and answered the questionnaire (response rate 91%), 663 patients reported self-perceived penile shortening (55%), as compared with 85 (26%) of 350 men in the control group, corresponding to a relative risk (RR) of 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.6) of self-perceived penile shortening compared with the age-matched control group. Age, grade of erectile dysfunction and angina were correlated with self-perceived penile shortening in both the operated and the control group. After adjustments for all of these mentioned potential confounders, we obtained a RR of 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.1) of self-perceived penile shortening compared with the controls. We also found that self-assessed penile shortening was associated with a RR of 1.2 (95% CI 1.1-1.3) for a low-to-moderate self-assessed quality of life and a RR of 1.2 (95% CI 1.1-1.4) for a low-to-moderate self estimation of self-esteem. Extensive nerve-sparing technique seems to be associated with less self-perceived penile shortening compared with radical prostatectomy with lower degree of nerve-sparing approach. These data indicate that radical prostatectomy is associated with self-perceived penile shortening and suggests that erectile function is a key factor in penile shortening.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Sigrid
    et al.
    Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Surg, Urol Serv, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Urol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Drevin, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Loeb, Stacy
    NYU, New York, NY USA.;Manhattan Vet Affairs Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Widmark, Anders
    Umea Univ, Oncol, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Lissbrant, Ingela Franck
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Oncol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Robinson, David
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Urol & Androl, S-90185 Umea, Sweden.;Ryhov Cty Hosp, Dept Urol, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Stattin, Par
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Urol & Androl, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Fransson, Per
    Umea Univ, Dept Nursing, Umea, Sweden..
    Population-based study of long-term functional outcomes after prostate cancer treatment2016In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 117, no 6B, p. E36-E45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To evaluate long-term urinary, sexual and bowel functional outcomes after prostate cancer treatment at a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 12 (11-13) years. Patients and Methods In this nationwide, population-based study, we identified 6 003 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical local stage T1-2, any Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen <20 ng/mL, NX or N0, MX or M0) between 1997 and 2002 from the National Prostate Cancer Register, Sweden. The men were aged <= 70 years at diagnosis. A control group of 1 000 men without prostate cancer were also selected, matched for age and county of residence. Functional outcomes were evaluated with a validated self-reported questionnaire. Results Responses were obtained from 3 937/6 003 cases (66%) and 459/1 000 (46%) controls. At 12 years after diagnosis and at a median age of 75 years, the proportion of cases with adverse symptoms was 87% for erectile dysfunction/sexual inactivity, 20% for urinary incontinence and 14% for bowel disturbances. The corresponding proportions for controls were 62, 6 and 7%, respectively. Men with prostate cancer, except those on surveillance, had an increased risk of erectile dysfunction compared with the men in the control group. Radical prostatectomy was associated with an increased risk of urinary incontinence (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-2.62) and radiotherapy increased the risk of bowel dysfunction (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.73-3.49) compared with men in the control group. Multimodal treatment, in particular treatment including androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), was associated with the highest risk of adverse effects; for instance, radical prostatectomy followed by radiotherapy and ADT was associated with an OR of 3.74 (95% CI 1.76-7.95) for erectile dysfunction and an OR of 3.22 (95% CI 1.93-5.37) for urinary incontinence. Conclusion The proportion of men who experienced a long-term impact on functional outcomes after prostate cancer treatment was substantial.

  • 6.
    Derogar, Maryam
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Div Clin Canc Epidemiol,Dept Oncol, Box 100, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Dahlstrand, Hanna
    Karolinska Univ Hosptital, Dept Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Div Clin Canc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Karolinska Inst, Urol Sect, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjartell, Anders
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Urol, Lund, Sweden..
    Hugosson, Jonas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Urol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Axen, Elin
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Urol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Lagerkvist, Mikael
    UroClin, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Div Clin Canc Epidemiol,Dept Oncol, Box 100, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Urol Sect, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stranne, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Urol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Thorsteinsdottir, Thordis
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Div Clin Canc Epidemiol,Dept Oncol, Box 100, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Fac Nursing, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Wallerstedt, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Urol Sect, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Haglind, Eva
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, SSORG, Dept Surg,Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Urol Sect, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Div Clin Canc Epidemiol,Dept Oncol, Box 100, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Div Clin Canc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Preparedness for side effects and bother in symptomatic men after radical prostatectomy in a prospective, non-randomized trial, LAPPRO2016In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 1467-1476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many clinicians believe that preparedness before surgery for possible post-surgery side effects reduces the level of bother experienced from urinary incontinence and decreased sexual health after surgery. There are no published studies evaluating this belief. Therefore, we aimed to study the level of preparedness before radical prostatectomy and the level of bother experienced from urinary incontinence and decreased sexual health after surgery. Material and methods: We prospectively collected data from a non-selected group of men undergoing radical prostatectomy in 14 centers between 2008 and 2011. Before surgery, we asked about preparedness for surgery-induced urinary problems and decreased sexual health. One year after surgery, we asked about bother caused by urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. As a measure of the association between preparedness and bothersomeness we modeled odds ratios (ORs) by means of logistic regression. Results: Altogether 1372 men had urinary incontinence one year after surgery as well as had no urinary leakage or a small urinary dribble before surgery. Among these men, low preparedness was associated with bother resulting from urinary incontinence [OR 2.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59-5.10]. In a separate analysis of 1657 men we found a strong association between preparedness for decreased sexual health and experiencing bother from erectile dysfunction (OR 5.92; 95% CI 3.32-10.55). Conclusion: In this large-sized prospective trial, we found that preparedness before surgery for urinary problems or sexual side effects decreases bother from urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction one year after surgery.

  • 7.
    Holmberg, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Garmo, Hans
    Palmgren, Juni
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Results from the scandinavian prostate cancer group trial number 4: a randomized controlled trial of radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting2012In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, ISSN 1052-6773, E-ISSN 1745-6614, Vol. 2012, no 45, p. 230-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Trial Number 4 (SPCG-4), 347 men were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy and 348 to watchful waiting. In the most recent analysis (median follow-up time = 12.8 years), the cumulative mortality curves had been stable over the follow-up. At 15 years, the absolute risk reduction of dying from prostate cancer was 6.1% following randomization to radical prostatectomy, compared with watchful waiting. Hence, 17 need to be randomized to operation to avert one death. Data on self-reported symptoms, stress from symptoms, and quality of life were collected at 4 and 12.2 years of median follow-up. These questionnaire studies show an intricate pattern of symptoms evolving after surgery, hormonal treatments, signs of tumor progression, and also from natural aging. This article discusses some of the main findings of the SPCG-4 study.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Onelöv, Erik
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Time, symptom burden, androgen deprivation, and self-assessed quality of life after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: the Randomized Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) clinical trial2009In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 422-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Quality-of-life outcomes are important in the choice of treatment strategy for men with localized prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how follow-up time, number of physical symptoms, and presence of androgen deprivation affected quality of life among men randomized to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study group was composed of all 376 living men included in the Swedish part of the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) between January 1, 1989, and February 29, 1996. Quality-of-life data were collected after a mean follow-up time of 4.1 yr. INTERVENTION: All patients were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting. Forty-five men were androgen deprived. MEASUREMENTS: Data of specific symptoms, symptom-induced stress, sense of well-being, and self-assessed quality of life were obtained by means of a questionnaire. Psychological symptoms were assessed using seven-point visual digital scales. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In analyses stratified on the basis of the numbers of physical symptoms, anxiety and depressed mood were less common, and sense of well-being and self-assessed quality of life were better throughout in the radical prostatectomy group than in the watchful waiting group. As the number of physical symptoms increased, all psychological variables became worse and more prominent in the watchful waiting group. After a follow-up time of 6-8 yr, a significant decrease in quality of life (p=0.03) was seen in the watchful waiting group. Twenty-four percent of androgen-deprived patients assigned to watchful waiting reported high self-assessed quality of life compared with 60% in the radical prostatectomy group. Eighty-eight percent of patients had clinically detected tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deprivation negatively affected self-assessed quality of life in men assigned to watchful waiting. The number of physical symptoms was associated with the level of quality of life. Quality of life was lower with longer follow-up time in both groups and was statistically significant in the watchful waiting group (p=0.03).

  • 9.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Can radical prostatectomy prevent and improve lower urinary tract symptoms?2008In: Nature clinical practice. Urology, ISSN 1743-4270, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 304-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Ruutu, Mirja
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Long-term quality-of-life outcomes after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 randomised trial.2011In: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 891-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: For men with localised prostate cancer, surgery provides a survival benefit compared with watchful waiting. Treatments are associated with morbidity. Results for functional outcome and quality of life are rarely reported beyond 10 years and are lacking from randomised settings. We report results for quality of life for men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) after a median follow-up of more than 12 years. METHODS: All living Swedish and Finnish men (400 of 695) randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in SPCG-4 from 1989 to 1999 were included in our analysis. An additional 281 men were included in a population-based control group matched for region and age. Physical symptoms, symptom-induced stress, and self-assessed quality of life were evaluated with a study-specific questionnaire. Longitudinal data were available for 166 Swedish men who had answered quality-of-life questionnaires at an earlier timepoint. FINDINGS: 182 (88%) of 208 men in the radical prostatectomy group, 167 (87%) of 192 men in the watchful-waiting group, and 214 (76%) of 281 men in the population-based control group answered the questionnaire. Men in SPCG-4 had a median follow-up of 12·2 years (range 7-17) and a median age of 77·0 years (range 61-88). High self-assessed quality of life was reported by 62 (35%) of 179 men allocated radical prostatectomy, 55 (34%) of 160 men assigned to watchful waiting, and 93 (45%) of 208 men in the control group. Anxiety was higher in the SPCG-4 groups (77 [43%] of 178 and 69 [43%] of 161 men) than in the control group (68 [33%] of 208 men; relative risk 1·42, 95% CI 1·07-1·88). Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 84% (146 of 173 men) in the radical prostatectomy group, 80% (122 of 153) in the watchful-waiting group, and 46% (95 of 208) in the control group and prevalence of urinary leakage was 41% (71 of 173), 11% (18 of 164), and 3% (six of 209), respectively. Distress caused by these symptoms was reported significantly more often by men allocated radical prostatectomy than by men assigned to watchful waiting. In a longitudinal analysis of men in SPCG-4 who provided information at two follow-up points 9 years apart, 38 (45%) of 85 men allocated radical prostatectomy and 48 (60%) of 80 men allocated watchful waiting reported an increase in number of physical symptoms; 50 (61%) of 82 and 47 (64%) of 74 men, respectively, reported a reduction in quality of life. INTERPRETATION: For men in SPCG-4, negative side-effects were common and added more stress than was reported in the control population. In the radical prostatectomy group, erectile dysfunction and urinary leakage were often consequences of surgery. In the watchful-waiting group, side-effects can be caused by tumour progression. The number and severity of side-effects changes over time at a higher rate than is caused by normal ageing and a loss of sexual ability is a persistent psychological problem for both interventions. An understanding of the patterns of side-effects and time dimension of their occurrence for each treatment is important for full patient information. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health; Swedish Cancer Society; Foundation in Memory of Johanna Hagstrand and Sigfrid Linnér.

  • 11. Nilsson, Andreas E
    et al.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Jonsson, Martin N
    Adding, Christofer
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Wiklund, N Peter
    Orgasm-associated urinary incontinence and sexual life after radical prostatectomy2011In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, The journal of sexual medicine, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 2632-2639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Involuntary release of urine during sexual climax, orgasm-associated urinary incontinence, occurs frequently after radical prostatectomy. We know little about its prevalence and its effect on sexual satisfaction.

    AIM:

    To determine the prevalence of orgasm-associated incontinence after radical prostatectomy and its effect on sexual satisfaction.

    METHODS:

    Consecutive series, follow-up at one point in calendar time of men having undergone radical prostatectomy (open surgery or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery) at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002-2006. Of the 1,411 eligible men, 1,288 (91%) men completed a study-specific questionnaire.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

    Prevalence rate of orgasm-associated incontinence.

    RESULTS:

    Of the 1,288 men providing information, 691 were sexually active. Altogether, 268 men reported orgasm-associated urinary incontinence, of whom 230 (86%) were otherwise continent. When comparing them with the 422 not reporting the symptom but being sexually active, we found a prevalence ratio (with 95% confidence interval) of 1.5 (1.2-1.8) for not being able to satisfy the partner, 2.1 (1.1-3.5) for avoiding sexual activity because of fear of failing, 1.5 (1.1-2.1) for low orgasmic satisfaction, and 1.4 (1.2-1.7) for having sexual intercourse infrequently. Prevalence ratios increase in prostate-cancer survivors with a higher frequency of orgasm-associated urinary incontinence.

    CONCLUSION:

    We found orgasm-associated urinary incontinence to occur among a fifth of prostate cancer survivors having undergone radical prostatectomy, most of whom are continent when not engaged in sexual activity. The symptom was associated with several aspects of sexual life.

  • 12. Nilsson, Andreas E.
    et al.
    Schumacher, Martin C.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Stranne, Johan
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Wiklund, N. Peter
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Age at surgery, educational level and long-term urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy2011In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 108, no 10, p. 1572-1577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To identify predictors for long-term urinary leakage after radical prostatectomy.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS A consecutive series of 1411 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (open surgery or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery) at Karolinska University Hospital between 2002 and 2006 were invited to complete a study-specific questionnaire. Urinary leakage was defined as use of two or more pads per day. RESULTS Questionnaires were received from 1288 (91%) patients with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. Age at surgery predicts in an exponential manner long-term urinary incontinence at follow-up with an estimated relative increase of 6% per year. Among the oldest patients, 19% had urinary incontinence compared with 6% in the youngest age group, translating to a prevalence ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-8.1). Low educational level, as compared with high, yielded an increased age-adjusted prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI, 1.7-3.9). Patients who had undergone salvage radiation therapy had an increased prevalence of urinary incontinence (2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), as did those with respiratory disease (2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4). Body mass index, prostate weight, presence of diabetes or previous transurethral resection did not appear to influence the prevalence of urinary incontinence.

    CONCLUSIONS In this series, a patient's age at radical prostatectomy influenced, in an exponential manner, his risk of long-term urinary incontinence. Other predictors are low educational level, salvage radiation therapy and respiratory disease. Intervention studies are needed to understand if these data are relevant to the prevalence of urinary leakage if a radical prostatectomy is postponed in an active monitoring programme.

  • 13.
    Plym, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, POB 281, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, POB 281, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Voss, Margaretha
    Swedish Social Insurance Agcy, Dept Anal & Forecast, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Kings Coll London, Sch Med, Div Canc Studies, Canc Epidemiol Grp, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology. Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Urol & Androl, Umea, Sweden..
    Lambe, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, POB 281, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Work Disability After Robot-assisted or Open Radical Prostatectomy: A Nationwide, Population-based Study2016In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been associated with reduced bleeding and shorter hospital stays than open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), but it is unclear whether these differences translate into shorter absence from work. Objective: To investigate short-and long-term rates of work disability following RARP and RRP. Design, setting, and participants: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of 2571 men of working age treated with RARP or RRP between 2007 and 2009 identified in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden. Information about physician-certified sick leave and disability pension was retrieved from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency through 2012. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We used Cox regression to calculate time to return to work (RTW, or duration of sick leave) after surgery and used generalised estimating equations to analyse days lost from work (because of sick leave and disability pension) after RTW. Results and limitations: Men treated with RARP returned to work after a median of 35 d, whereas the corresponding time for RRP was 48 d (p < 0.001). The difference was seen early; within the first month, men treated with RARP returned to work nearly four times faster than men treated with RRP (adjusted relative RTW rate 3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-4.66). During a median of 3.6 yr after return to work, men treated with RARP lost fewer days from work per person-year than men treated with RRP-12 d versus 15 d-but the association was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The adjusted rate ratio was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.82-1.42). One limitation is the nonrandomised design of this study. Conclusions: RARP was associated with a faster RTW compared with RRP, but the surgical method did not influence long-term rates of work disability in terms of days lost from work after RTW. Patient summary: We compared disease-related absence from work between two surgical methods for the removal of the prostate. Robot-assisted surgery was associated with a faster return to work compared with open surgery but did not influence absence from work in a long-term perspective.

  • 14. Plym, Anna
    et al.
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Fransson, Per
    Stattin, Par
    Lambe, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Drug Prescription for Erectile Dysfunction Before and After Diagnosis of Localized Prostate Cancer2014In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 2100-2108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Despite the high prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with prostate cancer, little is known about the use of ED drugs. Also, the possible influence of socioeconomic factors on ED drug use has not been studied previously. Aim. The aim of this study was to examine determinants and patterns of ED drug use before and after diagnosis in men with localized prostate cancer. Methods. Using a nationwide population-based cohort, 25,390 men with localized prostate cancer diagnosed between 2006 and 2009 and 126,944 control men were identified and followed for filled ED drug prescriptions over a 3-year period, ranging from 1 year before and up to 2 years after diagnosis. Main Outcome Measures. The main outcome measure was the proportion of men with at least one filled ED drug prescription after diagnosis. Results. The number of men using ED drugs increased markedly following diagnosis. Men who underwent radical prostatectomy had the strongest increase, with a cumulative proportion of 74% for at least one filled prescription within the first 2 years after diagnosis. The corresponding proportion was 33% in men treated with radiotherapy, 21% in men on active surveillance, 10% in men on watchful waiting, and 8% in control men. Among men who underwent prostatectomy, usage attenuated over time. Determinants of postdiagnostic use were young age at diagnosis, high income, high education, and a low- or intermediate-risk cancer. Conclusion. Although drugs for ED are commonly prescribed after diagnosis, use among most men is transient and influenced by socioeconomic status. Posttreatment counseling and affordable ED drugs are likely to reduce treatment dropout and disparities in use and help improve sexual health and quality of life in men with prostate cancer.

  • 15.
    Ventimiglia, Eugenio
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bratt, Ola
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University Hospitals, Cambridge, UK.
    Montorsi, Francesco
    URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Volz, Daniela
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Akre, Olof
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Nationwide, population-based study of post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence correction surgery.2017In: Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0022-4790, E-ISSN 1096-9098, Vol. 117, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of post radical prostatectomy (RP) urinary incontinence (PPI) surgery and to investigate factors related to its use.

    METHODS: Cohort study in Prostate Cancer database Sweden (PCBaSe) of men who underwent primary RP between 1998 and 2012. PPI correction procedures were identified in the Patient Registry. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PPI surgeries were estimated.

    RESULTS: Seven hundred eighty-two out of 26 280 (3%) men underwent PPI surgery at a median time of 3 years after RP. There was an eightfold increase in the absolute number of PPI surgeries during 2000-2014 and a threefold increase in the number per 1000 RPs performed. Factors associated with high use PPI surgery were age >70, HR 1.96 (1.54-2.50), and high hospital RP volume (>100 RPs/year), HR 0.81 (0.66-0.99). There was a 10-fold difference in use of PPI surgery per 1000 RPs between the county with the highest versus lowest use. In a subgroup of men with Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROM); severe PPI was reported by 7% of men and 24% of them underwent PPI surgery.

    CONCLUSIONS: Three percent of all men received PPI surgery, with a 10-fold variation among health care providers. Only a quarter of men with severe PPI underwent PPI surgery, suggesting that PPI surgery remains underutilized.

  • 16. Wallerstedt, Anna
    et al.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Nilsson, Andreas E
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Wiklund, N Peter
    Pad use and patient reported bother from urinary leakage after radical prostatectomy2012In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 187, no 1, p. 196-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    To better understand clinically significant definitions of urinary incontinence we investigated the relationship between urinary leakage and patient reported bother from urinary leakage.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    A consecutive series of 1,411 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, from 2002 to 2006 were invited to complete a study specific questionnaire with questions on pad status, urinary leakage and bother from urinary leakage.

    RESULTS:

    Questionnaires were received from 1,179 men with a followup of greater than 1 year (median 2.2). Results showed that even a small amount of urinary leakage resulted in a high risk of urinary bother. Of 775 survivors 46 (6%) reporting 0 pads indicated moderate or much bother compared to 38 of 123 (31%) who reported using a security pad. When comparing the 2 groups, the risk of bother from urinary leakage was more than 5 times higher in the safety pad vs the 0 pad group (RR 5.2, 95% CI 3.5-7.7). As the number of pads increased, we noted a higher bother risk. Cross-tabulation of pad use and urinary leakage revealed wide variation in pad requirements despite the same answer to urinary leakage questions.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    If the definition of continence is based on pad use, for example safety pads, a certain number of men who report moderate or much bother from urinary leakage will be defined as continent. Our results also show that for each stated rate of urinary leakage men prove to have a major variation in the pad requirement.

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