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  • 1.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Lindberg, Clas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Past, present and  future: perspectives in landscape dynamics as seen from two case  studies in Tanzania2009In: Turning Science Into Action: biodiversity Conservation and Natural Resources Management in Africa, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes bear witness on past and present natural and societal processes on many different temporal and spatial scales. Major changes of the physical landscape are related to land-forming events, usually followed by continuous processes like weathering, soil formation and erosion. Observed, short-term changes in the physical environment might therefore be adjustments to past events, or the passing of thresholds, rather than reflecting present social and environmental processes.

    The different perspectives will be discussed with examples from two Tanzanian villages. In the first example we show how a combination of geological observations and later spatial information from maps and satellite data, field observations, information from villagers and archive studies has increased the observation period and made it possible to map, analyze and explain the natural and human influences on the distribution pattern of miombo woodland in Tanzania and to relate present landscapes to natural events and human decisions in the past, still making their footprints on the present day environment.

    This village forms a pocket of apparently sustainable landuse amidst a matrix of more or less degraded land. Another such pocket is found in the Mbulu highlands in northern Tanzania, where it has been explained as a result of intensification of agriculture. In our case we see rather a gradual expansion of the area under shifting cultivation in an area where land is not limiting.

    A historical explanation for this development is the fact that this village was little involved in the colonial economy and the villagization program during the 1970s (the “Operation”). Therefore, the population has remained comparatively homogenous and there is continuity in governance. As also population growth has been moderate, its population has been able to continue its traditional landuse in a sustainable way. Today, however, the situation is rapidly changing. Strong economic interests from outside tend to marginalize the influence the villagers have on their own forest resources. External forces are now more important than the internal resource use.

    With the concept “simple reproduction squeeze” Henry Bernstein pointed out declining terms of trade for agricultural products as one driving force of agricultural change, requiring constantly increasing production to maintain the income. In most of Africa there is now a negative spiral of land degradation and poverty, and it seems unlikely that industrialisation or the service sector will grow sufficiently to provide livelihoods for the rising numbers of people who no longer can find a livelihood in the traditional agricultural sector. Hence, rural economies must develop and diversify its use of local resources. Our second example is a village where local initiatives could possibly form a basis for an escape from Bernstein’s squeeze. It is important to study closely how such initiatives could develop within a framework of sustained environment and biodiversity. Although alien words like “sustainability”, “development” and “biodiversity” are unlikely to be well understood in the village, they are nevertheless likely to be discussed locally in people’s attempts to escape from the “squeeze”. Therefore, as scientists we need a better knowledge of people’s motives for acting the way they do and of their perceptions of development and sustainability, i.e. an understanding of the local development discourse.

  • 2.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Pettersson, Börge
    Strömquist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ruffo, C
    Tree communities and structural dynamics in miombo (Brachystegia-Julbernardia) woodland, Tanzania2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 230, no 1-3, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree vegetation and size structure was sampled in a miombo woodland area in E Tanzania and related to environmental factors, particularly soil and disturbance history. A total of 86 tree species was found. Four plant communities were distinguished through multivariate classification. Community 1 was dominated by Brachystegia boehmii, Brachystegia bussei and Julbernardia globiflora, and community 2 by B. boehmii and Brachystegia spiciformis. Community 1 was found on grey, eroded soil and community 2 on red, residual soil, a fact that opens up possibilities to use soil signals of satellite data for vegetation mapping. Community 3 is heavily disturbed miombo woodland near villages and community 4 was found on more clayey soil where miombo woodland is not expected. At our 42 sampled sites, density ranged from 74 to 1041 individuals ha−1 and basal area from 3.9 to 16.7 m2 ha−1. Regeneration is generally good but large sized trees are less prominent in communities 3 and 4 due to harvesting. With reduced disturbance miombo species may rapidly resume dominance in community 3. A higher than expected representation by the size class 30–40 (−50) cm dbh in community 2 is probably related to disturbance history. Prevalence of certain species (Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, Pterocarpus angolensis and Diplorhynchos condylocarpon) may be related to frequent fires. Selective logging will soon cause extinction of Dalbergia melanoxylon, whereas Pterocarpus angolensis still has good regeneration, possibly because individuals below logging size have a good seed set. A way to get an easy overview of size classes in all species in an area using PCA is discussed.

  • 3.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Ewaso Nyiro North Development Authority, Kenya.
    A Preliminary environmental screening of storage dams along the Ewaso N´giro River, Kenya2013Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. The Ministry of State for Special Programmes in the Office of the President of Kenya.
    SWECO International in association with CAS Consultants Consultancy Services for Feasibility Studies and Final Design Preparation of Flood Control Structures within Nzoia River Basin Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Dam 33B2014Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. The Ministry of State for Special Programmes in the Office of the President of Kenya.
    SWECO International in association with CAS Consultants Consultancy Services for Feasibility Studies and Final Design Preparation of Flood Control Structures within Nzoia River Basin Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Dam 40A2014Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. The Ministry of State for Special Programmes in the Office of the President of Kenya.
    SWECO International in association with CAS Consultants Consultancy Services for Feasibility Studies and Final Design Preparation of Flood Control Structures within Nzoia River Basin Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Dam 42A2014Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Backéus, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Integrated landscape analyses of change of miombo woodland in Tanzania and its implication for environment and human livelihood2009In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 91A, no 1, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes bear witness to past and present natural and societal processes influencing the environment and human livelihoods. By analysing landscape change at different spatial scales over time the effects on the environment and human livelihoods of various external and internal driving forces of change can be studied. This paper presents such an analysis of miombo woodland surrounding the Mkata plains in central Tanzania. The rich natural landscape diversity of the study area in combination with its historical and political development makes it an ideal observation ground for this kind of study. The paper focuses on long-term physical and biological changes, mainly based on satellite information but also on field studies and a review of documents and literature.

    The miombo woodlands are highly dynamic semi-arid ecosystems found on a number of nutrient-poor soil groups. Most of the woodlands are related to an old, low-relief geomorphology of erosion surfaces with relatively deep and leached soils, or to a lesser extent also on escarpments and steep Inselberg slopes with poor soils. Each period in the past has cast its footprints on the landscape development and its potential for a sustainable future use. On a regional level there has been a continual decrease in forest area over time. Expansion of agriculture around planned villages, implemented during the 1970s, in some cases equals the loss of forest area (Mikumi-Ulaya), whilst in other areas (Kitulangalo), the pre-independence loss of woodland was small; the agricultural area was almost the same during the period 1975–1999, despite the fact that forests have been lost at an almost constant rate over the same period. Illegal logging and charcoal production are likely causes because of the proximity to the main highway running through the area. Contrasting to the general regional pattern are the conditions in a traditional village (Ihombwe), with low immigration of people and a maintained knowledge of the resource potential of the forest with regards to edible plants and animals. In this area the local community has control of the forest resources in a Forest Reserve, within which the woody vegetation has increased in spite of an expansion of agriculture on other types of village land. The mapping procedure has shown that factors such as access to transport and lack of local control have caused greater deforestation of certain areas than during the colonial period. Planned villages have furthermore continued to expand over forest areas well after their implementation, rapidly increasing the landscape fragmentation. One possible way to maintain landscape and biodiversity values is by the sustainable use of traditional resources, based on local knowledge of their management as illustrated by the little change observed in the traditionally used area.

  • 8.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Rolf Å.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology.
    Olovsson, Stigbjörn
    Applied use of satellite data in developing countries: experiences from environmental studies in Mozambique : the SAMOZ project1994Book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Strömquist, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Yanda, Pius
    Msemwa, Paul
    Lindberg, Clas
    Simonsson-Forsberg, Louise
    The extended baseline perspective - utilising landscape information to analyse and predict environmental change: A Tanzanian example1999In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 436-443Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 9 of 9
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