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  • 1.
    Andreou, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 1st Department of Psychiatry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.
    Maltreatment, the Oxytocin Receptor Gene, and Conduct Problems Among Male and Female Teenagers2018In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) influences human behavior. The G allele of OXTR rs53576 has been associated with both prosocial and maladaptive behaviors but few studies have taken account of environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of childhood maltreatment with conduct problems was modified by OXTR rs53576 genotypes. In a general population sample of 1591 teenagers, conduct problems as well as maltreatment were measured by self-report. DNA was extracted from saliva samples. In males, there was a significant positive association between maltreatment and conduct problems independent of the genotype. In females, among G allele carriers, the level of conduct problems was significantly higher among those who had been maltreated as compared to those not maltreated. By contrast, among female AA carriers, conduct problems did not vary between those who were, and who were not, maltreated. The results indicate that OXTR rs53576 plays a role in antisocial behavior in females such that the G allele confers vulnerability for antisocial behavior if they experience maltreatment, whereas the A allele has a protective effect.

  • 2.
    Bendre, Megha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Checknita, Dave
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Univ Montreal, Inst Univ Sante Mentale Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Associations Between MAOA-uVNTR Genotype, Maltreatment, MAOA Methylation, and Alcohol Consumption in Young Adult Males2018In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 508-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Epigenetic mechanisms are candidate moderators of the effect of maltreatment on brain and behavior. Interactions between maltreatment and the monoamine oxidase A upstream variable number tandem repeat genotype (MAOA-uVNTR) are associated with alcohol-related problems. However, presently it is not known whether DNA methylation moderates this association. The study focused on 53 young adult males and aimed to determine whether MAOA methylation moderated the association of alcohol-related problems with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment, and whether alcohol consumption moderated the association of MAOA methylation with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment.

    Methods

    MAOA-uVNTR genotypes with 3 and > 3 repeats were categorized as short (S) and long (L), respectively. Data on maltreatment were obtained retrospectively, using self-reported questionnaires. DNA methylation of 16 candidate CpGs within part of the MAOA first exon and intron was assessed and grouped based on principal component analyses. Alcohol-related problems were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol consumption was measured using AUDIT-C. Moderation effects were assessed and probed using the moderated moderation model and Johnson-Neyman's method, respectively.

    Results

    Carriers of the S allele, who experienced maltreatment and displayed lower Component 1 (mean of CpGs 13-16 in the first intron) MAOA methylation levels, reported higher AUDIT score in contrast to L-allele carriers. Carriers of the S allele, who reported higher AUDIT-C score and experienced maltreatment, displayed lower Component 3 (mean of CpGs 2-6 in the first exon) MAOA methylation levels than L-allele carriers.

    Conclusions

    Intronic methylation moderated the association of alcohol-related problems with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment. Alcohol consumption moderated the association of exonic methylation with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment. These results suggest that epigenetic factors as well as genotype and maltreatment play a role in the development of alcohol misuse among young adult males.

  • 3.
    Bendre, Megha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Early Life Stress and Voluntary Alcohol Consumption in Adulthood Affect Maoa Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens of Outbred Rats2015In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 50Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bendre, Megha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation.: Maoa,ELS and alcohol2015In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 5, article id e690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse.

  • 5.
    Bendre, Megha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comasco: Neuropsychopharmacology.
    Granholm, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Drennan, Ryan
    Meyer, Ann
    Yan, Liying
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comasco: Neuropsychopharmacology.
    Early life stress and voluntary alcohol consumption in relation to Maoa methylation in male rats.2019In: Alcohol, ISSN 0741-8329, E-ISSN 1873-6823, Vol. 79, p. 7-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early life stress (ELS) or alcohol consumption can influence DNA methylation and affect gene expression. The monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) encodes the enzyme that metabolizes monoaminergic neurotransmitters crucial for the stress response, alcohol reward, and reinforcement. Previously, we reported lower Maoa expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of male rats exposed to ELS during the first three postnatal weeks, and to voluntary alcohol consumption in adulthood, compared with controls. The present study continued to investigate the effect of ELS and alcohol consumption on Maoa methylation, and its relation to Maoa expression in these animals. We selected candidate CpGs after performing next-generation bisulfite sequencing of the Maoa promoter, intron 1-5, exons 5 and 6, together comprised of 107 CpGs, in a subgroup of rats. Pyrosequencing was used to analyse the methylation of ten candidate CpGs in the promoter and intron 1 in the entire sample. ELS and alcohol displayed an interaction effect on CpG-specific methylation in the dorsal striatum. CpG-specific methylation correlated with Maoa expression, corticosterone levels, and alcohol consumption in a brain region-specific manner. CpG-specific methylation in the Maoa promoter was a potential moderator of the interaction of ELS with alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the NAc. However, the findings were sparse, did not survive correction for multiple testing, and the magnitude of differences in methylation levels was small. In conclusion, CpG-specific Maoa methylation in the promoter and intron 1 may associate with ELS, alcohol consumption and Maoa expression in reward-related brain regions.

  • 6.
    Bendre, Megha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Granholm, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Maoa Methylation: A Molecular Mechanism Behind The Effect Of Early Life Stress And Voluntary Alcohol Consumption On Maoa Expression In Wistar Rats2017In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Checknita, Dave
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Psychiat Bldg R5 00 C-O Jari Tiihonen, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekström, Tomas J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Montreal, Inst Univ Sante Mentale Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Associations of monoamine oxidase A gene first exon methylation with sexual abuse and current depression in women2018In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 125, no 7, p. 1053-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) interact with monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphism to modify risk for mental disorders. In addition, PA and SA may alter gene activity through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, thereby further modifying risk for disorders. We investigated whether methylation in a region spanning the MAOA first exon and part of the first intron was associated with PA and/or SA, MAOA genotype, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, depression disorders, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder. 114 Swedish women completed standardized diagnostic interviews and questionnaires to report PA and SA, and provided saliva samples for DNA extraction. DNA was genotyped for MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms, and methylation of a MAOA region of interest (chrX: 43,515,544-43,515,991) was measured. SA, not PA, was associated with hypermethylation of the MAOA first exon relative to no-abuse, and the association was robust to adjustment for psychoactive medication, alcohol and drug dependence, and current substance use. SA and MAOA-uVNTR genotype, but not their interaction, was associated with MAOA methylation. SA associated with all measured mental disorders. Hypermethylation of MAOA first exon mediated the association of SA with current depression, and both methylation levels and SA independently predicted lifetime depression. Much remains to be learned about the independent effects of SA and MAOA-uVNTR genotypes on methylation of the MAOA first exon.

  • 8.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Todkar, Aniruddha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Granholm, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Alpha 2a-Adrenoceptor Gene Expression and Early Life Stress-Mediated Propensity to Alcohol Drinking in Outbred Rats2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 7154-7171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stressful events early in life, later high alcohol consumption and vulnerability to alcohol use disorder (AUD) are tightly linked. Norepinephrine is highly involved in the stress response and the alpha 2A-adrenoceptor, which is an important regulator of norepinephrine signalling, is a putative target in pharmacotherapy of AUD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of early-life stress and adult voluntary alcohol drinking on the alpha 2A-adrenoceptor. The relative expression and promoter DNA methylation of the Adra2a gene were measured in the hypothalamus, a key brain region in stress regulation. A well-characterized animal model of early-life stress was used in combination with an episodic voluntary drinking in adulthood. Alcohol drinking rats with a history of early-life stress had lower Adra2a expression than drinking rats not exposed to stress. Alcohol intake and Adra2a gene expression were negatively correlated in high-drinking animals, which were predominantly rats subjected to early-life stress. The results provide support for a link between early-life stress, susceptibility for high alcohol consumption, and low Adra2a expression in the hypothalamus. These findings can increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis for vulnerability to initiate risk alcohol consumption and individual differences in the response to 2A-adrenoceptor agonists.

  • 9.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Todkar, Aniruddha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Mujtaba, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Granholm, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF A LINK BETWEEN THE alpha 2A-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR GENE, EARLY LIFE STRESS, AND ETHANOL DRINKING2015In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 50Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Three-way interaction effect of 5-HTTLPR, BDNF Val66Met, and childhood adversity on depression: A replication study2013In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1300-1306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the serotonin transporter linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms have been shown to interact with unfavourable environment in relation to depression symptoms and to depression diagnosis. Several attempts have been made to study a three-way interaction effect of these factors on depression, however with contradictory results. We aimed to test the hypothesis of a three-way interaction effect and to attempt at replication in an independent population-based sample. Family maltreatment, sexual abuse and depression were self-reported by an adolescent population-based cohort (N=1393) from the county of Västmanland, Sweden. DNA was isolated from saliva, and used for genotyping of the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Neither 5-HTTLPR or BDNF genotypes separately, nor in interaction with each other had any relation to depression, however in an environment adjusted model a two-way interaction and a three-way interaction effect was found. Both 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met interacted with unfavourable environment in relation to depressive symptoms (Adj R2=0.19). Depressive symptoms and depression were more common among carriers of either the ss/sl+Val/Val or the ll+Met genotypes in the presence of early-life adversities. This three-way effect was more pronounced among girls. The current study, with a virtually similar set-up compared to previous studies, can partially confirm previous findings and their generalizability. The study also shows the importance of genetic plasticity in individuals with different environmental exposure, for different phenotypic expression.

  • 11.
    Culverhouse, R. C.
    et al.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.;Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Biostat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Saccone, N. L.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Biostat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.;Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Horton, A. C.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Ma, Y.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Anstey, K. J.
    Australian Natl Univ, Ctr Res Ageing Hlth & Wellbeing, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Banaschewski, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Mannheim, Germany..
    Burmeister, M.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Psychiat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Cohen-Woods, S.
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Psychol, Fac Social & Behav Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Etain, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR S 1144, Paris, France.;AP HP, Grp St Louis Lariboisiere F, Paris, France.;INSERM, U1144, Paris, France..
    Fisher, H. L.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, Social Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, London, England..
    Goldman, N.
    Princeton Univ, Off Populat Res, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Guillaume, S.
    Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.;INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France.;CHU Montpellier, Dept Emergency Psychiat & Acute Care, Montpellier, France..
    Horwood, J.
    Univ Otago Christchurch, Dept Psychol Med, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Juhasz, G.
    Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE NAP Genet Brain Imaging Migraine Res Grp B, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Manchester, Neurosci & Psychiat Unit, Manchester, Lancs, England.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Lester, K. J.
    Univ Sussex, Sch Psychol, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Mandelli, L.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biomed & NeuroMotor Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Middeldorp, C. M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Olie, E.
    Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.;INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France.;CHU Montpellier, Dept Emergency Psychiat & Acute Care, Montpellier, France..
    Villafuerte, S.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Psychiat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Air, T. M.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Araya, R.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Global Mental Hlth, London, England..
    Bowes, L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Expt Psychol, Oxford, England..
    Burns, R.
    Australian Natl Univ, Ctr Res Ageing Hlth & Wellbeing, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Byrne, E. M.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Coffey, C.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Ctr Adolescent Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Coventry, W. L.
    Univ New England, Discipline Psychol, Armidale, NSW, Australia..
    Gawronski, K. A. B.
    Univ Penn, Dept Genet, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Glei, D.
    Georgetown Univ, Ctr Populat & Hlth, Washington, DC USA..
    Hatzimanolis, A.
    Univ Athens, Sch Med, Eginit Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Athens, Greece.;Theodor Theohari Cozzika Fdn, Neurobiol Res Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Hottenga, J-J
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Jaussent, I.
    INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France..
    Jawahar, C.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Jennen-Steinmetz, C.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Biostat, Mannheim, Germany..
    Kramer, J. R.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Psychiat, Carver Coll Med, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Lajnef, M.
    INSERM, U955, Creteil, France..
    Little, K.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Sch Psychol Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    zu Schwabedissen, H. M.
    Univ Basel, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Biopharm, Basel, Switzerland..
    Nauck, M.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Clin Chem & Lab Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Nederhof, E.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Petschner, P.
    Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE Neuropsychopharmacol & Neurochem Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Peyrot, W. J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ InGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schwahn, C.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Prosthet Dent Gerostomatol & Dent Mat, Greifswald, Germany..
    Sinnamon, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Stacey, D.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Tian, Y.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Toben, C.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Van der Auwera, S.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Greifswald, Germany..
    Wainwright, N.
    Sch Clin Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Wang, J-C
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Neurosci, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Willemsen, G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Anderson, I. M.
    Univ Manchester, Neurosci & Psychiat Unit, Manchester, Lancs, England.;Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Arolt, V.
    Univ Munster, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Munster, Germany..
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp Västerås, Västerås, Sweden..
    Bagdy, G.
    Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE Neuropsychopharmacol & Neurochem Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Baune, B. T.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Bellivier, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR S 1144, Paris, France.;AP HP, Grp St Louis Lariboisiere F, Paris, France.;INSERM, U1144, Paris, France..
    Boomsma, D. I.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Courtet, P.
    Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.;INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France.;CHU Montpellier, Dept Emergency Psychiat & Acute Care, Montpellier, France..
    Dannlowski, U.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Munster, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Munster, Germany..
    de Geus, E. J. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Deakin, J. F. W.
    Univ Manchester, Neurosci & Psychiat Unit, Manchester, Lancs, England.;Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Easteal, S.
    Australian Natl Univ, John Curtin Sch Med Res, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Eley, T.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England..
    Fergusson, D. M.
    Univ Otago Christchurch, Dept Psychol Med, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Goate, A. M.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Neurosci, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Gonda, X.
    Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE Neuropsychopharmacol & Neurochem Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Kutvolgyi Clin Ctr, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Budapest, Hungary..
    Grabe, H. J.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Greifswald, Germany..
    Holzman, C.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Johnson, E. O.
    RTI Int, Fellow Program, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA.;RTI Int, Behav Hlth & Criminal Justice Div, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA..
    Kennedy, M.
    Univ Otago, Dept Pathol, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Laucht, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Mannheim, Germany..
    Martin, N. G.
    QIMR Berghofer, Genet Epidemiol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Munafo, M. R.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, UK Ctr Tobacco & Alcohol Studies, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp Västerås, Västerås, Sweden..
    Oldehinkel, A. J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Olsson, C. A.
    Deakin Univ Geelong, Ctr Social & Early Emot Dev, Sch Psychol, Fac Hlth, Burwood, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Sch Psychol Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Ctr Adolescent Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Ormel, J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Otte, C.
    Charite, Klin Psychiat & Psychotherapie Campus Benjamin Fr, Berlin, Germany..
    Patton, G. C.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Penninx, B. W. J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ InGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ritchie, K.
    INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France..
    Sarchiapone, M.
    Univ Molise, Dept Hlth Sci, Campobasso, Italy..
    Scheid, J. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Psychiat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Serretti, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biomed & NeuroMotor Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Smit, J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ InGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Stefanis, N. C.
    Univ Athens, Sch Med, Eginit Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Athens, Greece.;Theodor Theohari Cozzika Fdn, Neurobiol Res Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Surtees, P. G.
    Sch Clin Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Voelzke, H.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Weinstein, M.
    Georgetown Univ, Ctr Populat & Hlth, Washington, DC USA..
    Whooley, M.
    Vet Affairs Hlth Care Syst, San Francisco, CA USA.;Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Nurnberger, J. I., Jr.
    Indiana Univ Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Inst Psychiat Res, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Dept Med & Mol Genet, Inst Psychiat Res, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA..
    Breslau, N.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Bierut, L. J.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype contributing to the development of depression2018In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that the S allele of the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter promoter region is associated with increased risk of depression, but only in individuals exposed to stressful situations, has generated much interest, research and controversy since first proposed in 2003. Multiple meta-analyses combining results from heterogeneous analyses have not settled the issue. To determine the magnitude of the interaction and the conditions under which it might be observed, we performed new analyses on 31 data sets containing 38 802 European ancestry subjects genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and assessed for depression and childhood maltreatment or other stressful life events, and meta-analysed the results. Analyses targeted two stressors (narrow, broad) and two depression outcomes (current, lifetime). All groups that published on this topic prior to the initiation of our study and met the assessment and sample size criteria were invited to participate. Additional groups, identified by consortium members or self-identified in response to our protocol (published prior to the start of analysis) with qualifying unpublished data, were also invited to participate. A uniform data analysis script implementing the protocol was executed by each of the consortium members. Our findings do not support the interaction hypothesis. We found no subgroups or variable definitions for which an interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype was statistically significant. In contrast, our findings for the main effects of life stressors (strong risk factor) and 5-HTTLPR genotype (no impact on risk) are strikingly consistent across our contributing studies, the original study reporting the interaction and subsequent meta-analyses. Our conclusion is that if an interaction exists in which the S allele of 5-HTTLPR increases risk of depression only in stressed individuals, then it is not broadly generalisable, but must be of modest effect size and only observable in limited situations.

  • 12.
    Ghosh, Eric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Own-gender bias in school staff's recognition of children with ADHD2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 6, p. 1165-1166Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. A higher proportion of boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD, although girls seek care for ADHD at an older age, and almost to the same extent as men by adulthood (1). The sex difference in prevalence rates during childhood may hypothetically reflect a bias in referral patterns, where adults perceive and value girls' symptoms differently to boys' symptoms. Consistent with this finding, the gender bias is attenuated when self-reports and community-based samples are used (1).

  • 13.
    Granholm, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Todkar, Aniruddah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Bergman, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nillson, Kent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The expression of opioid genes in non-classical reward areas depends on early life conditions and ethanol intake2017In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1668, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The young brain is highly sensitive to environmental influences that can cause long-term changes in neuronal function, possibly through altered gene expression. The endogenous opioid system continues to mature after birth and because of its involvement in reward, an inadequate maturation of this system could lead to enhanced susceptibility for alcohol use disorder. Recent studies show that the classical reward areas nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area are less affected by early life stress whereas endogenous opioids in non-classical areas, e.g. dorsal striatum and amygdala, are highly responsive. The aim was to investigate the interaction between early life conditions and adult voluntary ethanol intake on opioid gene expression. Male Wistar rats were exposed to conventional rearing, 15, or 360min of daily maternal separation (MS) postnatal day 1-21, and randomly assigned to ethanol or water drinking postnatal week 10-16. Rats exposed to early life stress (MS360) had increased opioid receptor gene (Oprm1, Oprd1 and Oprk1) expression in the dorsal striatum. Ethanol drinking was associated with lower striatal Oprd1 and Oprk1 expression solely in rats exposed to early life stress. Furthermore, rats exposed to early life stress had high inherent Pomc expression in the amygdala but low expression after ethanol intake. Thus, adverse events early in life induced changes in opioid gene expression and also influenced the central molecular response to ethanol intake. These long-term consequences of early life stress can contribute to the enhanced risk for excessive ethanol intake and alcohol use disorder seen after exposure to childhood adversity.

  • 14. Heddini, Ulrika
    et al.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    GCH1-polymorphism and pain sensitivity among women with provoked vestibulodynia2012In: MOL PAIN, ISSN 1744-8069, Vol. 8, p. 68-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a pain disorder localized in the vestibular mucosa. It is the most common cause of dyspareunia among young women and it is associated with general pain hypersensitivity and other chronic pain conditions. Polymorphism in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCH1) gene has been found to influence general pain sensitivity and the risk of developing a longstanding pain condition. The aim of this study was to investigate GCH1-polymorphism in women with PVD and healthy controls, in correlation to pain sensitivity. Results: We found no correlation between the previously defined pain-protective GCH1-SNP combination and the diagnosis of PVD. Nor any correlation with pain sensitivity measured as pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg and in the vestibule, coital pain scored on a visual analog scale and prevalence of other bodily pain conditions among women with PVD (n = 98) and healthy controls (n = 102). However, among patients with current treatment (n = 36), there was a significant interaction effect of GCH1-gene polymorphism and hormonal contraceptive (HC) therapy on coital pain (p = 0.04) as well as on pressure pain thresholds on the arm (p = 0.04). PVD patients carrying the specified SNP combination and using HCs had higher pain sensitivity compared to non-carriers. In non-HC-users, carriers had lower pain sensitivity. Conclusions: The results of this study gave no support to the hypothesis that polymorphism in the GCH1-gene contributes to the etiology of PVD. However, among patients currently receiving treatment an interaction effect of the defined SNP combination and use of hormonal contraceptives on pain sensitivity was found. This finding offers a possible explanation to the clinically known fact that some PVD patients improve after cessation of hormonal contraceptives, indicating that PVD patients carrying the defined SNP combination of GCH1 would benefit from this intervention.

  • 15.
    Heddini, Ulrika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Serotonin receptor gene (5HT-2A) polymorphism is associated with provoked vestibulodynia and comorbid symptoms of pain2014In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 3064-3071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionProvoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common type of dyspareunia among young women. The patho-physiology remains largely unclear. Women with PVD have general pain hypersensitivity and often report additional pain symptoms. Signs point towards PVD being a chronic pain disorder similar to other syndromes of longstanding pain, including a common comorbidity of anxiety and depression. Polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene, 5HT-2A, has been associated with other chronic pain disorders such as fibromyalgia but has not been investigated in PVD patients. AimWe aimed to investigate a possible contribution of polymorphism in the 5HT-2A gene to the etiology of PVD as well as a potential influence on pain sensitivity. MethodsIn this case-control study 98 women with PVD and 103 healthy controls between 18 and 44 years and in the same menstrual cycle phase completed questionnaires and underwent quantitative sensory testing. Venous blood samples were collected for DNA isolation. Main Outcome MeasuresConcomitant pain was reported, a bodily pain score was created and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) on the arm, leg, and in the vestibule were measured. Intensity of coital pain was rated on a visual analog scale, range 0-100. The T102C (rs6313) and A-1438G (rs6311) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5HT-2A gene were analyzed. ResultsThe probability of PVD was elevated in participants carrying the 1438G- and 102C-alleles of the 5HT-2A gene (OR 2.9). The G-/C- genotypes were also associated with more concomitant bodily pain in addition to the dyspareunia, but not with experimental PPTs or coital pain ratings. PVD patients reported more concomitant bodily pain and had lower PPTs compared with controls. ConclusionThe results indicate a contribution of alterations in the serotonergic system to the patho-genesis of PVD and gives further evidence of PVD being a general pain disorder similar to other chronic pain disorders. Heddini U, Bohm-Starke N, Gronbladh A, Nyberg F, Nilsson KW, and Johannesson U. Serotonin receptor gene (5HT-2A) polymorphism is associated with provoked vestibulodynia and comorbid symptoms of pain.

  • 16. Heddini, Ulrika
    et al.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Provoked Vestibulodynia-Medical Factors and Comorbidity Associated with Treatment Outcome2012In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 1400-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most common cause of dyspareunia in young women. The etiology is unclear, and there is little knowledge of how to predict treatment outcome.

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify medical factors associated with treatment outcome and coital pain in women with PVD.

    Methods. Seventy women previously treated for PVD at a vulvar open care unit completed questionnaires and a quantitative sensory testing session.

    Main Outcome Measures. Concomitant bodily pain and treatment outcome were surveyed using a study specific questionnaire. Coital pain was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS), range 0100. Psychometric screening was carried out using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg, and in the vestibulum were measured using pressure algometers.

    Results. Major improvement/complete recovery was more likely in PVD patients with a maximum of one other concomitant pain disorder compared with patients with four or more (odds ratio = 7.8, confidence interval: 1.249.4, P = 0.03). In a multiple linear regression model, the number of other pain disorders (P < 0.01) and a diagnosis of primary PVD (P = 0.04) were positively associated with the coital VAS pain score. Women with secondary PVD reported major improvement/complete recovery to a higher extent than women with primary PVD (z = 2.11, P = 0.04).

    Conclusion. A successful treatment outcome was more likely in PVD patients with fewer other concomitant pain conditions. The number of other bodily pain conditions was also associated to the intensity of the coital pain. Additionally, the results indicate higher incomplete response rates to treatment in women with primary PVD compared with secondary PVD.

  • 17.
    Heddini, Ulrika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    A118G polymorphism in the μ-opioid receptor gene and levels of β-endorphin are associated with provoked vestibulodynia and pressure pain sensitivity2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most common cause of dyspareunia among young women. The aetiology is largely unknown and treatment is often extensive and longstanding with varying outcomes. Patients display general pain hypersensitivity and there are correlations with other chronic pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia later in life. The A118G polymorphism in the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene influences endogenous pain regulation and pain sensitivity, but has not been studied in this patient group before. We aimed to investigate a possible association between A118G polymorphism and PVD, with correlation to plasma levels of β-endorphin, and to explore relationships between this polymorphism and pain sensitivity among women with PVD and healthy controls.

    Methods

    This case–control study included 98 women with PVD and 103 controls. Participants filled out study-specific questionnaires and underwent quantitative sensory testing of pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg and in the vestibular area. Levels of β-endorphin were analyzed by radioimmunoassay using the EURIA-beta-endorphin kit, and the A118G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1799971) in the OPRM1 gene was analyzed using the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay.

    Results

    The 118G allele was more common in controls (44%) than in patients (30%) (p  = 0.042). The odds ratio of having PVD was 1.8 in participants carrying the 118A allele compared to participants hetero- or homozygous for the 118G allele (OR = 1.846, CI: 1.03–3.31, p = 0.039). Pressure pain thresholds on the leg were higher for participants carrying the 118G allele (mean 480 kPa, SD 167.5) than for those carrying the 118A allele (mean 419, SD 150.4, p = 0.008). Levels of β-endorphin were higher in patients (mean 17.9 fmol/ml, SD 4.71) than in controls (mean 15.8 fmol/ml, SD 4.03) (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    We found an association between the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene and an increased risk of PVD and increased pain sensitivity among participants carrying the 118A allele. PVD patients were more sensitive to pressure pain and had higher levels of plasma β-endorphin than controls. The results indicate that differences in endogenous pain modulation involving the opioid system could contribute to the pathophysiology of PVD and the general pain hypersensitivity seen in these women.

    Implications

    The data support the conceptualization of PVD as part of a general pain disorder with a possible genetic predisposition. The age of onset of PVD is usually between 18 and 25 years and already at this age general pain hypersensitivity is present but rarely causing disability. We believe that early recognition and treatment, with the risk of further development of chronic pain taken into consideration, might prevent future aggravated pain problems in this patient group.

  • 18.
    Hellstrand, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Competence Ctr Hlth, S-72189 Vasteras, Region Vastmanl, Sweden..
    Simonsson, Bo
    Competence Ctr Hlth, S-72189 Vasteras, Region Vastmanl, Sweden..
    Engström, Sevek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Competence Ctr Hlth, S-72189 Vasteras, Region Vastmanl, Sweden..
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Molarius, Anu
    Competence Ctr Hlth, S-72189 Vasteras, Region Vastmanl, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Karlstad, Sweden..
    A health dialogue intervention reduces cardiovascular risk factor levels: a population based randomised controlled trial in Swedish primary care setting with 1-year follow-up2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The total number of cardiovascular (CVD) deaths accounted for almost a third of all deaths globally in 2013. Population based randomised controlled trials, managed within primary care, on CVD risk factor interventions are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a health dialogue intervention in a primary care setting offered to a population at the age of 55 years, focusing on CVD risk factors. Methods: The study was performed in five primary health care centres in the county of Vastmanland, Sweden between April 2011 and December 2012. Men and women were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 440) and control groups (n = 440). At baseline, both groups filled in a health questionnaire and serum cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumference, waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were measured. Intervention group attended a health dialogue, supported by a visualised health profile, with a possibility for further activities. Participation rates at baseline were 53% and 52% respectively. A 1-year follow-up was carried out. Results: The intervention group (n = 165) showed reductions compared to the control group (n = 177) concerning body mass index (BMI) (0.3 kg/m(2), p = .031), WC (2.1 cm, p <= .001) and WHR (. 002, p <= .001) at the 1-year follow-up. No differences between the intervention and control groups were found in other variables. Intervention group, compared to baseline, had reduced weight, BMI, WC, WHR, HbA1c, and diet, while the men in the control group had reduced their alcohol consumption. Conclusions: A health dialogue intervention at the age of 55 years, conducted in ordinary primary care, showed a moderate effect on CVD risk factor levels, in terms of BMI, WC and WHR.

  • 19.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 4, p. 263-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time.

    Method. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13-18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms.Results. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230-6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598-3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966-6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives.

    Conclusion. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health.

  • 20.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Aslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Influences of motives to play and time spent gaming on the negative consequences of adolescent online computer gaming2012In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1379-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examined the relation between gaming-time, motives to play, and negative consequences due to playing MMORPGs. A total of 7757 Swedish adolescents (3872 boys and 3885 girls) between 13 and 18 years of age completed a questionnaire during class hours. Results indicated that time spent on gaming was associated with negative consequences. This relation was further explained by motives to play. Gaming for fun and social motives were associated with a reduced risk whereas gaming to escape, to gain status, or due to demands from others were associated with an increased risk of negative consequences. Motives to play should be considered as a prime indicator for negative consequences, even more than time spent gaming. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  • 21.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Wagner, Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Aslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: A population-based study2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms.

    Method: A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15–18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample.

    Results: A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems.

    Conclusions: Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.

  • 22. Hodgins, Sheilagh
    et al.
    Lövenhag, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 347-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.

  • 23.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Polymorphisms in the FK506 binding protein 5 gene are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and diurnal cortisol levels2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 910-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Previous studies have shown an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a down-regulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with low diurnal cortisol levels. Given the role of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) as an important regulator of the negative feedback system of the HPA-axis, we set out to investigate possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 in relation to ADHD and diurnal cortisol levels.

    METHODS: Children with ADHD (n=81) and healthy comparisons (n=88) collected saliva four times during a regular school day for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol and for genotyping of five SNPs in FKBP5 (rs9296158, rs1360780, rs9470080, rs7748266 and rs9394309).

    RESULTS: We found associations between SNP genotypes and ADHD as well as between genotypes and diurnal cortisol levels. One of these SNPs, rs9470080, was significantly associated with both ADHD and lower cortisol levels.

    CONCLUSION: This study contributes to previous findings on a down-regulated HPA-axis in children with ADHD by demonstrating an association between ADHD, lower cortisol levels and SNPs of the FKBP5-gene. The relevance of these findings for the development and shaping of ADHD symptoms need to be approached in larger samples, preferably also taking stress reactivity into consideration.

  • 24.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Karolinska Inst KIND, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth,Pediat Neuropsychiat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, CA 90089-1061, USA;School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Andershed, Henrik
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Associations between the FKBP5 haplotype, exposure to violence and anxiety in females2016In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 72, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gene that encodes the FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) is regarded as a candidate for investigating how negative life events interact with a genetic predisposition to stress-related disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Given the role of FKBP5 as an important regulator of stress responses, we aimed to investigate if single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5-in the presence/absence of exposure to violence-are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Data from two community-based samples of adolescents (n=1705) and young adults (n=1800) regarding ratings on depression, anxiety, exposure to violence and FKBP5 genotype were collected. A risk haplogenotype including the minor alleles of seven common SNPs in the FKBP5 (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080 and rs4713916) conferred higher ratings on anxiety among females, but not males, in the presence of violence. Exposure to violence and female sex were associated with higher ratings on both depression and anxiety, with the exception of ratings on depression among young adults, on which sex had no effect. Ratings on depression were not associated with the haplogenotype. These findings may correspond to differences in the regulation of the HPA axis and with the higher vulnerability to anxiety in females.

  • 25.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Hogmark, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on cortisol levels in children with ADHD2013In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 740-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have lower diurnal cortisol levels than non-ADHD comparison subjects. Aiming at elucidating the effects of medications used to treat ADHD, we investigated saliva cortisol in children with ADHD: 20 without medication, 147 on methylphenidate, and 21 on atomoxetine. The only significant finding was that children on atomoxetine had higher cortisol levels at bedtime than unmedicated children.

  • 26.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Early psychosocial adversity and cortisol levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest a different regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with lower diurnal cortisol levels, especially in the morning, in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls. Since exposure to foetal and childhood psychosocial adversity has been associated with both ADHD and HPA-axis functioning, such exposures may explain these low cortisol levels in ADHD via early programming of the HPA-axis. Thus, our main aim was to retrospectively study foetal and early childhood exposures to psychosocial adversity in children with ADHD and to relate these exposures to cortisol levels. Saliva samples were collected during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 197) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221) for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Parental rating scales were used for categorising subtypes of ADHD and degree of exposure to adversity. Children with ADHD had more reports of at least one rated foetal adversity (p = 0.041) and childhood adversity (p < 0.001) than comparisons. The association between low morning cortisol levels and ADHD-symptoms remained when analyses were adjusted for adversities, age, sex, sampling time and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. No relation was found between exposures to foetal/childhood adversity and cortisol levels except for a positive relation between childhood adversity and cortisol morning increase in children with ADHD. The hypothesis that early adversity may influence the HPA-axis, leading to lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD, was not supported by our findings.

  • 27.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    The Pressure-Activation-Stress scale in relation to ADHD and cortisol2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pressure–Activation–Stress (PAS) scale is a self-report questionnaire for children concerning perceived stress. To explore behavioral and physiological correlates, we investigated if scores discriminate between a group prone to perceive high levels of stress [children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] and a healthy school sample, and if they are associated with diurnal cortisol levels. The PAS scale was filled in at home by children (11–17 years) with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 102) and non-affected comparisons (n = 146). Saliva samples were collected four times during a regular school day for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Subtypes and severity of ADHD symptoms were determined using parental rating scales. Children with ADHD scored higher on the PAS scale than a school sample. The PAS scores were similar over ages in the ADHD group while they increased with age in the healthy group. Female sex was associated with higher stress in both groups but no gender interaction was found. No association was found between PAS scores and cortisol levels in neither group. Children in the ADHD group had a lower ratio of cortisol levels/perceived stress on all sampling occasions, built up both by the higher PAS scores and the lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD. The higher PAS scores in children with ADHD support the validity of the scale. The lack of association between PAS scores and diurnal cortisol levels is intriguing and illustrates the complexity of the stress concept. Stress-related fragility seems to accompany ADHD during childhood.

  • 28.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hogmark, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Cortisol levels in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder2012In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1398-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and its end product cortisol differs among persons with certain psychiatric disorders when compared with controls. Some reports concern Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but findings are inconclusive. In this study we collected four saliva samples during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with ADHD (n = 201) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221). Saliva cortisol was measured with radioimmunoassay technique. Clinical data were collected for diagnostic information. Subtypes and severity of symptoms were determined using parental rating scales. Children with ADHD had lower saliva cortisol levels than comparisons at waking up Median = 9.1 versus 12.7 nmol/L (p < .001), 30 min later Median = 15.8 versus 20.1 nmol/L (p < .001) and before going to bed Median = 0.8 versus 1.0 nmol/L (p = .015). No difference was found for the afternoon sample. When the study group was split into three different age groups similar results were found only for children above 10 years of age. Subtype of ADHD or co-occurring symptoms did not affect the cortisol levels. Degree of severity of ADHD symptoms was not associated with cortisol levels in the study group, other than a weak negative correlation between the afternoon sample and hyperactivity symptoms. The low cortisol levels in children with ADHD may indicate a dysregulation of the HPA-axis, for instance a down-regulation or a phase delay of the diurnal curve. The low levels may be related to the under-arousal possibly underlying several of the core symptoms of ADHD.

  • 29.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Dept Anal & Method, Klara Norra Kyrkogata 34, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Dept Anal & Method, Klara Norra Kyrkogata 34, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Svensson, Johan
    Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Dept Anal & Method, Klara Norra Kyrkogata 34, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The increased trend of non-drinking alcohol among adolescents: what role do internet activities have?2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently, an increased trend toward non-drinking among adolescents has been observed in several countries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a common suggestion in literature, that adolescents do not drink alcohol because they spend more time on the internet, monitored at home, by examining associations between internet activities (social media/chatting and computer gaming) and non-drinking.

    Methods: A health questionnaire was distributed to all 9th graders (1516 years) in a mid-sized Swedish county in 2008, 2010 and 2012. In total, 7089 students returned the questionnaire.

    Results: In contrast to the suggestion, no association was found between total time spent on computers and non-drinking. Social media/chatting was robustly associated with a decreased probability of non-drinking across the three survey years. On the other hand, computer gaming during weekends only (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.132.69) or both on weekdays and weekends increased the probability of non-drinking (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.312.54) in 2012 only. However, neither social media/chatting nor computer gaming was associated with the increased trend of non-drinking from 2008 to 2012.

    Conclusions: Internet activities were in general not associated with non-drinking among adolescents aged 1516 years in Sweden. Although, a weak positive association between computer gaming and non-drinking was found in 2012, this effect benefited the vast majority of the boys. The larger alcohol use among those with extensive social media use/chatting may indicate that these online platforms are arenas where adolescents are exposed for positive alcohol preferences and alcohol advertising without parental supervision.

  • 30.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Box 883, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The role of online social network chatting for alcohol use in adolescence: Testing three peer-related pathways in a Swedish population-based sample2017In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 71, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine whether online social network chatting (OSNC) is related to any of three peer-related pathways to alcohol use among adolescents including a stress-exposure pathway, a peer status pathway and a social context pathway. A survey was distributed to a Swedish population based sample of 2439 boys and girls 15-16 years old enrolled in the 9th grade of primary school. Indirect effects, moderating effects, and gender differences were analysed. The results exposed a robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use, but also that OSNC accounted for one-fifth of the association between the peer status pathway and alcohol use. A positive association between the stress exposure pathway and alcohol use was found that was weaker among adolescents who scored high on OSNC whereas a positive association between the social context pathway and alcohol use also was found that was stronger among adolescents who scored high on OSNC. Consequently, OSNC may contribute differently to alcohol use depending on which peer-related pathway that the adolescent follows. The robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use that remained when the three peer-related pathways were accounted for also indicates that this association is accounted for by other factors.

  • 31.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Box 70412, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Box 70412, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Adolescent non-drinkers: Who are they? Social relations, school performance, lifestyle factors and health behaviours2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no S1, p. S67-S75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Traditionally, non-drinking adults or young adults have been associated with health deficits rather than health benefits. However, as the proportion of Swedish non-drinking adolescents has doubled since 2000, their health profiles are of interest. The aim of the present study is to examine whether social relations, school characteristics, lifestyle factors or health behaviours distinguish adolescent non-drinkers from adolescent drinkers, and if their health profiles have changed from 2004 to 2012.

    Design and Methods

    Data from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland, a health survey biennially distributed to all 9th graders (15-16years) in a medium-sized Swedish county, was used. In total, 2872 students in 2004 and 2045 students in 2012 were included.

    Results

    Non-drinkers were distinguished from drinkers in both 2004 and 2012 by elevated parental supervision, a lower rate of school truancy and lower rates of cannabis use, use of other illicit drugs, daily smoking and lower scores on antisocial behaviour, but more problems of getting new friends. No differences between 2004 and 2012 were found.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Non-drinkers presented more adaptive and healthier behaviours than their drinking peers, but it is difficult to determine whether their health benefits were related to their improved alcohol status or to the more general trend towards adaptation that occurred from 2004 to 2012 among adolescents.

  • 32.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Malardalens Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Social Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    How are social capital and sense of coherence associated with hazardous alcohol use?: Findings from a large population-based Swedish sample of adults2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study examined whether social capital and a sense of coherence are associated with hazardous alcohol use in a large population-based Swedish sample. In particular, the objectives were (a) to examine which of five subdimensions of social capital is associated with hazardous alcohol use, (b) to investigate the moderating role of sense of coherence and (c) to examine possible sex differences. Methods: A postal survey was distributed to a sample of respondents (aged 18-84 years) from five Swedish counties that was stratified by sex, age and city; 40,674 (59.2%) participants responded, of which 45.5% were men and 54.5% were women with a mean +/- SD age of 53.8 +/- 17.9 years. Results: Structural dimensions of social capital were associated with an increased probability of hazardous alcohol use among both men and women, whereas the increased probability associated with cognitive dimensions occurred mostly among women. Sense of coherence was robustly associated with a decreased probability of hazardous alcohol use among both men and women. There were few moderating effects of sense of coherence and sex differences emerged mainly for the cognitive dimension of social capital. Conclusions: Associations between social capital dimensions and hazardous alcohol use were partly sex-specific, whereas the benefits of a sense of coherence accrued to both sexes. Social capital dimensions and sense of coherence were generally unrelated to each other. Only associations between the cognitive dimensions of social capital and hazardous alcohol use differed by sex.

  • 33.
    Lövenhag, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 489-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Vastmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  • 34.
    Mattebo, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Akademin för Hälsa, Vård och Välfärd, Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västmanlands sjukhus, Västerås.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Pornography and sexual experiences among high school students in Sweden2014In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, ISSN 0196-206X, E-ISSN 1536-7312, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    The study investigated the differences between high school boys and girls in: 1) use of pornography, 2) sexual experiences, 3) experience of sexual abuse, and 4) perceptions of sexuality and pornography. It also examined possible predictors of experiencing sexual activities, such as: sex, sociodemographic factors (high school program, household, and ethnic background), pornography consumption, experience of sexual abuse, perception of sexuality, and perception of pornography.

    Method:

    A population-based classroom survey of 16-year-old boys (n = 477) and girls (n = 400) from 53 randomly selected high school classes in two towns in mid-Sweden.

    Results:

    Almost all boys (96%, n = 453) and 54% of the girls (n = 213) had watched pornography. Regardless of sex, pornography consumers had a positive perception of pornography. There were no differences between pornography-consuming boys and girls regarding fantasies and attempted sexual acts inspired by pornography. A higher proportion of girls (15%) than boys (6%) had experienced sexual abuse. Predictors for being sexually experienced (oral sex, intercourse, and anal sex) included: being a girl, attending a vocational high school program, living with separated parents, having experience of sexual abuse, stating that boys and girls are equally interested in sex, and having a positive perception of pornography (Adj R2 = 0.145).

    Conclusion:

    Boys had more experience of and a more positive perception of pornography but there were only a few differences between boys and girls in the pornography-consumer group. Girls were more sexually experienced than boys. A positive perception of pornography predicted being sexually experienced.

  • 35.
    Mattebo, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Västerås, Sweden.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Pornography consumption and psychosomatic and depressive symptoms among Swedish adolescents: a longitudinal study2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 4, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aims of this longitudinal study were to identify predictors for continued pornography consumption and to investigate pornography consumption in relation to psychosomatic and depressive symptoms among a group of adolescents in Sweden.

    Methods and materials: A longitudinal study in classroom environment in 53 randomly selected senior high school classes in mid-Sweden in years 2011 and 2013. Out of 477 participating boys and 400 girls in 2011, 224 boys (47%) and 238 girls (60%) participated in 2013.

    Results: Higher pornography consumption at baseline and being born outside Sweden predicted continued pornography consumption at follow-up (adjusted R2 = 0.689).

    Psychosomatic symptoms at follow-up were predicted by higher pornography consumption at baseline (adjusted R2 = 0.254), being a girl, living with separated parents, and attending a vocational high school program. By contrast, depressive symptoms at follow-up were predicted by less pornography consumption at baseline (adjusted R2 = 0.122) and being a girl.

    Conclusions: Pornography consumption may, for some individuals, be associated to mental health issues. Differences between teenage boys and girls and between adolescents with diverse ethnic backgrounds imply that counseling and discussion about pornography need to be adjusted and individualized.

  • 36.
    Mattebo, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Tydén, Tanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Pornography consumption, sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health among male adolescents in Sweden2013In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, ISSN 0196-206X, E-ISSN 1536-7312, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 460-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE

    To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health.

    METHODS

    A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden.

    RESULTS

    Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health.

    CONCLUSIONS

    The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.

  • 37.
    Nillson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Damberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Öhrvik, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Alm, Per Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Genotype and Psychosocial Factors in Male Adolescent Criminal Activity2006In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 2, no 59, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A number of important sociological, psychological, and biological predictors of adolescent criminal behavior have been identified during the most recent decades. The aim of this study was to replicate recent findings that interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter region and psychosocial factors might predict male adolescent criminal activity.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study with a randomized sample from the total population of 16- and 19-year-olds from the county of Västmanland, Sweden. Eighty-one male adolescents, who volunteered to participate, were randomly selected from groups representing different degrees of deviant risk behavior.

    Results

    The present study strongly supports the notion that carrying the 3-repeat allele of the MAO-A–gene promoter increases the risk of male adolescent criminal behavior, when interacting with psychosocial factors. No effects at all of the MAO-A genotype on adolescent criminal activity were found when MAO-A genotype was considered alone (i.e., without its psychosocial context). The explained variance of the bio-psychosocial model (controlling for MAO-A) in this study exceeded the psychosocial model by 12%.

    Conclusions

    The findings support the notion that genotype and psychosocial factors interact to precipitate male adolescent criminal behavior.

  • 38.
    Nilson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Slund, C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Differential susceptibility properties of the 5HTTLPR gene in relation to depressive symptoms and delinquency2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 41, no S, p. S102-S102Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Alm, Per Olov
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Öhrvik, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Interaktioner mellan gener och miljö. Predicerar kriminalitet, depression och alkoholberoende2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, no 39, p. 2859-2863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently interactions between promoter polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene and the Monoamine oxidase-A gene have been found to interact with psychosocial factors to predict outcome such as adolescent criminal behaviour, alcohol consumption and depression. In this paper we review this emerging field of scientific inquiry with particular attention paid to findings made on a population based sample of 119 girls and 81 boys from the county of Västmanland, Sweden.

  • 40.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Genotypes do not confer risk for delinquency but rather alter susceptibility to positive and negative environmental factors: Gene-environment interactions of BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA-uVNTR2015In: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 1461-1457, E-ISSN 1469-5111, Vol. 18, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Previous evidence of gene-by-environment interactions associated with emotional and behavioral disorders is contradictory. Differences in findings may result from variation in valence and dose of the environmental factor, and/or failure to take account of gene-by-gene interactions. The present study investigated interactions between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met), the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) polymorphisms, family conflict, sexual abuse, the quality of the child-parent relationship, and teenage delinquency.

    Methods. In 2006, as part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland, Sweden, 1337 high-school students, aged 17-18 years, anonymously completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples for DNA analyses.

    Results. Teenage delinquency was associated with two-, three-, and four-way interactions of each of the genotypes and the three environmental factors. Significant four-way interactions were found for BDNF Val66Met×5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR×family conflicts, and for BDNF Val66Met×5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR×sexual abuse. Further, the two genotype combinations that differed the most in expression levels (BDNF Val66Met Val, 5-HTTLPR LL, MAOA-uVNTR LL (girls) and L (boys) vs BDNF Val66Met Val/Met, 5-HTTLPR S/LS, MAOA-uVNTR S/SS/LS) in interaction with family conflict and sexual abuse were associated with the highest delinquency scores. The genetic variants previously shown to confer vulnerability for delinquency (BDNF Val66Met Val/Met×5-HTTLPR S×MAOA-uVNTR S) were associated with the lowest delinquency scores in interaction with a positive child-parent relationship.

    Conclusions. Functional variants of the MAOA-uVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and BDNF Val66Met, either alone or in interaction with each other, may be best conceptualized as modifying sensitivity to environmental factors that confer either risk or protection for teenage delinquency.

  • 41.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Comasco, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Sjöberg, Richard L
    Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) genotype and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to symptoms of depression in two independent samples2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2β. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2β gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8 % of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2β intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2β intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.

  • 42.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Simonsson, Bo
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Alcohol-related problems among adolescents and the role of a sense of coherence2007In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol abuse is generally regarded as a major risk factor for antisocial problem behaviour among adolescents. On the other hand, personal coping strategies hypothetically can be seen as protective of alcohol-related behaviour problems. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sense of coherence (SOC) on alcohol-related behavioural problems in an SOC-alcohol intoxication model. The method of study was a cross-sectional, school-based questionnaire study of 4,305, 16- and 19-year-old adolescents. We found that both a SOC and the frequency of alcohol intoxication were independently associated with alcohol-related behavioural problems. Our model shows that the combination of these two independent factors amplifies them considerably, and adolescents with a strong SOC, despite frequent intoxication, were protected to a large degree from experiencing alcohol-related problems.

  • 43.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Gene-environment interaction of monoamine oxidase A in relation to antisocial behaviour: current and future directions.2018In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 125, no 11, p. 1601-1626Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the pioneering finding of Caspi and co-workers in 2002 that exposure to childhood maltreatment predicted later antisocial behaviour (ASB) in male carriers of the low-activity MAOA-uVNTR allele, frequent replication studies have been published. Two meta-analyses, one in 2006 and the other in 2014, confirmed the original findings by Caspi and co-workers. In the present paper, we review the literature, note some methodological aspects of candidate gene–environment interaction (cG×E) studies and suggest some future directions. Our conclusions are as follows. (1) The direction of the effect in a cG×E model may differ according to the positive and negative environmental background of the population. (2) There is a predictor-intersection problem such that when measuring one type of maltreatment in a person, other kinds of maltreatment often co-occur. Other forms of abuse are implicitly considered in statistical models; therefore, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the effects of timing and the severity of different forms of stressful life events in relation to ASB. (3) There is also an outcome-intersection problem because of the major intersection of ASB and other forms of mental health problems. It is likely that the G×E with MAOA is related to a common unmeasured factor. (4) For the G×E model, in which the effect of the gene on the outcome variable is dependent on other predictor variables, theoretically, hypothesis-driven statistical modelling is needed.

  • 44.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between early and late adolescent levels of anxiety: Specificity and informant effects2018In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 69, p. 118-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The role of parenting behavior is often highlighted in the development of anxiety in youth. However, previous reports are limited in terms of the specificity of relationships between different types of anxiety and parenting behaviors, informant effects on these relationships, and direction of effects.

    METHODS: This study investigates these questions using longitudinal data from 1350 Swedish adolescents and their parents. Adolescents' self-reports of six dimensions of anxiety and adolescents' and parents' reports of six dimensions of parenting behaviors were used in the analyses. Parallel multiple mediation models were employed to analyze specificity and informant effects within a reciprocal effects model.

    RESULTS: Overall, and irrespective of informant, this study found little support for a mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between early and late adolescent levels of anxiety. Evidence for specificity within the parenting-anxiety relationship was scarce with specific mediating effects observed only for panic/agoraphobia and total anxiety through the parenting dimension of rejection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study concern the un-conditional mediating role of parenting. Parenting behaviors may be more influential among some adolescents, depending on individual differences in other factors related to the development and course of adolescent anxiety. Thus, further research on moderating factors of the influence of parenting on adolescent anxiety is warranted.

  • 45.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Vadlin, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Assessing Adolescent Anxiety in General Psychiatric Care: Diagnostic Accuracy of the Swedish Self-Report and Parent Versions of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale2016In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 744-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the Swedish translations of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, self- and parent report versions, in a sample of 104 adolescents presenting at two general psychiatric outpatient units. Results showed high informant agreement and good internal reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity for both versions and demonstrated that this scale can distinguish between adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder in a non-anxiety-specific clinical setting. The relative clinical utility of different cutoff scores was compared by looking at the extent to which dichotomized questionnaire results altered the pretest probability of the presence of a diagnosis as defined by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. Optimized for screening and diagnostic purposes in Sweden, cutoff scores obtained in the current study outperformed a previously identified cutoff score derived from an Australian community sample. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale is a useful clinical instrument for the assessment of anxiety in adolescents.

  • 46.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Vadlin, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Anxiety disorders among adolescents referred to general psychiatry for multiple causes: clinical presentation, prevalence, and comorbidity2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, E-ISSN 2245-8875, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports of anxiety disorder characteristics among youth in clinical settings typically include descriptions of patients who have been specifically referred for anxiety treatment. At odds with a large body of evidence which demonstrates these disorders to be most common among young people, prevalence studies in samples referred to general psychiatry for multiple causes are scarce and report highly discrepant estimates.

    For this study and regardless of their presenting symptoms, 125 adolescents (57.6% girls) between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were consecutively referred to two child and adolescent general psychiatry clinics in Sweden were assessed for anxiety disorders and comorbidity using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. Self-ratings of anxiety symptoms and difficulties with family, school, friends, sleep, and body aches were also obtained.

    At least one anxiety disorder was found in 46% of participants. Among anxious adolescents, homotypic comorbidity (concurrent anxiety) was observed in 43%, and heterotypic comorbidity (concurrent non-anxiety psychiatric disorders) was observed in 91%. No comorbidity was observed in 5%. Trauma, ache, and difficulties making friends were more common among anxious adolescents as compared with psychiatrically referred adolescents without anxiety.

    The finding that only 21% of adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorders were referred for anxiety further supports the routine use of standardized and structured instruments—irrespective of referral cause—to improve both precision and detection rates in the clinical setting. Comprehensive assessments are of utmost importance to fully address the complexity of the symptoms in this patient group.

  • 47.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Interaction between oxytocin gene variants and perceived parenting in relation to social anxiety in adolescents: Evidence for differential susceptibility effects2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 41, p. S72-S72Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nilson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Differential susceptibility effects of oxytocin gene (OXT) polymorphisms and perceived parenting on social anxiety among adolescents2018In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 449-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety is one of the most commonly reported mental health problems among adolescents, and it has been suggested that parenting style influences an adolescent's level of anxiety. A context-dependent effect of oxytocin on human social behavior has been proposed; however, research on the oxytocin gene (OXT) has mostly been reported without considering contextual factors. This study investigated the interactions between parenting style and polymorphic variations in the OXT gene in association with social anxiety symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (n = 1,359). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to OXT, rs4813625 and rs2770378, were genotyped. Social anxiety and perceived parenting style were assessed by behavioral questionnaires. In interaction models adjusted for sex, significant interaction effects with parenting style were observed for both variants in relation to social anxiety. The nature of the interactions was in line with the differential susceptibility framework for rs4813625, whereas for rs2770378 the results indicated a diathesis–stress type of interaction. The findings may be interpreted from the perspective of the social salience hypothesis of oxytocin, with rs4813625 affecting social anxiety levels along a perceived unsafe–safe social context dimension.

  • 49.
    Oreland, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Hallman, Jarmila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Nilsson, Kent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Epistatic Effects of Bdnf, 5Httlpr and Maoa in Interaction with Environmental Adversity on Adolescent Criminality2013In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 28, no S1, p. 1022-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Oreland, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hallman, Jarmila
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. psykiatri, UAS.
    Nilsson, Kent
    Harro, Jaanus
    Behavior, Sex, Genes, Environment and Personality/Behavior - Association studies in Humans2007In: World Congress of World association for Social Psychiatry (WASP), Prague Oct 21-24, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
12 1 - 50 of 77
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