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  • 1.
    Grund, Peter
    et al.
    University of Kansas.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Conjuncts in Nineteenth-century English: Diachronic Development and Genre Diversity2014In: English Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1360-6743, E-ISSN 1469-4379, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 157-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the use of connective adverbials or conjuncts (e.g. therefore, on the other hand, firstly) in nineteenth-century English. Drawing on A Corpus of Nineteenth-Century English (CONCE), the study focuses on charting change over time and variation among different genres, and considers the distribution of various semantic types (e.g. contrastive, resultive) as well as individual conjuncts and author styles. We show that nineteenth-century English displays considerable genre differentiation in the use of conjuncts, both in terms of frequency and semantic types of conjuncts employed. Within these larger trends, patterns are also evident for individual conjuncts (e.g. now, therefore, so) and individual authors (e.g. in Letters). Science writing, in particular, reveals a drastic increase in conjuncts (in nearly all semantic types), which sets it apart from other genres. This suggests that the conjunct-heavy style of academic writing that has been attested in studies of Present-Day English was established in the nineteenth century. On a more general level, this result underlines the importance of considering formal genres when charting language change, as they may be in the forefront of the formation of new linguistic patterns that are unique to written texts. The article also contributes to our growing understanding of Late Modern English syntax.

  • 2.
    Kytö, Merja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Rudanko, Juhani
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Building a Bridge between the Present and the Past: A Corpus of 19th-century English2000In: ICAME Journal, ISSN 0801-5775, no 24, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Kytö, Merja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Rydén, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Introduction: Exploring Nineteenth-century English—Past and Present Perspectives2006In: Nineteenth-century English: Stability and Change, Cambridge (UK), New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo: Cambridge University Press , 2006, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kytö, Merja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Rydén, MatsUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.Smitterberg, ErikUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Nineteenth-century English: stability and change2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Kytö, Merja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Diachronic registers2015In: The Cambridge Handbook of English Corpus Linguistics / [ed] Douglas Biber; Randi Reppen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 330-345Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Kytö, Merja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Nineteenth-century English: An Age of Stability or a Period of Change?2006In: Corpus-based Studies of Diachronic English / [ed] Roberta Facchinetti & Matti Rissanen, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang , 2006, p. 199-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    59 Late Modern English: Sociolinguistics2012In: English Historical Linguistics: An International Handbook / [ed] Alexander Bergs, Laurel J. Brinton, Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter, 2012, p. 952-965Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    An introduction to Late Modern English2011In: English Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1360-6743, E-ISSN 1469-4379, Vol. 15, p. 173-182Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Chapter 11. Extracting data from historical material2016In: The Cambridge Handbook of English Historical Linguistics / [ed] Merja Kytö; Päivi Pahta, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 181-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Cohesion in Late Modern News Discourse: Functions of andin Nineteenth-century Newspapers2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Colloquialization and Contraction in19th-century English2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Colloquialization and Densification inNineteenth-century News Discourse2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Colloquialization and NOT-contraction in Nineteenth-century English2012In: Middle and Modern English Corpus Linguistics: A Multi-dimensional Approach / [ed] Manfred Markus, Yoko Iyeiri, Reinhard Heuberger, Emil Chamson, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 191-206Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the distribution of not-contracted and uncontracted forms in nineteenth-century English. The results show that the proportion of not-contracted forms increases across the nineteenth century, although there is a great deal of variation along genre lines. The results are linked to a discussion of the applicability of the concept of colloquialization to Late Modern English (LModE). Previous research on the colloquialization of English has focused chiefly on late-twentieth-century developments. This study demonstrates that the 1800s exhibit some similarities to the late twentieth century as regards certain types of societal change, which makes it relevant to attempt to apply the colloquialization framework to the LModE period.

  • 14.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Colloquialization in Nineteenth-century NewsDiscourse2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Densification in Nineteenth-century News Discourse: Noun Phrases with Premodifying Nouns2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Genres and Linguistic Evidence in English Historical Corpora: Representativity and Comparability2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Investigating the Expressive Progressive: On Susan M. Fitzmaurice’s ’The Meanings and Uses of the Progressive Construction in an Early Eighteenth-century English Network’ 2004In: Studies in the History of the English Language II: Unfolding Conversations, Berlin och New York: Mouton de Gruyter , 2004, p. 175-182Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Multal Adverbs in Nineteenth-century English2009In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 0039-3274, E-ISSN 1651-2308, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 121-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Non-correlative Commas between Subjects and Verbs in 19th-century English: A Diachronic Study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Non-correlative Commas between Subjects and Verbs in Nineteenth-century Newspaper English2013In: Of Butterflies and Birds, of Dialects and Genres: Essays in Honour of Philip Shaw / [ed] Nils-Lennart Johannesson, Gunnel Melchers, Beyza Björkman, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, p. 367-382Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    NOT-contraction in Nineteenth-century English: The Influence of Selected Linguistic andExtralinguistic Factors2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Particle Placement in Nineteenth-century English: A Multi-factorial Study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Partitive Constructions in Nineteenth-century English2006In: Nineteenth-century English: Stability and Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2006, p. 242-271Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Representativeness Revisited: Compiling a Corpus of Nineteenth-century Newspaper English2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: Computer Learner Corpora, Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching2004In: ICAME Journal, Vol. 28, p. 114-119Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: Corpus-based Approaches to Contrastive Linguistics and Translation Studies2005In: ICAME Journal , Vol. 29, p. 171-180Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: English in Modern Times: 1700–19452006In: English Language and Linguistics, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 208-219Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: Francis, G., Hunston, S., Manning, E (eds.). Collins COBUILD Grammar Patterns 2: Nouns and Adjectives (London: HarperCollins, 1998)2000In: ICAME Journal, Vol. 24, p. 128-135Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: Interfaces with English Aspect: Diachronic and Empirical Studies2007In: Folia Linguistica, Vol. 41, no 3-4, p. 478-485Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: International Corpus of Learner English2004In: ICAME Journal, Vol. 28, p. 109-113Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: Language between Description and Prescription: Verbs and Verb Categories in Nineteenth-century Grammars of English2017In: Journal of English Linguistics, ISSN 0075-4242, E-ISSN 1552-5457, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 294-297Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: New Zealand English Grammar: Fact or Fiction? A Corpus-based Study in Morphosyntactic Variation2001In: ICAME Journal, Vol. 25, p. 149-154Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: Progressives, Patterns, Pedagogy: A Corpus-driven Approach to English Progressive Forms, Functions, Contexts and Didactics2006In: ICAME Journal, Vol. 30, p. 118-125Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Review of: Towards a Semantics of Linguistic Time: Exploring Some Basic Time Concepts with Special Reference to English and Krio1999In: Studia Neophilologica, Vol. 71, p. 115-117Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Syntactic stability and change in nineteenth-century newspaper language2014In: Late Modern English Syntax / [ed] Marianne Hundt, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 311-330Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Syntactic Stability and Change inNineteenth-century Newspaper Language2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    The Progressive and Phrasal Verbs: Evidence of Colloquialization in Nineteenth-century English?2008In: The Dynamics of Linguistic Variation: corpus Evidence on English Past and Present / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Amsterdam och Philadelphia: John Benjamins , 2008, p. 269-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    The Progressive Form and Genre Variation during the Nineteenth Century2000In: Generative Theory and Corpus Studies: A Dialogue from 10 ICEHL, R. Bermúdez-Otero, D. Denison, R. M. Hogg, C. B. McCully Eds., Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter , 2000, p. 283-297Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    The Progressive in 19th-Century English: A Process of Integration2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is a corpus-based study of the English progressive during the 19th century. The study is based on Conce, a one-million-word corpus covering the period 1800–1900 and comprising seven genres, both speech-related and non-speech-related. The main aim of the study is to account for the use and development of the progressive in 19th-century English. I use the term "integration" throughout the study with reference to the process by which the progressive became an increasingly important part of English grammar. Integration is taken to be a wide concept that includes, for instance, elements of grammaticalization theory, and diffusion across linguistic and extralinguistic parameters.

    In order to discuss the impact of extralinguistic features on the frequency of the progressive, I relate the number of progressives both to the number of words in texts and to the number of verb phrases. The results show that the frequency of the progressive varies significantly with all three extralinguistic features investigated: time, genre, and the sex of letter-writers. The progressive is more frequent, and, in that sense, more fully integrated, at the end of the 19th century than at the beginning; it is also more common in non-expository genres (e.g. Drama) than in expository genres (e.g. Science), and in women’s than in men’s letters. However, the increase in the frequency of the progressive is not paralleled by greater verb phrase complexity and diversity, as regards either the number of auxiliaries that the progressive verb phrases in the material incorporate or the type/token ratio for main verbs in progressive verb phrases.

    Comparing the frequency of the progressive with the results of two recent multi-feature/multi-dimensional analyses of CONCE, I show that the progressive is common, and thus integrated to a high degree, in texts that are characterized by involved production and situation-dependent reference, and that do not exhibit an abstract information focus. There is also a slight tendency for the progressive to be frequent in texts that display narrative concerns. The results provide empirical support for suggestions in previous research that the progressive is an oral and/or colloquial feature.

    Analyses of the linguistic context of the progressives suggest complex interrelationships between several linguistic and extralinguistic parameters. The extent to which the progressives in the material are modified by temporal adverbials decreases over the 19th century; at the same time, the proportion of the progressives that occur in main clauses increases. In addition, progressives in expository genres tend to occur in subordinate clauses, and in comparatively straightforward aspectual contexts, to a higher extent than progressives in non-expository genres. The results also imply that the diffusion of formal passive progressive marking was most rapid in genres where comparatively many progressives have non-agentive subjects.

    Three types of progressives assumed to express something beyond purely aspectual meaning are distinguished on the evidence of their linguistic context. The types analysed differ with respect to their functions and distribution. Nevertheless, provided that a parallel can be established between the phenomena of grammaticalization and integration, the overall increase in the frequency of these progressives lends empirical support to claims that the grammaticalization of a linguistic feature may involve an increase in the subjectivity expressed by the feature.

  • 40.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    The Progressive in 19th-century English: A Process of Integration2005Book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Kytö, Merja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    English Genres in Diachronic Corpus Linguistics2015In: From Clerks to Corpora: Essays on the English Language Yesterday and Today / [ed] Philip Shaw, Britt Erman, Gunnel Melchers and Peter Sundkvist, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2015, p. 117-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Smitterberg, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Reich, Sabine
    Hahn, Angela
    The Present Progressive in Political and Academic Language in the 19th and 20th Centuries: A Corpus-Based Investigation2000In: ICAME Journal, ISSN 0801-5775, Vol. 24, p. 99-118Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 42 of 42
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