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  • 1.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Changes in Driver Celeration Behavior over Time: do Drivers Learn from Collisions?2012Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 471-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that drivers’ accident risk changes with experience, it has never been specified exactly how this comes about in terms of changes of behaviour, or what features of their experiences are important for this change. One possibility is that drivers learn from their collision involvement, and change their behaviour after such events, as some studies indicate. However, relative accident involvement tends to be very stable over time, which indicates the opposite. Repeated measurements of celeration (speed change) behaviour of bus drivers were compared between two groups; drivers without accidents within the measurement period (about 3 years), and drivers with at least one crash. For the crash group, there was a steady decline in their celeration values over time, but this was not related to their crashes. A similar reduction was also present for the non-crash sample. The results would seem to be in agreement with the theory of accident proneness; there exist stability in driver behaviour over time, despite accident involvement. However, this stability is relative within the sample, and not absolute. The reduction in celeration values for both groups over time would seem to indicate that drivers learn from their experiences in general, but not specifically from accidents. The present study seems to indicate that daily experience of driving situations is the strongest factor for changes in driving behaviour.

  • 2.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Driver Behaviour and Accident Research Methodology: Unresolved Problems2009Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis2008Ingår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 9, s. 383-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents2006Ingår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 281-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

  • 5.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Driver research myths2010Ingår i: Fourth International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2010, s. 3-6Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hourly changes in accident risk for bus drivers2009Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 187-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accident risk has in some studies been found to change with the time of day, after controlling for exposure, probably due to diurnal changes in the human body, which changes alertness. However, exposure data are not always of good quality, and culpability for accidents is not always taken into account. The change in culpable accident risk over the day for bus drivers was therefore investigated, with single accidents analysed separately, using induced exposure (non-culpable bus accidents) as well as general traffic density and number of buses on the road as controlling factors. It was found that the risk distribution was fairly similar to some previous results before controlling for exposure, but dissimilar to other, probably indicating that bus drivers have a somewhat different risk profile, but also that previous studies may not have controlled for exposure in a reliable way. When exposure was held constant, the risk distribution was different from all other studies. The three different exposure measures correlated strongly between themselves, and each would seem to be adequate for a basic control. However, although general traffic density was most strongly correlated with culpable bus accidents, the induced exposure parameter added some explained variance. Single accidents had a very different risk distribution as compared to other culpable accidents when exposure had been held constant. A number of unexpected effects were also noted, mainly that single accidents were associated most strongly with general traffic density.

  • 7.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Memory effects in self-reports of crashes2012Ingår i: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume V / [ed] L. Dorn, 2012, Vol. V, s. 283-288Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Re-education of young driving offenders: Effects on recorded offences and self-reported collisions2011Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 291-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New ways of educating offending drivers are being introduced, notably e-learning. This type of education has rarely been tested for its safety effects before. An e-learning course for offending young drivers was therefore evaluated as to its effects upon offence and self-reported collision rates. Significant reductions in number of offences and penalty points were found for an e-learning group, while this was not the case for drivers who had been fined only, or had taken a more traditional solely class-room based educational scheme. The e-learners also reported a larger reduction in collision involvement than a random control group, although a regression to the mean effect could not be ruled out. The results seem to indicate a positive effect of the e-learning course for young driving offenders. This conclusion, however, is to be interpreted in relation to the weak association between penalty points and collisions, and the low validity of self-reported collision involvement data. The present results lend further support to the use of e-learning driver improvement courses, although the most important type of data, recorded collisions, is still missing.

  • 9.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories2010Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 99-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. Method: A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. Results: For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. Discussion: As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Impact on industry: Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety.

  • 10.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dorn, L
    "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis" Comments.2012Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 83-85Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dorn, L
    Kline, T
    The effect of social desirability on self reported and recorded road traffic accidents2010Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 106-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lie scales has a fairly long history in psychometrics, with the intention of identifying and correcting for socially desirable answers. This represents one type of common method variance (bias introduced when both predictors and predicted variables are gathered from the same source), which may lead to spurious associations in self-reports. Within traffic safety research, where self-report methods are used abundantly, it is uncommon to control for social desirability artifacts, or reporting associations between lie scales, crashes and driver behaviour scales. In the present study, it was shown that self-reports of traffic accidents were negatively associated with a lie scale for driving, while recorded ones were not, as could be expected if the scale was valid and a self-report bias existed. We conclude that whenever self-reported crashes are used as an outcome variable and predicted by other self-report measures, a lie scale should be included and used for correcting the associations. However, the only existing lie scale for traffic safety is not likely to catch all socially desirable responding, because traffic safety may not be desirable for all demographic groups. New lie scales should be developed specifically for driver behaviour questionnaires, to counter potential bias and artifactual results. Alternatively, the use of a single source of data should be discontinued.

  • 12.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Absence behaviour as traffic crash predictor in bus drivers2009Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 197-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Various indicators of health have been shown to be associated with traffic crash involvement. As general health is also related to absence from work, the latter variable may be more strongly related to crashes, especially for professional drivers.

    Method

    Bus driver absence from work was analyzed in association with their crash records. Two British samples and one Swedish sample were used.

    Results

    One of the British samples yielded fair correlations between crash record and absence, while for the other the effect was restricted to the first three months of driving. The Swedish data had effects in the expected direction but these were not significant.

    Discussion

    The use of an indirect, overall measurement of health, may be a viable method for predicting the traffic crash involvement for professional drivers, although replications are needed in larger samples and other populations.

    Impact on industry

    The use of absence records for the identification of at risk drivers would seem to be a simple and useful method for companies with major fleets, and it also shows the importance of promoting employee health and well being at work as a potential method of reducing the cost, not only of absenteeism, but also of crashes in company vehicles.

  • 13. Af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Freeman, James
    Commentary on the rebuttal by de Winter and Dodou.2012Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 90-3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Kline, Theresa
    University of Calgary.
    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as predictor of road traffic accidents2011Ingår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 12, s. 66-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 15. Dorn, L.
    et al.
    Stephens, L.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gandolfi, J.
    Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour2010Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 53, nr 12, s. 1420-1433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. Statement of Relevance: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety.

  • 16.
    Dorn, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Work-related road safety: An analysis based on UK bus driver performance2008Ingår i: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 25-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of age and experience on accident involvement for bus drivers were investigated, with special emphasis upon the first years of being an operator, using two methods. First, direct calculations between these variables were undertaken. Thereafter, a variant of the method of quasi-induced exposure (a ratio of culpable versus nonculpable accidents in the population) was used and referred to as the indirect method. These methods yielded fairly similar results, given that the samples used were drawn from the same population but only partly overlapping. It was found that experience had the strongest effect on accidents in the first year of driving, while age had a u-shaped association with accidents, that is, young and old drivers had more accidents, something that was more apparent when experience was held constant. These results show that, for bus drivers, experience is initially more important than age, but after two or three years, the effect is small. Thereafter, age is the more discernible variable, although it is a very weak factor in predicting crash risk.

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