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  • 1.
    Agosti, F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ La Plata, CONICET, Multidisciplinary Inst Cell Biol IMBICE, Electrophysiol Lab, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;CIC, Comis Invest Prov Buenos Aires, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Cordisco Gonzalez, S.
    Univ La Plata, CONICET, Multidisciplinary Inst Cell Biol IMBICE, Electrophysiol Lab, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;CIC, Comis Invest Prov Buenos Aires, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Martinez Damonte, V.
    Univ La Plata, CONICET, Multidisciplinary Inst Cell Biol IMBICE, Electrophysiol Lab, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;CIC, Comis Invest Prov Buenos Aires, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Tolosa, M. J.
    Univ La Plata, CONICET, Multidisciplinary Inst Cell Biol IMBICE, Electrophysiol Lab, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;CIC, Comis Invest Prov Buenos Aires, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Di Siervi, N.
    Univ Buenos Aires, CONICET, ININFA, Inst Invest Farmacol, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Davio, C.
    Univ Buenos Aires, CONICET, ININFA, Inst Invest Farmacol, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Perello, M.
    CIC, Comis Invest Prov Buenos Aires, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;Univ La Plata, CONICET, Multidisciplinary Inst Cell Biol, IMBICE,Neurophysiol Lab, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Raingo, J.
    Univ La Plata, CONICET, Multidisciplinary Inst Cell Biol IMBICE, Electrophysiol Lab, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.;CIC, Comis Invest Prov Buenos Aires, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Melanocortin 4 Receptor Constitutive Activity Inhibits L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels In Neurons2017In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 346, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is expressed in several brain nuclei playing a crucial role in the regulation of energy balance controlling the homeostasis of the organism. It displays both agonist-evoked and constitutive activity, and moreover, it can couple to different G proteins. Most of the research on MC4R has been focused on agonist-induced activity, while the molecular and cellular basis of MC4R constitutive activity remains scarcely studied. We have previously shown that neuronal N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)2.2) are inhibited by MC4R agonist-dependent activation, while the Ca-V subtypes that carry L- and P/Q-type current are not. Here, we tested the hypothesis that MC4R constitutive activity can affect Ca-V, with focus on the channel subtypes that can control transcriptional activity coupled to depolarization (L-type, Ca(V)1.2/1.3) and neurotransmitter release (N- and P/Q-type, Ca(V)2.2 and Ca(V)2.1). We found that MC4R constitutive activity inhibits specifically Ca(V)1.2/1.3 and Ca(V)2.1 subtypes of Ca-V. We also explored the signaling pathways mediating this inhibition, and thus propose that agonist-dependent and basal MC4R activation modes signal differentially through G(s) and G(i/o) pathways to impact on different Ca-V subtypes. In addition, we found that chronic incubation with MC4R endogenous inverse agonist, agouti and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), occludes Ca-V inhibition in a cell line and in amygdaloid complex cultured neurons as well. Thus, we define new mechanisms of control of the main mediators of depolarization-induced calcium entry into neurons by a GPCR that displays constitutive activity.

  • 2. Agosti, Francina
    et al.
    Lopez Soto, Eduardo J.
    Cabral, Agustina
    Castrogiovanni, Daniel
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Perello, Mario
    Raingo, Jesica
    Melanocortin 4 receptor activation inhibits presynaptic N-type calcium channels in amygdaloid complex neurons2014In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 2755-2765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in food intake and energy expenditure regulation. MC4R activation modifies neuronal activity but the molecular mechanisms by which this regulation occurs remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that MC4R activation regulates the activity of voltage-gated calcium channels and, as a consequence, synaptic activity. We also tested whether the proposed effect occurs in the amygdala, a brain area known to mediate the anorexigenic actions of MC4R signaling. Using the patch-clamp technique, we found that the activation of MC4R with its agonist melanotan II specifically inhibited 34.5 +/- 1.5% of N-type calcium currents in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. This inhibition was concentration-dependent, voltage-independent and occluded by the G(s) pathway inhibitor cholera toxin. Moreover, we found that melanotan II specifically inhibited 25.9 +/- 2.0% of native N-type calcium currents and 55.4 +/- 14.4% of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in mouse cultured amygdala neurons. Invivo, we found that the MC4R agonist RO27-3225 increased the marker of cellular activity c-Fos in several components of the amygdala, whereas the N-type channel blocker conotoxin GVIA increased c-Fos expression exclusively in the central subdivision of the amygdala. Thus, MC4R specifically inhibited the presynaptic N-type channel subtype, and this inhibition may be important for the effects of melanocortin in the central subdivision of the amygdala.

  • 3.
    Almén, Markus Sällman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Moschonis, George
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chrousos, George P.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Genome wide analysis reveals association of a FTO gene variant with epigenetic changes2012In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 132-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variants of the FTO gene show strong association with obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association remain unclear. We determined the genome wide DNA methylation profile in blood from 47 female preadolescents. We identified sites associated with the genes KARS, TERF2IP, DEXI, MSI1,STON1 and BCAS3 that had a significant differential methylation level in the carriers of the FTO risk allele (rs9939609). In addition, we identified 20 differentially methylated sites associated with obesity. Our findings suggest that the effect of the FTO obesity risk allele may be mediated through epigenetic changes. Further, these sites might prove to be valuable biomarkers for the understanding of obesity and its comorbidites.

  • 4.
    Almén, Markus Sällman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kalnina, Ineta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Klovins, Janis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Genome-wide analysis reveals DNA methylation markers that vary with both age and obesity2014In: Gene, ISSN 0378-1119, E-ISSN 1879-0038, Vol. 548, no 1, p. 61-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of the obesity epidemic and an aging population presents growing challenges for the healthcare system. Obesity and aging are major risk factors for a diverse number of diseases and it is of importance to understand their interaction and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Herein the authors examined the methylation levels of 27578 CpG sites in 46 samples from adult peripheral blood. The effect of obesity and aging was ascertained with general linear models. More than one hundred probes were correlated to aging, nine of which belonged to the KEGG group map04080. Additionally, 10 CpG sites had diverse methylation profiles in obese and lean individuals, one of which was the telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT). In eight of ten cases the methylation change was reverted between obese and lean individuals. One region proved to be differentially methylated with obesity (LINC00304) independent of age. This study provides evidence that obesity influences age driven epigenetic changes, which provides a molecular link between aging and obesity. This link and the identified markers may prove to be valuable biomarkers for the understanding of the molecular basis of aging, obesity and associated diseases.

  • 5.
    Alsiö, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Levine, Allen S.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Feed-forward mechanisms: Addiction-like behavioral and molecular adaptations in overeating2012In: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (Print), ISSN 0091-3022, E-ISSN 1095-6808, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 127-139Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food reward, not hunger, is the main driving force behind eating in the modern obesogenic environment. Palatable foods, generally calorie-dense and rich in sugar/fat, are thus readily overconsumed despite the resulting health consequences. Important advances have been made to explain mechanisms underlying excessive consumption as an immediate response to presentation of rewarding tastants. However, our understanding of long-term neural adaptations to food reward that oftentimes persist during even a prolonged absence of palatable food and contribute to the reinstatement of compulsive overeating of high-fat high-sugar diets, is much more limited. Here we discuss the evidence from animal and human studies for neural and molecular adaptations in both homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite regulation that may underlie the formation of a "feed-forward" system, sensitive to palatable food and propelling the individual from a basic preference for palatable diets to food craving and compulsive, addiction-like eating behavior.

  • 6.
    Alsiö, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Pickering, Chris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hulting, Anna-Lena
    Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lindblom, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Motivation for sucrose in sated rats is predicted by low anxiety-like behavior2009In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 454, no 3, p. 193-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety has been implicated in obesity and in the overconsumption of highly palatable foods such as those high in fat, sugar, or both. Also, the novelty-seeking trait has been associated with failure in weight-loss programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of experimental anxiety and the self-administration of sucrose and high fat pellets in non-food deprived rats across different operant schedules. Male Wistar rats were subjected to the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) of anxiety-like behavior. The rats were tested for fixed ratio 5 (FR5) and progressive ratio (PR) operant responding for 50% sucrose, 95% sucrose, and high-fat pellets. PR active lever press response for 95% sucrose, but not the other pellet types, was correlated to % time spent on open arms (P=0.019) in the EPM. On the FR5 schedule, activity (closed arm entries) was correlated to the self-administration of 50% sucrose (P=0.027) and high-fat (P=0.002). This indicates an association of novelty-induced activity and self-administration of palatable food in sated rats, as well as a specific association of PR lever press response for 95% sucrose and low anxiety-like behavior. It has been argued that such active lever press response on PR may be interpreted as craving for the reinforcer; thus, our findings indicate an inverse relationship of experimental anxiety and craving for sucrose. This connection may have implications for human situations, since anxiety and novelty-seeking have been associated with obesity and failure in weight-loss programs.

  • 7.
    Alsiö, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chavan, Rohit A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Levine, Allen S.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet causes strong up-regulation of proopiomelanocortin and differentially affects dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene expression in the brainstem of rats2014In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 559, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong link between obesity and dopamine (DA) has been established by studies associating body weight status to variants of genes related to DA signalling. Human and animal studies investigating this relationship have so far focused mainly on the role of DA within the mesolimbic pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate potential DA receptor dysregulation in the brainstem, where these receptors play a potential role in meal termination, during high-fat high-sugar diet (HFHS) exposure. Expression of other key genes, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC), was also analyzed. We randomized rats into three groups; ad libitum access to HFHS (n=24), restricted HFHS access (n=10), or controls (chow-fed, n=10). After 5 weeks, brainstem gene expression was investigated by qRT-PCR. We observed an increase in POMC expression in ad libitum HFHS-fed rats compared to chow-fed controls (p<0.05). Further, expression of DA D2 receptor mRNA was down-regulated in the brainstem of the HFHS ad libitum-fed rats (p<0.05), whereas expression of the DA D1 receptor was upregulated (p<0.05) in these animals compared to chow-fed rats. In control experiments, we observed no effect relative to chow-fed controls on DA-receptor or POMC gene expression in the hypothalamus of HFHS diet-exposed rats, or in the brainstem of acutely food deprived rats. The present findings suggest brainstem POMC to be responsive to palatable foods, and that DA dysregulation after access to energy-dense diets occurs not only in striatal regions, but also in the brainstem, which could be relevant for overeating and for the development and maintenance of obesity.

  • 8.
    Alsiö, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jonsson, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Levine, Allen S.
    Minnesota Obesity Center, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Meyerson, Bengt J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Hulting, Anna-Lena
    Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lindblom, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Inverse association of high-fat diet preference and anxiety-like behavior: a putative role for urocortin 22009In: Genes, Brain and Behavior, ISSN 1601-1848, E-ISSN 1601-183X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the preference for a palatable high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with response to novelty and with anxiety-like behavior in rats and whether such fat preference correlates with gene expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides related to feeding. We subjected male rats to two tests of exploration of novel environments: the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). The rats were then exposed to a 5-day test of preference for a palatable HFD versus reference diets. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 21 neuropeptides were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found a strong positive correlation of HFD preference and open-arm activity in the EPM (% open-arm time, r(s) = 0.629, df = 26, P < 0.001). Thus, HFD preference was inversely associated with anxiety-like behavior. The same association was found for HFD preference and behavior in the MCSF (bridge entries, r(s) = 0.399, df = 23, P = 0.048). In addition, the HFD preference was positively correlated (r(s) = 0.433, df = 25, P = 0.021) with hypothalamic mRNA levels of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2). Moreover, behavior in the EPM was significantly correlated with expression levels of the receptor for Ucn 2, the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2, in the hypothalamus (r(s) = 0.382, df = 33, P = 0.022, pituitary (r(s) = 0.494, df = 31, P = 0.004) and amygdala (r(s) = 0.381, df = 30, P = 0.032). We conclude that preference for palatable HFD is inversely associated with anxiety and propose that Ucn 2 signaling may play a role in this association.

  • 9. Araç, Demet
    et al.
    Aust, Gabriela
    Calebiro, Davide
    Engel, Felix B
    Formstone, Caroline
    Goffinet, André
    Hamann, Jörg
    Kittel, Robert J
    Liebscher, Ines
    Lin, Hsi-Hsien
    Monk, Kelly R
    Petrenko, Alexander
    Piao, Xianhua
    Prömel, Simone
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schwartz, Thue W
    Stacey, Martin
    Ushkaryov, Yuri A
    Wobus, Manja
    Wolfrum, Uwe
    Xu, Lei
    Langenhan, Tobias
    Dissecting signaling and functions of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors2012In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1276, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise an expanded superfamily of receptors in the human genome. Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) form the second largest class of GPCRs. Despite the abundance, size, molecular structure, and functions in facilitating cell and matrix contacts in a variety of organ systems, adhesion-GPCRs are by far the most poorly understood GPCR class. Adhesion-GPCRs possess a unique molecular structure, with extended N-termini containing various adhesion domains. In addition, many adhesion-GPCRs are autoproteolytically cleaved into an N-terminal fragment (NTF, NT, α-subunit) and C-terminal fragment (CTF, CT, β-subunit) at a conserved GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain that contains a GPCR proteolysis site (GPS). These two features distinguish adhesion-GPCRs from other GPCR classes. Though active research on adhesion-GPCRs in diverse areas, such as immunity, neuroscience, and development and tumor biology has been intensified in the recent years, the general biological and pharmacological properties of adhesion-GPCRs are not well known, and they have not yet been used for biomedical purposes. The "6th International Adhesion-GPCR Workshop," held at the Institute of Physiology of the University of Würzburg on September 6-8, 2012, assembled a majority of the investigators currently actively pursuing research on adhesion-GPCRs, including scientists from laboratories in Europe, the United States, and Asia. The meeting featured the nascent mechanistic understanding of the molecular events driving the signal transduction of adhesion-GPCRs, novel models to evaluate their functions, and evidence for their involvement in human disease.

  • 10.
    Attwood, Misty M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Krishnan, Arunkumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Pivotti, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Yazdi, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Almén, Markus Sällman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Topology based identification and comprehensive classification of four-transmembrane helix containing proteins (4TMs) in the human genome2016In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 17, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Membrane proteins are key components in a large spectrum of diverse functions and thus account for the major proportion of the drug-targeted portion of the genome. From a structural perspective, the a-helical transmembrane proteins can be categorized into major groups based on the number of transmembrane helices and these groups are often associated with specific functions. When compared to the well-characterized seven-transmembrane containing proteins (7TM), other TM groups are less explored and in particular the 4TM group. In this study, we identify the complete 4TM complement from the latest release of the human genome and assess the 4TM structure group as a whole. We functionally characterize this dataset and evaluate the resulting groups and ubiquitous functions, and furthermore describe disease and drug target involvement.

    Results: We classified 373 proteins, which represents similar to 7 % of the human membrane proteome, and includes 69 more proteins than our previous estimate. We have characterized the 4TM dataset based on functional, structural, and/or evolutionary similarities. Proteins that are involved in transport activity constitute 37 % of the dataset, 23 % are receptor-related, and 13 % have enzymatic functions. Intriguingly, proteins involved in transport are more than double the 15 % of transporters in the entire human membrane proteome, which might suggest that the 4TM topological architecture is more favored for transporting molecules over other functions. Moreover, we found an interesting exception to the ubiquitous intracellular N- and C-termini localization that is found throughout the entire membrane proteome and 4TM dataset in the neurotransmitter gated ion channel families. Overall, we estimate that 58 % of the dataset has a known association to disease conditions with 19 % of the genes possibly involved in different types of cancer.

    Conclusions: We provide here the most robust and updated classification of the 4TM complement of the human genome as a platform to further understand the characteristics of 4TM functions and to explore pharmacological opportunities.

  • 11.
    Attwood, Misty M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Krishnan, Arunkumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Highly diversified expansions shaped the evolution of membrane bound proteins in metazoans2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 12387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dramatic increase in membrane proteome complexity is arguably one of the most pivotal evolutionary events that underpins the origin of multicellular animals. However, the origin of a significant number of membrane families involved in metazoan development has not been clarified. In this study, we have manually curated the membrane proteomes of 22 metazoan and 2 unicellular holozoan species. We identify 123,014 membrane proteins in these 24 eukaryotic species and classify 86% of the dataset. We determine 604 functional clusters that are present from the last holozoan common ancestor (LHCA) through many metazoan species. Intriguingly, we show that more than 70% of the metazoan membrane protein families have a premetazoan origin. The data show that enzymes are more highly represented in the LHCA and expand less than threefold throughout metazoan species; in contrast to receptors that are relatively few in the LHCA but expand nearly eight fold within metazoans. Expansions related to cell adhesion, communication, immune defence, and developmental processes are shown in conjunction with emerging biological systems, such as neuronal development, cytoskeleton organization, and the adaptive immune response. This study defines the possible LHCA membrane proteome and describes the fundamental functional clusters that underlie metazoan diversity and innovation.

  • 12.
    Badiali, Luca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olszewski, Pawel K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nylander, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Vergoni, Anna V
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Adhesion GPCRs are widely expressed throughout the subsections of the gastrointestinal tract2012In: BMC gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 12, p. 134-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of transmembrane receptors and the most common drug target. The Adhesion subfamily is the second largest one of GPCRs and its several members are known to mediate neural development and immune system functioning through cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The distribution of these receptors has not been characterized in detail in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here we present the first comprehensive anatomical profiling of mRNA expression of all 30 Adhesion GPCRs in the rat GI tract divided into twelve subsegments.

    METHODS: Using RT-qPCR, we studied the expression of Adhesion GPCRs in the esophagus, the corpus and antrum of the stomach, the proximal and distal parts of the duodenum, ileum, jejunum and colon, and the cecum.

    RESULTS: We found that twenty-one Adhesion GPCRs (70%) had a widespread (expressed in five or more segments) or ubiquitous (expressed in eleven or more segments) distribution, seven (23%) were restricted to a few segments of the GI tract and two were not expressed in any segment. Most notably, almost all Group III members were ubiquitously expressed, while the restricted expression was characteristic for the majority of group VII members, hinting at more specific/localized roles for some of these receptors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the distribution of Adhesion GPCRs points to their important role in GI tract functioning and defines them as a potentially crucial target for pharmacological interventions.

  • 13.
    Bandstein, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schultes, Bernd
    eSwiss Med & Surg Ctr, Interdisciplinary Obes Ctr, St Gallen, Switzerland..
    Ernst, Barbara
    eSwiss Med & Surg Ctr, Interdisciplinary Obes Ctr, St Gallen, Switzerland..
    Thurnheer, Martin
    eSwiss Med & Surg Ctr, Interdisciplinary Obes Ctr, St Gallen, Switzerland..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The Role of FTO and Vitamin D for the Weight Loss Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Patients2015In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 2071-2077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent study in children demonstrated that the rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene influences prospective weight gain, however, only in those who were vitamin D-deficient. If this might also be the case for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), surgery-induced weight loss is however unknown. The objective of this study is to examine if the magnitude of RYGB surgery-induced weight loss after 2 years depends on patients' FTO rs9939609 genotype (i.e., TT, AT, and AA) and presurgery vitamin D status (< 50 nmol/L equals deficiency). Before and at 24 months after RYGB surgery, BMI was measured in 210 obese patients (mean BMI 45 kg/m(2), 72 % females). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were also repeatedly measured. Following surgery, vitamin D was supplemented. Possible weight loss differences between genotypes were tested with multiple linear regressions. The per-allele effect of each FTO A-allele on excessive BMI loss (EBMIL) was 3 % (P = 0.02). When split by baseline status, the EBMIL of vitamin D-deficient patients carrying AA exceeded that of vitamin D-deficient patients carrying TT by similar to 14 % (P = 0.03). No such genotypic differences were found in patients without presurgery vitamin D deficiency. Post-surgery serum levels of vitamin D did not differ between groups. Our data suggest that presurgery vitamin D levels influence the size of genotype effects of FTO rs9939609 on RYGB surgery-induced weight loss in obese patients.

  • 14.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is linked to higher plasma levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and lower serum levels of the satiety hormone leptin in older adults2014In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 63, no 11, p. 3955-3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms through which common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) drive the development of obesity in humans are poorly understood. By using C: ross-sectional data from 985 elderly (50% females) who participated at age 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors, circulating levels of ghrelin and leptin were measured after an overnight fast. In addition, subjects were genotyped for FTO rs17817449 (AA, n=345 (35%); AC/CA, n=481 (48.8%); CC, n=159 (16.1%). Linear regression analyses controlling for sex, self-reported physical activity level, fasting plasma glucose, and body mass index were utilized. A positive relationship between the number of FTO C risk alleles and plasma ghrelin levels was found (P=0.005; relative plasma ghrelin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼9%). In contrast, serum levels of the satiety enhancing hormone leptin were inversely linked to the number of FTO C risk alleles (P=0.001; relative serum leptin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼11%). These associations were also found when controlling for waist circumference. The present findings suggest that FTO may facilitate weight gain in humans by shifting the endocrine balance from the satiety hormone leptin toward the hunger promoting hormone ghrelin.

  • 15.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brede, Swantje
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lehnert, Hendrik
    Schultes, Bernd
    Born, Jan
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Intranasal Insulin Enhances Postprandial Thermogenesis and Lowers Postprandial Serum Insulin Levels in Healthy Men2011In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 114-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE

     Animal studies indicate a prominent role of brain insulin signaling in the regulation of peripheral energy metabolism. We determined the effect of intranasal insulin, which directly targets the brain, on glucose metabolism and energy expenditure in humans.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced within-subject comparison, 19 healthy normal-weight men (18-26 years old) were intranasally administered 160 IU human insulin after an overnight fast. Energy expenditure assessed via indirect calorimetry and blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids (FFAs) were measured before and after insulin administration and the subsequent consumption of a high-calorie liquid meal of 900 kcal.

    RESULTS

    Intranasal insulin, compared with placebo, increased postprandial energy expenditure, i.e., diet-induced thermogenesis, and decreased postprandial concentrations of circulating insulin and C-peptide, whereas postprandial plasma glucose concentrations did not differ from placebo values. Intranasal insulin also induced a transient decrease in prandial serum FFA levels.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Enhancing brain insulin signaling by means of intranasal insulin administration enhances the acute thermoregulatory and glucoregulatory response to food intake, suggesting that central nervous insulin contributes to the control of whole-body energy homeostasis in humans.

  • 16.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Burgos, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kempton, Matthew J
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Nylander, Ruta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Craft, Suzanne
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Impaired Insulin Sensitivity as Indexed by the HOMA Score Is Associated With Deficits in Verbal Fluency and Temporal Lobe Gray Matter Volume in the Elderly2012In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 488-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE

    Impaired insulin sensitivity is linked to cognitive deficits and reduced brain size. However, it is not yet known whether insulin sensitivity involves regional changes in gray matter volume. Against this background, we examined the association between insulin sensitivity, cognitive performance, and regional gray matter volume in 285 cognitively healthy elderly men and women aged 75 years from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

    Insulin sensitivity was calculated from fasting serum insulin and plasma glucose determinations using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method. Cognitive performance was examined by a categorical verbal fluency. Participants also underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. Multivariate analysis using linear regression was conducted, controlling for potential confounders (sex, education, serum LDL cholesterol, mean arterial blood pressure, and abdominal visceral fat volume).

    RESULTS

    The HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with verbal fluency performance, brain size (S1), and temporal lobe gray matter volume in regions known to be involved in speech production (Brodmann areas 21 and 22, respectively). No such effects were observed when examining diabetic (n = 55) and cognitively impaired (n = 27) elderly subjects as separate analyses.

    CONCLUSIONS

    These cross-sectional findings suggest that both pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions improving insulin signaling may promote brain health in late life but must be confirmed in patient studies.

  • 17.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Burgos, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Le Grevès, Madeleine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Association between physical activity and brain health in older adults2013In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present cross-sectional study, we examined physical activity (PA) and its possible association with cognitive skills and brain structure in 331 cognitively healthy elderly. Based on the number of self-reported light and hard activities for at least 30 minutes per week, participants were assigned to 4 groups representing different levels of PA. The cognitive skills were assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination score, a verbal fluency task, and the Trail-making test as a measure of visuospatial orientation ability. Participants also underwent a magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Multiple regression analysis revealed that greater PA was associated with a shorter time to complete the Trail-making test, and higher levels of verbal fluency. Further, the level of self-reported PA was positively correlated with brain volume, white matter, as well as a parietal lobe gray matter volume, situated bilaterally at the precuneus. These present cross-sectional results indicate that PA is a lifestyle factor that is linked to brain structure and function in late life.

  • 18.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brytting, Maria
    Markström, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Acute sleep deprivation has no lasting effects on the human antibody titer response following a novel influenza A H1N1 virus vaccination2012In: BMC Immunology, ISSN 1471-2172, E-ISSN 1471-2172, Vol. 13, p. 1-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Experimental studies in humans have yielded evidence that adaptive immune function, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, is distinctly impaired when sleep is deprived at the time of first antigen exposure. Here we examined the effects of a regular 24- hour sleep-wake cycle (including 8 hours of nocturnal sleep) and a 24-hour period of continuous wakefulness on the 7 week antibody production in 11 males and 13 females in response to the H1N1 (swine flu) virus vaccination. The specific antibody titer in serum was assayed by the hemagglutination inhibition test on the days 5, 10, 17, and 52 following vaccination.

    Results: In comparison to the sleep group, sleep-deprived males but not females had reduced serum concentration of H1N1-specific antibodies five days after vaccination, whereas antibody titers at later time points did not differ between the conditions.

    Conclusions: These findings concur with the notion that sleep is a supportive influence in the very early stage of an adaptive immune response to a viral antigen. However, our results do not support the view that acute sleep deprivation has lasting effects on the human antibody titer response to influenza vaccination.

  • 19.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Giedratis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lind, Lars
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Self-reported sleep disturbance is associated with Alzheimer's disease risk in men2015In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1090-1097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between self-reported sleep disturbances and dementia risk.

    METHODS: Self-reported sleep disturbances and established risk factors for dementia were measured in men at ages 50 (n = 1574) and 70 (n = 1029) years. Dementia incidence was determined by reviewing their patient history between ages 50 and 90 years. In addition, plasma levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides 1-40 and 1-42 were measured at ages 70, 77, and 82 years.

    RESULTS: Cox regression demonstrated that men with self-reported sleep disturbances had a higher risk of developing dementia (+33%) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, +51%) than men without self-reported sleep disturbances (both P < .05). Binary logistic regression showed the increased risk for both dementia (+114%) and AD (+192%) were highest when sleep disturbance was reported at age 70 years (both P < .001). No group differences were found in Aβ levels.

    CONCLUSION: Improving sleep quality may help reduce the neurodegenerative risk in older men.

  • 20.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nilsson, Emil K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Vågesjö, Evelina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Massena, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Christoffersson, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Acute sleep deprivation increases serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S-100B) in healthy young men2014In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 195-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES:

    To investigate whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) affects circulating concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S-100B) in humans. These factors are usually found in the cytoplasm of neurons and glia cells. Increasing concentrations of these factors in blood may be therefore indicative for either neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or both. In addition, amyloid β (Aβ) peptides 1-42 and 1-40 were measured in plasma to calculate their ratio. A reduced plasma ratio of Aβ peptides 1-42 to 1-40 is considered an indirect measure of increased deposition of Aβ 1-42 peptide in the brain.

    DESIGN:

    Subjects participated in two conditions (including either 8-h of nocturnal sleep [22:30-06:30] or TSD). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after sleep interventions (19:30 and 07:30, respectively).

    SETTING:

    Sleep laboratory.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    15 healthy young men.

    RESULTS:

    TSD increased morning serum levels of NSE (P = 0.002) and S-100B (P = 0.02) by approximately 20%, compared with values obtained after a night of sleep. In contrast, the ratio of Aβ peptides 1-42 to 1-40 did not differ between the sleep interventions.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Future studies in which both serum and cerebrospinal fluid are sampled after sleep loss should elucidate whether the increase in serum neuron-specific enolase and S100 calcium binding protein B is primarily caused by neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or is just a consequence of increased gene expression in non-neuronal cells, such as leukocytes.

  • 21.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chapman, Colin D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Improves Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Sleep On It2013In: JAMA neurology, ISSN 2168-6157, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 529-530Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Frey, William H., II
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Born, Jan
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Intranasal insulin as a therapeutic option in the treatment of cognitive impairments2011In: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 46, no 2-3, p. 112-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain is a major target of circulating insulin. Enhancing central nervous insulin action has been shown to improve memory functions in animals as well as in humans, benefitting in particular hippocampus-dependent (declarative) memory. As Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduced central nervous insulin signaling and attenuated permeation of blood-borne insulin across the blood-brain-barrier, the cognitive decline in AD patients may at least in part be derived from impaired brain insulin signaling. Thus, therapeutic strategies to overcome central nervous system insulin deficiency and resistance might be an attractive option in the treatment of cognitive impairments like AD. Insulin can be effectively delivered directly to the brain via the intranasal route that enables the hormone to bypass the blood-brain barrier and modulate central nervous functions. This review summarizes a series of studies demonstrating beneficial effects of intranasal insulin on memory functions both in healthy humans and in patients with cognitive impairments such as AD. These experiments in humans consistently indicate that enhancing brain insulin signaling by intranasal administration of the hormone improves hippocampus-dependent memory in the absence of adverse side effects. Considering that insulin also acts as a neuroprotective signal, up-regulating brain insulin levels by intranasal insulin administration appears to be a promising approach in the treatment and prevention of central nervous system insulin deficiency and resistance as found in AD.

  • 23.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Lassen, Arne
    Mahnke, Christin
    Schultes, Bernd
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Born, Jan
    Lange, Tanja
    Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 1229-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown.

    Objective

    We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans.

    Design

    According to a balanced crossover design, we examined 14 normal-weight male subjects on 2 occasions during a regular 24-h sleep-wake cycle (including 8 h of nocturnal sleep) and a 24-h period of continuous wakefulness. On the morning after regular sleep and total sleep deprivation, resting and postprandial energy expenditures were assessed by indirect calorimetry, and the free-choice food intake from an opulent buffet was tested in the late afternoon at the end of the experiment. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, norepinephrine, cortisol, thyreotropin, glucose, and insulin were repeatedly measured over the entire 24-h session.

    Results

    In comparison with normal sleep, resting and postprandial energy expenditures assessed on the subsequent morning were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation by approximate to 5% and 20%, respectively (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Nocturnal wakefulness increased morning plasma ghrelin concentrations (P < 0.02) and nocturnal and daytime circulating concentrations of thyreotropin, cortisol, and norepinephrine (P < 0.05) as well as morning postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Changes in food intakes were variable, and no differences between wake and sleep conditions were detected.

    Conclusion

    Our findings show that one night of sleep deprivation acutely reduces energy expenditure in healthy men, which suggests that sleep contributes to the acute regulation of daytime energy expenditure in humans.

  • 24.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rönnemaa, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, Kantonsspital St. Gallen.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The fat mass and obesity gene is linked to reduced verbal fluency in overweight and obese elderly men2011In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1159.e1-1159.e5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans carrying the prevalent rs9939609 A allele of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are more susceptible to developing obesity than noncarries. Recently, polymorphisms in the FTO gene of elderly subjects have also been linked to a reduced volume in the frontal lobe as well as increased risk for incident Alzheimer disease. However, so far there is no evidence directly linking the FTO gene to functional cognitive processes. Here we examined whether the FTO rs9939609 A allele is associated with verbal fluency performance in 355 elderly men at the age of 82 years who have no clinically apparent cognitive impairment. Retrieval of verbal memory is a good surrogate measure reflecting frontal lobe functioning. Here we found that obese and overweight but not normal weight FTO A allele carriers showed a lower performance on verbal fluency than non-carriers (homozygous for rs9939609 T allele). This effect was not observed for a measure of general cognitive performance (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination score), thereby indicating that the FTO gene primarily affects frontal lobe-dependent cognitive processes in elderly men.

  • 25.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Television Watching and Effects on Food Intake: Distress vs Eustress2015In: JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN 2168-6106, E-ISSN 2168-6114, Vol. 175, no 3, p. 468-468Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Shostak, Anton
    Lange, Tanja
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Born, Jan
    Oster, Henrik
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Diurnal Rhythm of Circulating Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/Visfatin/PBEF): Impact of Sleep Loss and Relation to Glucose Metabolism2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 2, p. E218-E222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

     Animal studies indicate that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase [Nampt/visfatin/pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] contributes to the circadian fine-tuning of metabolic turnover. However, it is unknown whether circulating Nampt concentrations, which are elevated in type 2 diabetes and obesity, display a diurnal rhythm in humans.

    Objective

     Our objective was to examine the 24-h profile of serum Nampt in humans under conditions of sleep and sleep deprivation and relate the Nampt pattern to morning postprandial glucose metabolism.

    Intervention

    Fourteen healthy men participated in two 24-h sessions starting at 1800 h, including either regular 8-h-night sleep or continuous wakefulness. Serum Nampt and leptin were measured in 1.5- to 3-h intervals. In the morning, plasma glucose and serum insulin responses to standardized breakfast intake were determined.

    Main Outcome Measures

     Under regular sleep-wake conditions, Nampt levels displayed a pronounced diurnal rhythm, peaking during early afternoon (P < 0.001) that was inverse to leptin profiles peaking in the early night. When subjects stayed awake, the Nampt rhythm was preserved but phase advanced by about 2 h (P < 0.05). Two-hour postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were elevated after sleep loss (P < 0.05), whereas serum insulin was not affected. The relative glucose increase due to sleep loss displayed a positive association with the magnitude of the Nampt phase shift (r = 0.54; P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Serum Nampt concentrations follow a diurnal rhythm, peaking in the afternoon. Sleep loss induces a Nampt rhythm phase shift that is positively related to the impairment of postprandial glucose metabolism due to sleep deprivation, suggesting a regulatory impact of Nampt rhythmicity on glucose homeostasis.

  • 27.
    Bjarnadóttir, Thóra K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Höglund, Pär J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Gloriam, David E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Lagerström, Malin C.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    The human and mouse repertoire of the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors2004In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (also termed LN-7TM or EGF-7TM receptors) are membrane-bound proteins with long N-termini containing multiple domains. Here, 2 new human adhesion-GPCRs, termed GPR133 and GPR144, have been found by searches done in the human genome databases. Both GPR133 and GPR144 have a GPS domain in their N-termini, while GPR144 also has a pentraxin domain. The phylogenetic analyses of the 2 new human receptors show that they group together without close relationship to the other adhesion-GPCRs. In addition to the human genes, mouse orthologues to those 2 and 15 other mouse orthologues to human were identified (GPR110, GPR111, GPR112, GPR113, GPR114, GPR115, GPR116, GPR123, GPR124, GPR125, GPR126, GPR128, LEC1, LEC2, and LEC3). Currently the total number of human adhesion-GPCRs is 33. The mouse and human sequences show a clear one-to-one relationship, with the exception of EMR2 and EMR3, which do not seem to have orthologues in mouse. EST expression charts for the entire repertoire of adhesion-GPCRs in human and mouse were established. Over 1600 ESTs were found for these receptors, showing widespread distribution in both central and peripheral tissues. The expression patterns are highly variable between different receptors, indicating that they participate in a number of physiological processes.

  • 28.
    Boström, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ciuculete, Diana-Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Attwood, Misty M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Krattinger, Regina
    Univ Zurich, Univ Zurich Hosp, Dept Clin Pharmacol & Toxicol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Nikontovic, Lamia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Titova, Olga E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.
    Univ Zurich, Univ Zurich Hosp, Dept Clin Pharmacol & Toxicol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A MIR4646 associated methylation locus is hypomethylated in adolescent depression2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 220, p. 117-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies of epigenetics and transcriptional activity in adolescents may provide knowledge about possible preventive strategies of depression. Methods: We present a methylome-wide association study (MWAS) and cohort validation analysis of depression in adolescents, in two separate cohorts: discovery (n = 93) and validation data set 1 (n = 78). The genome-wide methylation pattern was measured from whole blood using the Illumina 450K array. A second validation cohort, validation data set 2, consists of post-mortem brain biopsies from depressed adults (n = 58). We performed a MWAS by robust multiple linear regressions of methylation to a modified risk-score assessment of depression. Methylation levels of candidate CpG sites were correlated with expression levels of the associated gene in an independent cohort of 11 healthy volunteers. Results: The methylation state of two CpG sites reliably predicted ratings of depression in adolescents (cg13227623 and cg04102384) (p < 10E-06). Cohort validation analysis confirmed cg04102384 - located in the promoter region of microRNA 4646 (MIR4646) - to be hypomethylated in both validation data set 1 and validation data set 2 (p < 0.05). Cg04102384 was inversely correlated to expression levels of MIR4646-3p in healthy controls (p < 0.05). Limitations: MIR4646 was not differentially expressed in a subset of samples with adolescent depression measured by qRT-PCR measurements. Conclusion: We identify a specific MIR4646 associated epigenetic risk site to be associated with depression in adolescents. Cg04102384 putatively regulates gene expression of MIR4646-3p. Target gene prediction and gene set overrepresentation analysis revealed involvement of this miRNA in fatty acid elongation, a process related to omega-3 fatty acids, previously associated with depression.

  • 29.
    Boström, Adrian E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Voisin, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Wu, Wenting
    Univ Calif San Diego, Inst Genom Med, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Schultes, Bernd
    eSwiss Med & Surg Ctr, St Gallen, Switzerland..
    Zhang, Kang
    Univ Calif San Diego, Inst Genom Med, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Longitudinal genome-wide methylation study of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients reveals novel CpG sites associated with essential hypertension2016In: BMC Medical Genomics, ISSN 1755-8794, E-ISSN 1755-8794, Vol. 9, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Essential hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Emerging research suggests a role of DNA methylation in blood pressure physiology. We aimed to investigate epigenetic associations of promoter related CpG sites to essential hypertension in a genome-wide methylation approach. Methods: The genome-wide methylation pattern in whole blood was measured in 11 obese patients before and six months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery using the Illumina 450 k beadchip. CpG sites located within 1500 bp of the transcriptional start site of adjacent genes were included in our study, resulting in 124 199 probes investigated in the subsequent analysis. Percent changes in methylation states and SBP measured before and six months after surgery were calculated. These parameters were correlated to each other using the Spearman's rank correlation method (Edgeworth series approximation). To further investigate the detected relationship between candidate CpG sites and systolic blood pressure levels, binary logistic regression analyses were performed in a larger and independent cohort of 539 individuals aged 19-101 years to elucidate a relationship between EH and the methylation state in candidate CpG sites. Results: We identified 24 promoter associated CpG sites that correlated with change in SBP after RYGB surgery (p < 10-16). Two of these CpG loci (cg00875989, cg09134341) were significantly hypomethylated in dependency of EH (p < 10-03). These results were independent of age, BMI, ethnicity and sex. Conclusions: The identification of these novel CpG sites may contribute to a further understanding of the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms underlying the development of essential hypertension.

  • 30.
    Brooks, S. J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Burch, K. H.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa.;Univ Nottingham, Dept Neurosci, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Maiorana, S. A.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychol, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Cocolas, E.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kamaloodien, K.
    Univ Western Cape, Dept Psychol, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Stein, D. J.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Psychological intervention with working memory training increases basal ganglia volume: A VBM study of inpatient treatment for methamphetamine use2016In: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 12, p. 478-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Protracted methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with decreased control over drug craving and altered brain volume in the frontostriatal network. However, the nature of volumetric changes following a course of psychological intervention for MA use is not yet known. Methods: 66 males (41 MA patients, 25 healthy controls, HC) between the ages of 18-50 were recruited, the MA patients from new admissions to an in-patient drug rehabilitation centre and the HC via public advertisement, both in Cape Town, South Africa. 17 MA patients received 4 weeks of treatment as usual (TAU), and 24 MA patients completed TAU plus daily 30-minute cognitive training (CT) using an N-back working memory task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 4-week follow-up was acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used for analysis. Results: TAU was associated with larger bilateral striatum (caudate/putamen) volume, whereas CT was associated with more widespread increases of the bilateral basal ganglia (incorporating the amygdala and hippocampus) and reduced bilateral cerebellum volume coinciding with improvements in impulsivity scores. Conclusions: While psychological intervention is associated with larger volume in mesolimbic reward regions, the utilisation of additional working memory training as an adjunct to treatment may further normalize frontostriatal structure and function.

  • 31.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Barker, Gareth J
    O'Daly, Owen G
    Brammer, Michael
    Williams, Steven Cr
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Treasure, Janet
    Campbell, Iain C
    Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study2011In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 11, p. 179-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume.

    METHODS:

    Voxel based morphometry (VBM), corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN) and 21 women (HC) was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

    RESULTS:

    Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  • 32.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Burgos, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kempton, M J
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nylander, Ruta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Late-life obesity is associated with smaller global and regional gray matter volumes: a voxel-based morphometric study2013In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 230-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: 

    Obesity adversely affects frontal lobe brain structure and function. Here we sought to show that people who are obese versus those who are of normal weight over a 5-year period have differential global and regional brain volumes.

    DESIGN: 

    Using voxel-based morphometry, contrasts were done between those who were recorded as being either obese or of normal weight over two time points in the 5 years prior to the brain scan. In a post-hoc preliminary analysis, we compared scores for obese and normal weight people who completed the trail-making task.

    SUBJECTS: 

    A total of 292 subjects were examined following exclusions (for example, owing to dementia, stroke and cortical infarcts) from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort with a body mass index of normal weight (<25 kg m−2) or obese (30 kg m−2).

    RESULTS: 

    People who were obese had significantly smaller total brain volumes and specifically, significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) (with no difference in white matter or cerebrospinal fluid). Initial exploratory whole brain uncorrected analysis revealed that people who were obese had significantly smaller GMV in the bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left inferior frontal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus. Secondary more stringent corrected analyses revealed a surviving cluster of GMV difference in the left DLPFC. Finally, post-hoc contrasts of scores on the trail-making task, which is linked to DLPFC function, revealed that obese people were significantly slower than those of normal weight.

    CONCLUSION: 

    These findings suggest that in comparison with normal weight, people who are obese have smaller GMV, particularly in the left DLPFC. Our results may provide evidence for a potential working memory mechanism for the cognitive suppression of appetite that may lower the risk of developing obesity in later life.

  • 33.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Increased prefrontal and parahippocampal activation with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal and insular cortex activation to food images in obesity: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies.2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e60393-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the twenty-first century. A wealth of neuroimaging data suggest that weight gain might be related to aberrant brain function, particularly in prefrontal cortical regions modulating mesolimbic addictive responses to food. Nevertheless, food addiction is currently a model hotly debated. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data, examining the most common functional differences between normal-weight and obese participants in response to food stimuli.

    DATA SOURCE: We conducted a search using several journal databases and adhered to the 'Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses' (PRISMA) method. To this aim, 10 studies were found with a total of 126 obese participants, 129 healthy controls, equaling 184 foci (146 increased, 38 decreased activation) using the Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) technique. Out of the 10 studies, 7 investigated neural responses to food versus non-food images.

    RESULTS: In response to food images, obese in comparison to healthy weight subjects had increased activation in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right anterior cingulate cortex, and reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left insular cortex.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prefrontal cortex areas linked to cognitive evaluation processes, such as evaluation of rewarding stimuli, as well as explicit memory regions, appear most consistently activated in response to images of food in those who are obese. Conversely, a reduced activation in brain regions associated with cognitive control and interoceptive awareness of sensations in the body might indicate a weakened control system, combined with hypo-sensitivity to satiety and discomfort signals after eating in those who are prone to overeat.

  • 34.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Funk, Sabina G
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Young, Susanne Y
    Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Bellville, South Africa.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The Role of Working Memory for Cognitive Control in Anorexia Nervosa versus Substance Use Disorder2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1651Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefrontal cortex executive functions, such as working memory (WM) interact with limbic processes to foster impulse control. Such an interaction is referred to in a growing body of publications by terms such as cognitive control, cognitive inhibition, affect regulation, self-regulation, top-down control, and cognitive–emotion interaction. The rising trend of research into cognitive control of impulsivity, using various related terms reflects the importance of research into impulse control, as failure to employ cognitions optimally may eventually result in mental disorder. Against this background, we take a novel approach using an impulse control spectrum model – where anorexia nervosa (AN) and substance use disorder (SUD) are at opposite extremes – to examine the role of WM for cognitive control. With this aim, we first summarize WM processes in the healthy brain in order to frame a systematic review of the neuropsychological, neural and genetic findings of AN and SUD. In our systematic review of WM/cognitive control, we found n = 15 studies of AN with a total of n = 582 AN and n = 365 HC participants; and n = 93 studies of SUD with n = 9106 SUD and n = 3028 HC participants. In particular, we consider how WM load/capacity may support the neural process of excessive epistemic foraging (cognitive sampling of the environment to test predictions about the world) in AN that reduces distraction from salient stimuli. We also consider the link between WM and cognitive control in people with SUD who are prone to ‘jumping to conclusions’ and reduced epistemic foraging. Finally, in light of our review, we consider WM training as a novel research tool and an adjunct to enhance treatment that improves cognitive control of impulsivity.

  • 35.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Stein, Dan J
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    BDNF polymorphisms are linked to poorer working memory performance, reduced cerebellar and hippocampal volumes and differences in prefrontal cortex in a Swedish elderly population2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, p. e82707-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) links learning, memory and cognitive decline in elderly, but evidence linking BDNF allele variation, cognition and brain structural differences is lacking.

    METHODS: 367 elderly Swedish men (n = 181) and women (n = 186) from Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) were genotyped and the BDNF functional rs6265 SNP was further examined in subjects who completed the Trail Making Task (TMT), verbal fluency task, and had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) examined brain structure, cognition and links with BDNF.

    RESULTS: The functional BDNF SNP (rs6265,) predicted better working memory performance on the TMT with positive association of the Met rs6265, and was linked with greater cerebellar, precuneus, left superior frontal gyrus and bilateral hippocampal volume, and reduced brainstem and bilateral posterior cingulate volumes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The functional BDNF polymorphism influences brain volume in regions associated with memory and regulation of sensorimotor control, with the Met rs6265 allele potentially being more beneficial to these functions in the elderly.

  • 36.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    O'Daly, Owen G.
    Uher, Rudolf
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Treasure, Janet
    Campbell, Iain C.
    Subliminal food images compromise superior working memory performance in women with restricting anorexia nervosa2012In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 751-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN). It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed a dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when subliminal food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN.

  • 37.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    O'Daly, Owen
    Uher, Rudolf
    Friederich, Hans-Christoph
    Giampietro, Vincent
    Brammer, Michael
    Williams, Steven C. R.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Treasure, Janet
    Campbell, Iain C.
    Thinking about Eating Food Activates Visual Cortex with Reduced Bilateral Cerebellar Activation in Females with Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e34000-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown.

    Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC).

    Results: Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions.

    Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eating food shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes.

  • 38.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Savov, Vasil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Allzen, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Exposure to subliminal arousing stimuli induces robust activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, insular cortex and primary visual cortex: A systematic meta-analysis of fMRI studies2012In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 2962-2973Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) demonstrates that the subliminal presentation of arousing stimuli can activate subcortical brain regions independently of consciousness-generating top-down cortical modulation loops. Delineating these processes may elucidate mechanisms for arousal, aberration in which may underlie some psychiatric conditions. Here we are the first to review and discuss four Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of fMRI studies using subliminal paradigms. We find a maximum of 9 out of 12 studies using subliminal presentation of faces contributing to activation of the amygdala, and also a significantly high number of studies reporting activation in the bilateral anterior cingulate, bilateral insular cortex, hippocampus and primary visual cortex. Subliminal faces are the strongest modality, whereas lexical stimuli are the weakest. Meta-analyses independent of studies using Regions of Interest (ROI) revealed no biasing effect Core neuronal arousal in the brain, which may be at first independent of conscious processing, potentially involves a network incorporating primary visual areas, somatosensory, implicit memory and conflict monitoring regions. These data could provide candidate brain regions for the study of psychiatric disorders associated with aberrant automatic emotional processing.

  • 39.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Swenne, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Zarei, Sanaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lundberg, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Salonen-Ros, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Rosling, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder2014In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 224, no 3, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesised that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the eating disorders examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) and obsessive-compulsive inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control females. We found that EDNOS subjects had significantly higher scores on the BIS 11, EDE-Q and OCI-R scales. Significantly increased neural responses to food images in the EDNOS group were observed in the prefrontal circuitry. OCI-R scores in the EDNOS group also significantly correlated with activity in the prefrontal circuitry and the cerebellum. Significantly slower WM responses negatively correlated with bilateral superior frontal gyrus activity in the EDNOS group. We conclude that ruminations, linked to WM, are present in adolescent females newly diagnosed with EDNOS. These may be risk factors for the development of an eating disorder and may be detectable before disease onset.

  • 40.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. UCT Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa.
    Wiemerslage, L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Burch, K H
    Maiorana, S A
    Cocolas, E
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kamaloodien, K
    Stein, D J
    The impact of cognitive training in substance use disorder: the effect of working memory training on impulse control in methamphetamine users2017In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 234, no 12, p. 1911-1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD).

    METHODS: There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 20 who additionally completed WM cognitive training (CT) and 25 healthy controls (HC). MANCOVA repeated measures analyses examined changes in impulsivity and self-regulation at baseline and after 4 weeks.

    RESULTS:  = 0.3523, p < 0.05). Compared to follow-up TAU, follow-up CT group had higher self-reported mood scores (t = 2.784, p = 0.01) and higher compared to CT baseline (t = 2.386, p = 0.036). Feelings of self-control were higher in CT than TAU at follow-up (t = 2.736, p = 0.012) and also compared to CT baseline (t = 3.390, p = 0.006), lack of planning significantly improved in CT between baseline and follow-up (t = 2.219, p = 0.048), as did total impulsivity scores (t = 2.085, p = 0.048). Measures of self-regulation were improved in the CT group compared to TAU at follow-up, in total score (t = 2.442, p = 0.038), receiving score (t = 2.314, p = 0.029) and searching score (t = 2.362, p = 0.027). Implementing self-regulation was higher in the CT group compared to TAU (t = 2.373, p = 0.026).

    CONCLUSIONS: WM training may improve control of impulsivity and self-regulation in people with MUD.

  • 41.
    Brooks, Samantha Jane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A debate on current eating disorder diagnoses in light of neurobiological findings: is it time for a spectrum model?2012In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 12, p. 76-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sixty percent of eating disorders do not meet criteria for anorexia- or bulimia nervosa, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version 4 (DSM-IV). Instead they are diagnosed as 'eating disorders not otherwise specified' (EDNOS). Discrepancies between criteria and clinical reality currently hampering eating disorder diagnoses in the DSM-IV will be addressed by the forthcoming DSM-V. However, future diagnoses for eating disorders will rely on current advances in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics for classification of symptoms that will ultimately improve treatment. Discussion: Here we debate the classification issues, and discuss how brain imaging and genetic discoveries might be interwoven into a model of eating disorders to provide better classification and treatment. The debate concerns: a) current issues in the classification of eating disorders in the DSM-IV, b) changes proposed for DSM-V, c) neuroimaging eating disorder research and d) genetic eating disorder research. Summary: We outline a novel evidence-based 'impulse control' spectrum model of eating disorders. A model of eating disorders is proposed that will aid future diagnosis of symptoms, coinciding with contemporary suggestions by clinicians and the proposed changes due to be published in the DSM-V.

  • 42.
    Bränn, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Papadopoulos, Fotios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Fransson, Emma
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Stockholm, Sweden .
    White, Richard
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Edvinsson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Boström, Adrian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Inflammatory markers in late pregnancy in association with postpartum depression-A nested case-control study.2017In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 79, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies indicate that the immune system adaptation during pregnancy could play a significant role in the pathophysiology of perinatal depression. The aim of this study was to investigate if inflammation markers in a late pregnancy plasma sample can predict the presence of depressive symptoms at eight weeks postpartum. Blood samples from 291 pregnant women (median and IQR for days to delivery, 13 and 7-23days respectively) comprising 63 individuals with postpartum depressive symptoms, as assessed by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS≥12) and/or the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and 228 controls were analyzed with an inflammation protein panel using multiplex proximity extension assay technology, comprising of 92 inflammation-associated markers. A summary inflammation variable was also calculated. Logistic regression, LASSO and Elastic net analyses were implemented. Forty markers were lower in late pregnancy among women with depressive symptoms postpartum. The difference remained statistically significant for STAM-BP (or otherwise AMSH), AXIN-1, ADA, ST1A1 and IL-10, after Bonferroni correction. The summary inflammation variable was ranked as the second best variable, following personal history of depression, in predicting depressive symptoms postpartum. The protein-level findings for STAM-BP and ST1A1 were validated in relation to methylation status of loci in the respective genes in a different population, using openly available data. This explorative approach revealed differences in late pregnancy levels of inflammation markers between women presenting with depressive symptoms postpartum and controls, previously not described in the literature. Despite the fact that the results do not support the use of a single inflammation marker in late pregnancy for assessing risk of postpartum depression, the use of STAM-BP or the novel notion of a summary inflammation variable developed in this work might be used in combination with other biological markers in the future.

  • 43.
    Carlini, V. P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ghersi, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Gabach, L.
    Schioth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Perez, M. F.
    Ramirez, O. A.
    Fiol de Cuneo, M.
    de Barioglio, S. R.
    Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats2011In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 197, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/mu l, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/mu l and 3.0 nmol/mu l, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/mu l) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  • 44.
    Caruso, Vanni
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hägglund, Maria G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Badiali, Luca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Bagchi, Sonchita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Roshanbin, Sahar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ahmad, Tauseef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR162 is widely distributed in the CNS and highly expressed in the hypothalamus and in hedonic feeding areas2014In: Gene, ISSN 0378-1119, E-ISSN 1879-0038, Vol. 553, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rhodopsin family is a class of integral membrane proteins belonging to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). To date, several orphan GPCRs are still uncharacterized and in this study we present an anatomical characterization of the GPR162 protein and an attempt to describe its functional role. Our results show that GPR162 is widely expressed in GABAergic as well as other neurons within the mouse hippocampus, whereas extensive expression is observed in areas related to energy homeostasis and hedonic feeding such as hypothalamus, amygdala and ventral tegmental area, regions known to be involved in the regulation of palatable food consumption.

  • 45.
    Caruso, Vanni
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lagerström, Malin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Synaptic changes induced by melanocortin signalling2014In: Nature Reviews Neuroscience, ISSN 1471-003X, E-ISSN 1471-0048, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 98-110Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The melanocortin system has a well-established role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, but there is growing evidence of its involvement in memory, nociception, mood disorders and addiction. In this Review, we focus on the role of the melanocortin 4 receptor and provide an integrative view of the molecular mechanisms that lead to melanocortin-induced changes in synaptic plasticity within these diverse physiological systems. We also highlight the importance of melanocortin peptides and receptors in chronic pain syndromes, memory impairments, depression and drug abuse, and the possibility of targeting them for therapeutic purposes.

  • 46.
    Caruso, Vanni
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Le Greves, Madeleine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fard, Shahrzad Shirazi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Haitina, Tatjana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Alsiö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptor Gene GPR178 Is Evolutionary Conserved and Altered in Response to Acute Changes in Food Intake2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0122061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of integral membrane proteins mediating physiological functions fundamental for survival, including energy homeostasis. A few years ago, an amino acid sequence of a novel GPCR gene was identified and named GPR178. In this study, we provide new insights regarding the biological significance of Gpr178 protein, investigating its evolutionary history and tissue distribution as well as examining the relationship between its expression level and feeding status. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that GPR178 is highly conserved among all animal species investigated, and that GPR178 is not a member of a protein family. Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization revealed wide expression of Gpr178 mRNA in both the brain and periphery, with high expression density in the hypothalamus and brainstem, areas involved in the regulation of food intake. Hence, changes in receptor expression were assessed following several feeding paradigms including starvation and overfeeding. Short-term starvation (12-48h) or food restriction resulted in upregulation of Gpr178 mRNA expression in the brainstem, hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex. Conversely, short-term (48h) exposure to sucrose or Intralipid solutions downregulated Gpr178 mRNA in the brainstem; long-term exposure (10 days) to a palatable high-fat and high-sugar diet resulted in a downregulation of Gpr178 in the amygdala but not in the hypothalamus. Our results indicate that hypothalamic Gpr178 gene expression is altered during acute exposure to starvation or acute exposure to palatable food. Changes in gene expression following palatable diet consumption suggest a possible involvement of Gpr178 in the complex mechanisms of feeding reward.

  • 47.
    Caruso, Vanni
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ Tasmania UTAS, Fac Pharm, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia..
    Sreedharan, Smitha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Carlini, Valeria P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ Nacl Cordoba, Fac Ciencias Quim Haya Torre & Medina Allende, Dept Farmacol, Ciudad Univ, RA-5016 Cordoba, Argentina..
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Haitina, Tatjana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hammer, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Stephansson, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Crona, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sommer, Wolfgang H.
    Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Psychopharmacol, Mannheim, Germany..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Marcus, Claude
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Natl Childhood Obes Ctr, Div Pediat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Heilig, Markus
    NIAAA, Lab Clin & Translat Studies, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA..
    de Barioglio, Susana R.
    Univ Nacl Cordoba, Fac Ciencias Quim Haya Torre & Medina Allende, Dept Farmacol, Ciudad Univ, RA-5016 Cordoba, Argentina..
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    mRNA GPR162 changes are associated with decreased food intake in rat, and its human genetic variants with impairments in glucose homeostasis in two Swedish cohorts2016In: Gene, ISSN 0378-1119, E-ISSN 1879-0038, Vol. 581, no 2, p. 139-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of integral membrane proteins mediating intercellular interactions of fundamental physiological importance for survival including regulation of food intake, blood pressure, and hormonal sensing signaling, among other roles. Homeostatic alterations in the physiological status of GPCRs are often associated with underlying causes of disease, and to date, several orphan GPCRs are still uncharacterized. Findings from our previous study demonstrate that the Rhodopsin family protein GPR162 is widely expressed in GABAergic as well as other neurons within the mouse hippocampus, whereas extensive expression is observed in hypothalamus, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area, regions strictly interconnected and involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and hedonic feeding. In this study, we provide a further anatomical characterization of GPR162 in mouse brain via in situ hybridization as well as detailed mRNA expression in a panel of rat tissues complementing a specie-specific mapping of the receptor. We also provide an attempt to demonstrate a functional implication of GPR162 in food intake-related behavior via antisense knockdown studies. Furthermore, we performed human genetic studies in which for the first time, variants of the GPR162 gene were associated with impairments in glucose homeostasis.

  • 48. Carvajal, Pedro
    et al.
    Carlini, Valeria P.
    Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    de Barioglio, Susana R.
    Salvatierra, Nancy A.
    Central ghrelin increases anxiety in the Open Field test and impairs retention memory in a passive avoidance task in neonatal chicks2009In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, ISSN 1074-7427, E-ISSN 1095-9564, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 402-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghrelin (Grh) is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Although Ghr stimulates feeding in rats, it inhibits feeding in neonatal chicks. However, little is known about other central behavioral effects of Ghr. Therefore, we investigated the Ghr effects, injected intracerebroventricularly, on anxiety and memory retention of neonatal chicks in an Open Field test and in a one-trial passive avoidance task, respectively. In the Open Field test, the administration of Ghr in a dose-dependent manner increased the latency to ambulate but decreased ambulation activity, indicating an anxiogenic effect. Furthermore, chicks trained on a passive avoidance task and injected with a dose of 30pmol of Ghr immediately after training showed an impairment of memory retention. However, there were no significant effects on the number of pecks during the pretraining, training, retention and discrimination. In addition, different doses of Ghr produced an inhibition in food intake at different times after injection. Our results indicate that Ghr induces anxiogenesis in chicks. Moreover, we have shown for the first time that Ghr can decrease memory retention in a non-mammalian species, suggesting that Ghr may play an important role in the processes of memory retention in birds.

  • 49.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Alsiö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Västermark, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet2013In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Fatty acid (FA) composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP) or resistant (OR) on a high-fat diet (HFD).

    METHODS

    Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD) or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats) access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6), delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18), de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6) and FA elongation (18:0/16:0). Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma.

    RESULTS

    After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols) or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids) lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher SCD-16 and SCD-18 indices in SAT triacylglycerols in OP compared with HFD-paired rats.

    CONCLUSION

    The higher SCD-16 may reflect higher SCD-1 activity in SAT, which in combination with lower LA proportions may reflect higher insulin resistance and changes in SAT independent of other lipid fractions. Whether a lower SCD-16 index protects against diet-induced obesity is an interesting possibility that warrants further investigation.

  • 50.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brandell, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ros, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Increased Impulsivity in Response to Food Cues after Sleep Loss in Healthy Young Men2014In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1786-1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. MethodsFourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. ResultsFollowing TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented no-go food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to go non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. ConclusionsOur results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesitythus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity developmentwarrants further investigation.

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