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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska högskola.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Next Generation e-Researchers: Doctoral Students in Social Sciences and Humanities in Sweden and their Attitudes towards Open Access, Open Repositories and e-Research2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish research politics there are, at the moment, several actions taken to enhance existing and develop new research infrastructures (Axelsson and Schroeder 2007). As one example, the Swedish National Data Service (SND, http://www.snd.gu.se), an operative key actor, is currently working on coordinating existing data resources and increasing deposition of research data to the national data service and re-use of those data. SND has, as a part of this endeavour, recently conducted two survey studies, targeted at professors (N=549) and doctoral students within social sciences and humanities departments (N=1147) at Swedish universities and university colleges, in order to obtain knowledge regarding existing use and re-use of digital research data and archiving practices as well as obstacles to increased digital research data sharing. This paper focuses on the doctoral students’ data and the results are compared with the results from the parallel study of the professors and from a recent survey targeted at professors in various social sciences and humanities disciplines at Finnish universities (Kuula and Borg, 2008). The results from the current study show that doctoral students in general expressed a great uncertainty about questions of amounts of reusable digital data and effective interventions to enhance accessibility to digital research data. They identify research ethics as an important barrier to sharing digital research data, while professors emphasize lack of resources for researchers to document and make their data accessible to others as the most important obstacle. Concerning interventions to enhancing re-use of digital data, the majority of the doctoral students and the professors thought it should be effective to receive more information about accessible research data in data archives or databases. Nearly 100 % in both groups reported that also more of training in research methods, digital research databases and information about accessible e-tools would be effective interventions. The most effective interventions for enhancing accessibility to digital data were reported in terms of that research grants should include funds for preparing the data for sharing and archiving and that archiving data for use by the scientific community is acknowledged as a scientific merit. Surprisingly, when it comes to the degree of urgency in sharing their own data, the professors seem to be a bit more eager to share data than the doctoral students.

  • 2.
    Börjesson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Bertilsson, Emil
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Broady, Donald
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Studies in Education, Culture and Media.
    Examenstitlar och yrkestitlar: Förhållande mellan arbetsmarknad och utbildningssystem 1960-2010. Exemplen vård, utbildning, teknik och naturvetenskap samt konst2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Defining dimensions of family-oriented services in early childhood intervention2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 185-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine process dimensions in a model regarding family-oriented services in early childhood intervention. The purpose was to capture a broad picture of Swedish habilitation services from a professional point of view. Professionals in habilitation from different parts of Sweden participated (n-237). A hypothesized model was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling procedures. The resulting hierarchical model had two main dimensions, the first having to do with relationships, and the second concerning involvement/information-exchange. The process of intervention comprises efforts in building relationships, enhancing effective information exchange between parents and professionals, and finding different ways of involving parents/families. The findings of this study call for multiple perspectives in order to work effectively in a family-oriented way, and they also call for a distinction between relational and participatory elements when referring to family- oriented services.

  • 4.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dropouts and pursuers from the teacher programs – a local study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation summarizes and discusses results from a survey in 2013 directed to students who dropped out from the Teacher program at Uppsala University. Students from two cohorts were included in the study (students which started their studies in the fall 2006 and in the fall 2011). From the population of 366 students, 181 completed questionnaires were returned, which corresponds to a response rate of 49 %. However, it was clear that 30 % already had completed the teacher program, but not yet had ordered their diploma officially. 9 % had graduated from another program. In total the dropout rate was 42 % in the 2011 cohort and 50 % in cohort 2006, based on administrative registration data from the university. But, by taking the new information in account from the survey, the dropout rate from cohort 2006 could be reduced to 37 %. The main reasons for dropping out were; 1.realizing that they had made a wrong choice of professional education (38 %) and 2. that they had got behindhand in their studies (25 %), 3. They were uncertain about their choice when they applied for admission (25 %), 4. Low quality on teaching in the program (20 %), 5. Not motivated/tired of studying (20 %) and 6. Lack of more help in students counselling or better teaching (20 %). Paper only available in Swedish

  • 5.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring pathways in university education2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to analyse enrollment patterns among students in seven first-cycle study programmes with professional qualifications using microdata from Statistics Sweden. The study programmes were for the years 2001-2002 in Architecture, Medicine, Nursing, Law, Social work, Psychology and Engineering (n=15,749). Using the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology, the enrollment patterns were analysed with Specific Multiple Correspondence Analysis. The results showed that the most important factors that  account for differences between coherent intensive and scattered extensive enrollment patterns were study programmes, gender, mother’s socioeconomic index, parents’ educational level, and type of university. Other notable factors in deviation were grades, student’s nation of birth, and parents’ nations of birth, father’s socioeconomic index, parents’ work sectors, and preparatory studies in municipal adult education.

    Regarding efficiency in earning credits, the most important factors were study programme and type of university. Other important factors were gender, study programmes, grades, student’s nation of birth, mother’s nation of birth, preparatory studies in municipal adult education, income, and parents’ work sectors. The factors most important for graduation pursuing were gender and type of university. Other factors that were important were study programme, grades, income, parents’ work sectors, student’s nation of birth, and parents’ nations of birth.

  • 6.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring pathways in university education - study patterns among students in undergraduate programs with professional qualifications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper summarises an analysis of study patterns among students at university in Sweden. The study is using a database, built on retrievals from national official register data from Statistics Sweden SCB (micro data, individual level of statistics). Students enrolled in seven first-cycle study programs with professional qualifications are included such as Architecture, Medicine, Nursing, Psychology, Law, Social work and Engineering (n=27999). Two academic year cohorts are included 1993/94, 2001/02. The data covers individual student enrolment such as: registries on freestanding courses and programs with professional qualifications, dropouts, pauses and length of pauses in studies, earned HE credits, mobility between different types of universities etc. Other information about age, sex, income, family situation/parenthood, parents’ occupations and educations, ethnic background, grades from upper secondary school, further qualification test during their studies (national university aptitude test) and graduation certificate, have also been used. The theoretical framework is based on Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology and the analysing methods are Geometric data analysis especially Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Euclidian Clustering. In the analysis administrative data has carefully been coded into variable that enables analysis of intersections between class, ethnicity, age and gender in relation to students’ pathways within and from the university system.

  • 7.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Familjebakgrund avgör strategi för högre studier: Det sociala rummet av utbildningsstrategier2016In: Resultatdialog 2016 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2016, p. 28-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mål Ett övergripande mål för projektet ”Grusade förhoppningar eller lyckade nyorienteringar. Högskolestuderandes ändrade studieplaner och avhopp inom högre utbildning 1977 – 2007” har varit att undersöka mönster i högskolestuderandes studievägar. Fokus har varit på ett antal yrkesprogram och de studenter som ändrar inriktning eller avbryter sina högskolestudier i förtid. Ett viktigt område att undersöka har varit studiemönstrens karaktär och frekvens, dvs. hur vanligt det är med olika typer av kursändringar och avhopp inom olika yrkesutbildningar samt hur dessa kan relateras till studenter med olika bakgrund eller andra strukturella faktorer.

    I tre delstudier har projektets mål brutits ned till följande delmål: 1) att få kunskap om antagningsmönster, effektivitet och genomströmning inom ett knippe svenska yrkesprogram samt hur dessa mönster kan relateras till studenters sociala, ekonomiska och kulturella resurser; 2) att få kunskap om såväl riskfaktorer som skyddande faktorer avseende studieavbrott inom lärarutbildning samt om studenters perspektiv på att vara eftersläntrare och slutligen 3) att kritiskt undersöka hur statistik om avhopp och genomströmning är uppbyggd och om vad som händer med den vetenskapliga kunskapsproduktionen inom forskningsområdet kring genomströmning och avhopp inom högre utbildning när forskare använder internationell statistik som skapats i uppföljningssyfte för europeisk politik. I denna rapport fokuseras resultat från den första delstudien.

    Resultat i korthet

    • Högskolestudenters studiemönster skiljer sig åt i intensitet, effektivitet och genomförande. Två huvudtyper har identifierats: ett sammanhållet intensivt studiemönster respektive ett utspritt extensivt studiemönster. Till dessa mönster hör två ytterligare dimensioner rörande hög och låg effektivitet samt grad av examensbenägenhet.

    • Studiemönstren var främst beroende av; typ av utbildningsprogram och lärosäte samt av föräldrars socioekonomiska status och utbildningsnivå. Andra viktiga faktorer var kön, gymnasiebetyg, deltagande i studier på Komvux, inkomst, studenters och föräldrars födelseland samt föräldrars yrkessektor.

    • Studenter vars föräldrar har låg utbildningsnivå börjar högskolestudier senare, har ofta egen familj och läser sin utbildning koncentrerat inom ett utbildningsområde utan pauser – ett så kallat sammanhållet intensivt studiemönster.

    • Studenter vars föräldrar har hög utbildningsnivå använder högskolan friare och mer, dvs. de väljer längre utbildningar, men tar också pauser över både en och flera terminer från den utbildning man är antagen på och rör sig över flera utbildningsområden. Denna utbildningsstrategi kallas ett utspritt och extensivt studiemönster. Detta mönster är också vanligare hos studenter som påbörjar högskolestudier tidigt och som har höga eller medelhöga betyg.

  • 8.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fält, habitus och kapital som kompletterande redskap i professionsforskning2011In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, no 4, p. 283-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore how Bourdieu’s perspective can contribute to the field of research on professions. A comparison was made between Bourdieu’s perspective and Andrew Abbott’s work The System of Professions, which was chosen as a reference and a representation of sociology of professions. A specific issue was to be answered: what in particular can Bourdieu’s perspective contribute with and how could it complement theory of professions. In sum, between Abbott and Bourdieu there are interesting parallels; the conflict perspectives, relational thinking, emphasis on empirical research starting with rather “loose” definitions, concepts as frameworks which needs to be filled empirically in order to reach full potential and meaning, knowledge as a legitimizing resource and split between practical knowledge and academic knowledge, cultural and (legal) legitimacy of authority, image making and ideology production and an inclination to emphasize structural agency. The comparison also revealed some differences in their focus on; the significance of socioeconomic stratification and reproduction, boundaries and core areas; symbolic and cultural assumptions on social practice, agents in formation of a field vs. a system, and finally on the detail contributions on professional activity on tasks. Bourdieu’s particular contribution lies mainly on the mechanisms of socialization and reproduction to the fields and decomposition of the concepts of class and professions, which means a broader and more profound understanding on relations of dominance and their social and cultural rudiments.

  • 9.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Graveled Expectations or Successful Reorientations?: Switchers and Dropouts in Higher Education in Sweden 1977-20072011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project is to study patterns in higher education with special attention to students who dropout or switch to another program/discipline. Different types and frequencies of dropouts and switches during 1977-2007 are studied using data from retrievals from national official register data (microdata, individual level of statistics). Special attention is towards the programs in Architecture, Engineering, Nursing, Physical therapist, Teaching, Social service, Medicine and Clinical Psychology and the dropouts students’ occupation/working life are also studied. A follow-up questionnaire complements the register data, whereas dropout-students reasons to dropout/switching educational program or discipline are scrutinized. The theoretical framework is mainly Pierre Bourdieu’s work on social reproduction and geometric data analysis is used as a main method, and in addition other regression analysis methods. Factors as socioeconomic, residential, gender and ethnicity, living conditions, grades, family educational traditions will be related to the types of dropouts/switches and different programs. The study is highly relevant for education policy agents and the research field in sociology of education, due to its focus on the types of functions and (non-)benefits of higher education for students. It is a systematic study of dropout patterns in higher education that has not been researched systematically earlier, especially not with a quite unique focus; self-reported data from dropout students connected to register data, thus fulfilling an important need.

  • 10.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Medicinens lyskraft och skuggor: ― om trosföreställningar och symbolisk makt i habiliteringen 1960―19802007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation examines the formation of specific groups, their interests and positions related to children with disabilities and their education and care in Sweden developed during 1960―1980. The theoretical framework is based on Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological theory of social space, which assumes that social life is based on symbolic and cultural systems of beliefs with respectively specific doxas and symbolic economies. Consequently, the analysis has focused on the agents’ position-takings and their struggle for recognition and preferential rights of interpretations.

    The reconstruction of a “habilitation sphere” was conducted through agents, their positions of interests and position-takings as analytical tools. The positions were mainly reconstructed on articles in journals of 10 professional organizations covering 6 occupations and 4 disability organizations. The occupational groups were paediatric doctors/child psychiatrists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers, psychologists and pre-school teachers. The other positions were related to the county council union, four disability organizations (DHR, FUB, RBU and HCK), two of which were parent organizations and in addition, the research field of social medicine. Other materials were e.g. reports of commissions of inquiry. In order to explore the social foundations of the occupational positions, materials from archives have been used.

    The conclusion shows the significance of: a) historical structures related to the exceptional position of medicine in society, the development of the Swedish health care system in general and the organizations of “special” children b) commissions of inquiry as consecration authorities and processes of social mobilization, both important contributions in shaping symbolic economies, c) myths and ideologies in the exercising of symbolic power, d) alliances between the state and medicine, and between occupational groups and clients. The analysis also shows the strengths of the doxas which could work as a shield for the agents but also as obstacles for external agents when entering the habilitation sphere.

  • 11.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Pioneers, renegades and heretics2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    My paper in honour of professor emeritus Staf Callewaert is based on my dissertation Medicinens lyskraft och skuggor. (The glow and shadows of the Medicine). The dissertation examines, with a framework of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology, the formation of specific groups, their interests and positions related to children with disabilities and their education and care in Sweden developed during 1960―1980. The paper focuses one finding in the dissertation which was quite surprising and it is probably the most important conclusion. It was the impressive strength and power of the social space and its opportunities to be a “shield” for its agents. By leaving the "home-field" and work in another, one could got “out in the cold”. This “structural gap” could mean that the pioneers in “new areas” in other fields were treated by their former colleagues as renegades or as pariahs, which had themselves to blame if they experienced difficulties. Consequently, leaving the “home-field" mean loosing a particular esteem from the eyes of the dominant positions in one’s own field as a deserter. But it is also a matter of obstinacy expressed by pioneers, renegades and heretics who wouldn't subordinate themselves to the dominant doxa.My contribution to the anthology in honour of professor emeritus Staf Callewaert is based on my dissertation Medicinens lyskraft och skuggor. (The glow and shadows of the Medicine). The dissertation examines, with a framework of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology, the formation of specific groups, their interests and positions related to children with disabilities and their education and care in Sweden developed during 1960―1980. The text in the anthology focuses one finding in the dissertation which was quite surprising and it is probably the most important conclusion. It was the impressive strength and power of the social space and its opportunities to be a “shield” for its agents. By leaving the "home-field" and work in another, one could got “out in the cold”. This “structural gap” could mean that the pioneers in “new areas” in other fields were treated by their former colleagues as renegades or as pariahs, which had themselves to blame if they experienced difficulties. Consequently, leaving the “home-field" mean loosing a particular esteem from the eyes of the dominant positions in one’s own field as a deserter. But it is also a matter of obstinacy expressed by pioneers, renegades and heretics who wouldn't subordinate themselves to the dominant doxa.

  • 12.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Pionjärer, avfällingar och kättare2008In: At sætte spor på en vandring fra Aquinas til Bourdieu: - æresbog til Staf Callewaert. / [ed] Petersen, Karin Anna, Köpenhamn: Hexis Forlag , 2008, 1, p. 257-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I min studie har glappet mellan doxa och praktik belysts med bl.a. exempel från sjukgymnaster, förskollärare, socionomer och psykologer som var utbildade inom andra fält, men som var verksamma inom andra fält. De fick med andra ord inte erkännande för sitt symboliska kapital eftersom det inte värderades efter ”hemmaplanens regler”, det tycktes heller inte vara lönsamt att kombinera symboliskt kapital från olika fält. Detta har inneburit att dessa pionjärer, avfällingar eller kättare genom det strukturella glappet fått en särskilt symboliskt svag ingångsposition i både det rum de lämnar och det rum de träder in i. I min läsning av artiklarna och eventuella responser tycktes dessa pionjärer ropa ut sina visioner, önskemål och krav i ett rum där ingen ville lyssna eller svara. Detta tycktes skapa en parialiknande situation där ”avfällingen” som valde att lämna sitt fält, fick skylla sig själv. Det fanns med andra ord inget kollektivt stöd för kollegor som verkade inom andra fält än det egna, särskilt inte om det gick dåligt för ”pionjärerna”. Motståndet från båda sfärerna visar också att det inte lönade sig att kombinera symboliskt kapital från olika fält. Detta visade framförallt sig lönemässigt. har glappet mellan doxa och praktik belysts med exempel från sjukgymnaster, förskollärare, socionomer och psykologer som var utbildade inom andra fält, men som var verksamma inom andra fält. De fick med andra ord inte erkännande för sitt symboliska kapital eftersom det inte värderades efter ”hemmaplanens regler”, det tycktes heller inte vara lönsamt att kombinera symboliskt kapital från olika fält. Detta har inneburit att dessa pionjärer, avfällingar eller kättare genom det strukturella glappet fått en särskilt symboliskt svag ingångsposition i både det rum de lämnar och det rum de träder in i. I min läsning av artiklarna och eventuella responser tycktes dessa pionjärer ropa ut sina visioner, önskemål och krav i ett rum där ingen ville lyssna eller svara. Detta tycktes skapa en parialiknande situation där ”avfällingen” som valde att lämna sitt fält, fick skylla sig själv. Det fanns med andra ord inget kollektivt stöd för kollegor som verkade inom andra fält än det egna, särskilt inte om det gick dåligt för ”pionjärerna”. Motståndet från båda sfärerna visar också att det inte lönade sig att kombinera symboliskt kapital från olika fält. Detta visade framförallt sig lönemässigt.

  • 13.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Professioner i sociala fält: att använda fältbegreppet i professionsforskning2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Professionsforskning är ett intressant område och lockar många forskare från olika discipliner vilket också innebär en mångfald av inriktningar, teoretiska begreppsapparater och motiv. I konferensbidraget diskuteras Pierre Bourdieus fältbegrepp och hur det kan användas inom professionsforskning. Den ger en kortfattad beskrivning av fältbegreppet och de empiriska exemplen är hämtade från yrkesgrupper som läkare, socionomer, psykologer, förskollärare, arbetsterapeuter och sjukgymnaster främst från en studie av hur habiliteringen växte fram under 1960-1970 och hur fraktioner av dessa yrkesgrupper formerade sig inom detta subfält till medicinen (Carlhed 2007). Bidraget diskuterar också vilka implikationer fältteorin har för professionsforskning avseende hur man gör definierar sitt forskningsobjekt, olika slags fältanalyser, urval av agenter och empiriskt material, hur man hanterar "staten" och styrning och kontroll, hur fältets gränser förstås, heterogenitet inom yrkesgruppen, relation mellan diskurs och social struktur samt olika sätt att analysera. I texten diskuteras också forskares sätt att använda begrepp, i term av inspiration och vad det innebär för stringensen i analyser. Avslutningsvis diskuteras också fältbegreppet i relation till andra frekvent använda begrepp inom professionsforskning.

  • 14.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pursuers, Dropouts and Transfers: Educational strategies within the Teacher Programmes.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Resistances to scientific knowledge production of comparative measurements of dropout and completion in European higher education2017In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 386-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is a critical sociological analysis of current transnational practices on creating comparable measurements of dropout and completion in higher education and the consequences for the conditions of scientific knowledge production on the topic. The analysis revolves around questions of epistemological, methodological and symbolic types and, in particular, how the social processes in the creation and use of different measures offer researchers different positions in the knowledge production. Descriptions of statistics and measurements from statistics agencies in Sweden and the UK and from the OECD, EUROSTAT and Eurydice, as well as policy texts and data collection manuals from European Union bodies, have been compared and analysed. Particular interest is directed towards examples of measures used in Sweden and the UK. The results suggest that available data on student completion offers only a very limited basis for researchdriven comparative analysis. It offers also a problematisation of the notions of researchers seen as users or producers of data and different position takings in statistical reasoning in using statistics as for example different types of evidence for policymaking.

  • 16.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Social processes in the rise of the hegemonic medicine in Sweden: hinges and avatars in question2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a sketch of an analysis of one branch in the field of medicine, namely the hegemonic medicine and its core profession – the physicians, and their subordinates – nurses and biomedical scientists. The analysis, is underpinned by historical studies (mainly secondary data) and departures from the state formation process in Sweden in the 1500’s to the 1990’s and revolves around; the development of a medical science and professional knowledge as a legitimizing resource as well as paradigmatic and cognitive elements in nosologies, professionalization strategies and jurisdictional claims/conflicts/solutions. As an overarching frame these processes are analyzed in relation to the progressing, expanding and differentiating health care system and state administration structures. The social, political, technical, historical and economic aspects forms a web of conditions for the rise of the field of medicine as a whole, but also differentiating conditions for branches in medicine, where some was more successful in their professionalization strivings than others. The sociological tools used in modeling the field structure emanates from Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology, which are supplemented with Andrew Abbotts conceptual framework i.e. concepts of jurisdiction and cognitive strategies. A reconstruction of four periods is done; 1) The rise of the state medicine and the pre-professional era 1600-1850 2) The biomedical paradigmatic shift 1860-1920, 3) The golden age and effects of rationalization 1930-1960 4) The diminishing welfare state and the growing market 1960-1990. These phases roughly correspond to periods of: 1) Establishment of a field, 2) Qualitative, or cognitive, take-off, 3) Quantitative take-off and cultural hegemony, 4) Subordination to external governance; loss of autonomy. The aim of this paper is to raise and advance some themes emanating from the first-step analysis through a focused discussion about the social processes in the establishment of a hegemonic medicine, the qualities of professional knowledge and in particular how the processes involve relations to the state, universities and external forces of the rationalization movement and as well as intra professional processes of professionalization and specialization. Due to limited space in the paper format and to the historical data used in the first step analysis I will focus on the medicine as a separate social space and on the dominant and earliest professional actor – the doctors. The time span discussed is very long but stretches to 1990’s in general (however with less detail the closer to contemporary time and some passages even into 2000’s). The conceptual tools mainly used in this paper are based in Andrew Abbotts’ framework of linked ecologies, hinges and avatars.

  • 17.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Studiemönster och avhopp inom högskolan. Sju yrkesprogram i fokus.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Presentationen utgår från ett pågående forskningsprojekt om studiemönster och avhopp inom högskolan. Resultat presenteras från en delstudie som omfattar arkitekt-, civilingenjörs-, jurist-, sjuksköterske-, socionom-, läkar-, och psykologprogrammen från kohorten för läsåret 2001/02 och som omfattar 15 749 studenter i hela landet. Multivariata analyser har gjorts utifrån registerdata på indvidnivå från Statistiska Centralbyrån. Studien utgår från utbildningssociologisk teori samt intersektionell teori. Resultaten visar på förekomsten av ett antal studiemönster som relaterar sig till olika polariseringar som a) koherent/intensivt vs. utspritt/extensivt studiemönster, b) hög effektivitet vs. låg effektivitet samt c) examensbenägenhet vs. ej examensbenägenhet. Dessa mönster kan i mycket hög grad knytas till lärosäte, typ av utbildning, föräldrars utbildningsbakgrund och socioekonomisk status samt kön. Det finns även andra bidragande faktorer som kan förklara dessa mönster så som, betyg, födelseland, föräldrars yrkessektor, komvuxstudier och inkomst. Resultaten perspektiveras med hjälp av begreppet mobilitet, t.ex. i termer av social/kulturell mobilitet, geografisk/spatial mobilitet, systemisk mobilitet samt temporal mobilitet. Fokus ligger på de materiella, fysiska, sociala samt kulturella hindren för mobilitet. Mobilitet diskuteras också i relation till det neoliberala individualiseringsprojektet.

  • 18.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    The glow and shadows of Medicine2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation focuses the formation of specific groups, their interests and positions related to children with disabilities and their education and care in Sweden developed during 1960-1980. The theoretical framework is based on Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological theory of social space, which assumes that social life is based on symbolic and cultural systems of beliefs with respectively specific doxas and symbolic economies. Consequently, the analysis has focused on the agents’ position-takings and their struggle for recognition and preferential rights of interpretations.

    The reconstruction of a “habilitation sphere” was conducted through agents, their positions of interests and position-takings as analytical tools. The positions were mainly reconstructed on articles in journals of 10 professional organizations covering 6 occupations and 4 disability organizations. The occupational groups were paediatric doctors/child psychiatrists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers, psychologists and pre-school teachers. The other positions were related to the county council union, four disability organizations (DHR, FUB, RBU and HCK), two of which were parent organizations and in addition, the research field of social medicine. Other materials were e.g. reports of commissions of inquiry. In order to explore the social foundations of the occupational positions, materials from archives have been used.

    The conclusion shows the significance of: a) historical structures related to the exceptional position of medicine in society, the development of the Swedish health care system in general and the organizations of “special” children, b) commissions of inquiry as consecration authorities and processes of social mobilization, both important contributions in shaping symbolic economies, c) myths and ideologies in the exercising of symbolic power, d) alliances between the state and medicine, and between occupational groups and clients. The analysis also shows the strengths of the doxas which could work as a shield for the agents but also as obstacles for external agents when entering the habilitation sphere.

  • 19.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The rise of the professional field of Health and its hegemony : – doctors, nurses and biomedical analysts in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a synopsis of an analysis within a theoretical framework of sociology of professions on the rise of the professional field of Health in Sweden. The study is a part of large scale comparative case study with cases from six professional fields and 18 occupations using mainly secondary data.

    The paper presents a synopsis of an analysis of one branch in the field of health, namely the legitimate medicine and its core profession – the physicians, and some of their subordinates – nurses and biomedical scientists. The narrative of the rise of the field of health and the legitimate medicine in Sweden is underpinned by historical studies (mainly secondary data) and departures from the state formation process in Sweden in the 1500’s into the neoliberal state of today. The analysis revolved around; the development of a specific medical science and specific professional knowledge as a legitimizing resource as well as paradigmatic and cognitive elements in nosologies, professionalization strategies and jurisdictional claims, conflicts and solutions. As an overarching frame these processes are analyzed in relation to the progressing, expanding and differentiating health care system and state administration structures. The social, political, technical, historical and economic aspects forms a web of conditions for the rise of the field of medicine as a whole, but also differentiating conditions for branches in medicine, whereas some was more successful in their professionalization strivings than others such as the legitimate medicine or in other words the biomedical body medicine. The study is a part of a large research project Carriers of Knowledge Society: A Study of the Historical Emergence and Contemporary Importance of the Swedish Professions founded by The Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet), which is a large scale comparative case study of 18 occupations within six professionals fields, in terms of a structured, focused, comparative case-study (George and Bennet 2005). The fields are Health, Social control, Social integration, Education, Academia and Technology, each field have three occupations from different generations of professions (classical, semi- and pre-professions, see Brante 2010) and are analyzed by a number of shared clusters of questions.

    A reconstruction of four periods was done; 1) The rise of the state medicine and the pre-professional era 1600-1850’s 2) The biomedical paradigmatic shift 1860-1920’s, 3) The professional golden age and emerging effects of rationalization 1930-1960’s 4) The withering welfare state and challenges to professionalism 1970-2000’s. These phases roughly correspond to periods of: 1) Establishment of a field, 2) Qualitative, or cognitive, take-off, 3) Quantitative take-off and cultural hegemony, 4) Subordination to external governance; loss of autonomy and transformation of professionalism. The time span in question is extensive but stretches into the 1990’s in general and some passages even into 2010’s. Due to limited space in the article format nurses and biomedical analysts will be discussed in relation to state interventions in shaping new jurisdictions and in general with less detail than the medical profession. The analysis is a reconstruction of the development of a specific medical science and professional knowledge as legitimizing resources, professionalization strategies and jurisdictional claims, conflicts and solutions. It also entails analysis of paradigmatic and cognitive elements in professional knowledge system. These processes are analyzed in relation to the organization of the health care system and state administration structures from the 16th century to present time. Broadly, the analysis shows a close relation to the peak of professionalism in the field of Health to the culmination of the prosperity of the welfare state.

  • 20.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Rise of the Professional Field of Medicine in Sweden2013In: Professions & Professionalism, ISSN 1893-1049, E-ISSN 1893-1049, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 562-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an analysis of conditions enabling the rise of the professional field of medicine in Sweden. The analysis is based mainly on second- ary data, while the use of primary data is restricted to official statistics. Primarily, it aims to study the conditions promoting professionalization in medicine. Important exogenous conditions were derived from early emerging nation state administration structures concerning policy and governance of public health, as well as a delegated supervision of professional health activities to the medical profession and the organization of a public national health care system. Professionalization strategies such as social organization of the medical profession and their use of a variety of legitimizing resources as tools for jurisdictional claims are considered as endogenous conditions. Broadly, the analysis shows a close relationship between the growth of professionalization in the field of medicine and the development of state prosperity in the Swedish welfare state. 

  • 21.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala Univ, Dept Educ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Social Space of Educational Strategies: Exploring Patterns of Enrolment, Efficiency and Completion among Swedish Students in Undergraduate Programmes with Professional Qualifications2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 503-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyse enrolment patterns, and study efficiency and completion among students in programmes with professional qualifications, using microdata from Statistics Sweden. The programmes were Architecture, Medicine, Nursing, Law, Social work, Psychology, andEngineering (year 2001-2002,n=15,918). Using the concepts from Bourdieu's sociology, data was analysed with Specific Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Different patterns emerged and were constructed as different dimensions of the social space of educational strategies in higher education, patterns of enrolment, efficiency, and completion. The students' relative positions in the social structure were analysed by the type and amount of their cultural capital. The most important factors for differences between coherent intensive and scattered extensive enrolment patterns were programmes, gender, mother's socioeconomic index, parents' education, and type of university. Regarding efficiency, the most important factors were programme and type of university. The factors most important for graduation were gender and type of university.

  • 22.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Social Space of Educational Strategies: Exploring Patterns of Enrolment, Efficiency and Completion among Swedish Students in Undergraduate Programmes with Professional Qualifications2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, article id 1172496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyse enrolment patterns, and study efficiency and completion among students in programmes with professional qualifications, using microdata from Statistics Sweden. The programmes were Architecture, Medicine, Nursing, Law, Social work, Psychology and Engineering (year 2001–2002, n=15,918). Using the concepts from Bourdieu’s sociology, data was analysed with Specific Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Different patterns emerged and were constructed as different dimensions of the social space of educational strategies in higher education, patterns of enrolment, efficiency and completion. The students’ relative positions in the social structure were analysed by the type and amount of their cultural capital. The most important factors for differences between coherent intensive and scattered extensive enrolment patterns were programmes, gender, mother’s socioeconomic index, parents’ education, and type of university. Regarding efficiency, the most important factors were programme and type of university. The factors most important for graduation were gender and type of university.

  • 23.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Social Space of Educational Strategies: Exploring Patterns of Enrolment, Efficiency and Completion among Swedish Students in Undergraduate Programmes with Professional QualificationsIn: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyse enrolment patterns, and study efficiency and completion among students in programmes with professional qualifications, using microdata from Statistics Sweden. The programmes were Architecture, Medicine, Nursing, Law, Social work, Psychology and Engineering (year 2001–2002, n=15,918). Using the concepts from Bourdieu’s sociology, data was analysed with Specific Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Different patterns emerged and were constructed as different dimensions of the social space of educational strategies in higher education, patterns of enrolment, efficiency and completion. The students’ relative positions in the social structure were analysed by the type and amount of their cultural capital. The most important factors for differences between coherent intensive and scattered extensive enrolment patterns were programmes, gender, mother’s socioeconomic index, parents’ education, and type of university. Regarding efficiency, the most important factors were programme and type of university. The factors most important for graduation were gender and type of university

  • 24.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Vart leder kvalitetstrappan?: utvärdering av Pysslingens Kvalitetssystem2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras slutredovisningen av en utvärdering av en modell för självutvärdering, Pysslingens Kvalitetssystem. Modellen har utvecklats och används av Pysslingen Förskolor och skolor AB, ett företag som startades i slutet av 1983 och blev det första att bedriva privat barnomsorg i Sverige på 1980-talet. Idag driver företaget 76 förskolor/skolor, fördelat på 57 förskolor och 19 skolor.

    Utvärderingen har skett genom intervjuer med ledningen, fördjupade fallstudier av enheter, enkät riktad till samtliga enhetschefer, pedagogiska rådgivare samt pedagoger. Utvärderargruppen kommer fram till att det finns klara styrkor med modellen som t.ex. att den bidrar till en stark kultursocialisation i Pysslingkulturen och att det är ett processverktyg för ständiga förbättringar. Det finns också svagheter som diskuteras i rapporten. Ett exempel är att syftet med Kvalitetstrappan är oklart och för vem den är till för. Det omtalade ”friutrymmet” har blivit ett oklart område, där ”eventuella” jämförelser och mätningar inte har en klar måttstock. Det är viktigt i fortsättningen att på ett ännu mer genomtänkt vis arbeta igenom organisationen efter genomsyrandeprincipen som kulturmetafor – till en än mer koherent logik än idag.

  • 25.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vid den normala studietaktens utkanter: Analyser av studieavbrott på lärarutbildningar vid Uppsala universitet2015Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Carlhed, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Alfredsson, Iris
    Svensk Nationell Datatjänst, Göteborgs universitet.
    Swedish National Data Service's Strategy for Sharing and Mediating Data. Practices of Open Access to and Reuse of Research.2009In: IASSIST QUARTERLY, ISSN ISSN 0739-1137, Vol. 32, no 1-4, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins with a description of the current key actors in Sweden, which are promoting research infrastructure and accessibility to research data, put into context. The Swedish National Data Service’s (SND) organization, mission and strategy to promote data sharing is also described. SND’s strategy is a combination of top-down and bottom-up activities. An example of a top-down activity is to influence research financiers to put higher demands on future open access data when completion of studies or to to support researchers through the whole research process by providing guidelines on ethical and legal issues. Examples of bottom-up activities are to be present in different research contexts and to inform about the benefits of sharing data. One example of this is a joint project with SND and four university libraries. SND has conducted a national inventory survey, initiated in the fall of 2008, of existing databases and database research as well as attitudes towards data sharing among researchers and university managements within Social Sciences and Humanities departments at Swedish universities and university colleges. In addition, to the inventory process, two survey studies have been carried out in the spring 2009, one targeting professors and the other doctoral students in the same domains of disciplines at Swedish universities and university colleges. The questionnaire contained 80 items covering the researchers’ affiliations, domain of discipline, gender, age, familiarities with research policies and ventures, and use, re-use, archiving practices of digital research data. Furthermore, there were questions about possible reasons for not using digital data, interventions and barriers to enhanced re-use and accessibility to data, possible agents in overcoming barriers and willingness to engage in promote alternations in this area and to share their digital research data. The surveys were carried out through email-questionnaires sent to professors (N=549) and doctoral students (N=1147). The results from the surveys show that doctoral students in general expressed a great uncertainty about questions of amounts of reusable digital data and effective interventions to enhance accessibility to digital research data. They identifies research ethical aspects as important barriers to sharing digital research data, while professors emphasize lack of resources for researchers to document and make their data accessible for others as the most important obstacle. Concerning interventions to enhancing reuse of digital data, the majority of the doctoral students and the professors thought it should be effective to get more information about accessible research data in data archives or databases. Nearly 100 % in both groups reported that also more of training in research methods, digital research databases and information about accessible e-tools would be effective interventions. The most effective interventions for enhancing accessibility to digital data were reported in terms of that research grants should include funds for preparing the data for sharing and archiving and that archiving data for the use by the scientific community is acknowledged to be scientific merit. Surprisingly, when it comes to the degree of urgency in sharing their own data, the professors seem to be a bit more eager to share data than the doctoral students. The results are compared with the results from the parallel study of the professors and from a recent survey targeted at professors in various Social Sciences and Humanities disciplines at Finnish universities (Kuula and Borg, 2008).

  • 27.
    Carlhed, Carina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Alfredsson, Iris
    Svensk Nationell Datatjänst, Göteborgs universitet.
    Swedish National Data Service's Strategy for Sharing and Mediating Data: Practices of Open Access to and Reuse of Research Data – The State of the Art in Sweden 20092009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins with a description of the current key actors in Sweden, which are promoting research infrastructure and accessibility to research data, put into context. The Swedish National Data Service’s (SND) organization, mission and strategy to promote data sharing is also described. SND’s strategy is a combination of top-down and bottom-up activities. An example of a top-down activity is to influence research financiers to put higher demands on future open access data when completion of studies or to to support researchers through the whole research process by providing guidelines on ethical and legal issues. Examples of bottom-up activities are to be present in different research contexts and to inform about the benefits of sharing data. One example of this is a joint project with SND and four university libraries. SND has conducted a national inventory survey, initiated in the fall of 2008, of existing databases and database research as well as attitudes towards data sharing among researchers and university managements within Social Sciences and Humanities departments at Swedish universities and university colleges.

    In addition, to the inventory process, two survey studies have been carried out in the spring 2009, one targeting professors and the other doctoral students in the same domains of disciplines at Swedish universities and university colleges. The questionnaire contained 80 items covering the researchers’ affiliations, domain of discipline, gender, age, familiarities with research policies and ventures, and use, re-use, archiving practices of digital research data. Furthermore, there were questions about possible reasons for not using digital data, interventions and barriers to enhanced re-use and accessibility to data, possible agents in overcoming barriers and willingness to engage in promote alternations in this area and to share their digital research data. The surveys were carried out through email-questionnaires sent to professors (N=549) and doctoral students (N=1147). The results from the surveys show that doctoral students in general expressed a great uncertainty about questions of amounts of reusable digital data and effective interventions to enhance accessibility to digital research data. They identifies research ethical aspects as important barriers to sharing digital research data, while professors emphasize lack of resources for researchers to document and make their data accessible for others as the most important obstacle. Concerning interventions to enhancing reuse of digital data, the majority of the doctoral students and the professors thought it should be effective to get more information about accessible research data in data archives or databases. Nearly 100 % in both groups reported that also more of training in research methods, digital research databases and information about accessible e-tools would be effective interventions. The most effective interventions for enhancing accessibility to digital data were reported in terms of that research grants should include funds for preparing the data for sharing and archiving and that archiving data for the use by the scientific community is acknowledged to be scientific merit. Surprisingly, when it comes to the degree of urgency in sharing their own data, the professors seem to be a bit more eager to share data than the doctoral students. The results are compared with the results from the parallel study of the professors and from a recent survey targeted at professors in various Social Sciences and Humanities disciplines at Finnish universities (Kuula and Borg, 2008).

  • 28.
    Carlhed, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Parent perspectives on early intervention: The paradox of needs and rights2003In: British Journal of Developmental Disabilities, ISSN ISSN 0969-7950, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe conceptions of support in early intervention in Sweden, as perceived by parents to young children with disabilities. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with eight parents and were analyzed with a qualitative approach. The theoretical framework is based on developmental ecology and empowerment and the results are discussed in relation to theory and empirical studies. The results show that parents experience discrepancies between their needs and received support. The paradoxical effects of need fulfillment and empowerment that occur in parent-professional interaction are highlighted and points to needs for future research about filling needs and providing support through encounters between parents to children with disabilities and professionals. Collaboration in the intervention process using the expertise of both parents and professionals is also discussed.The aim of this study is to describe conceptions of support in early intervention in Sweden, as perceived by parents to young children with disabilities. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with eight parents and were analyzed with a qualitative approach. The theoretical framework is based on developmental ecology and empowerment and the results are discussed in relation to theory and empirical studies. The results show that parents experience discrepancies between their needs and received support. The paradoxical effects of need fulfillment and empowerment that occur in parent-professional interaction are highlighted and points to needs for future research about filling needs and providing support through encounters between parents to children with disabilities and professionals. Collaboration in the intervention process using the expertise of both parents and professionals is also discussed.

  • 29.
    Carlhed, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Sekvensmodellen: en ny metod för att studera institutionella villkor och ömsesidiga förväntningar avseende samverkan mellan professionella och föräldrar2012In: Fokus på familien: Tidsskrift for familiebehandling, ISSN 0332-5415, E-ISSN 0807-7487, no 4, p. 294-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sequence model – new ways to research institutional conditions and mutual expectations in a parent-professional collaboration

    The article describes a pilot study about a model for research on social conditions for institutional encounters between parents/custodians and professionals within habilitation services in Sweden. The main aim in using the model is to involve both parts in the institutional meeting in the research through critical analysis of how parent-professional collaboration is constructed within this frame. The model builds on sequences of interviews and observations of the encounters. The model could easy be applied in other institutional settings, where conversations are in use for planning interventions. The article discusses the social conditions for institutional encounters and parent collaboration and individual plans as tools in the processes.

  • 30.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Different habitus – different strategies in teaching physics?: Relationships between teachers’ social, economic and cultural capital and strategies in teaching physics in upper secondary school2014In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 699-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With environmental awareness in the societies of today, political steering documents emphasize that all education should include sustainable development. But it seems to be others competing ideals for teaching physics, or why do the physics teachers teach as they do? Physics teachers in secondary school in Sweden have generally, been focused on facts and a strong link with scientific theories and concepts. In general, the curriculum sway the teaching, a standard text book in physics is used, the teaching is organized according to the book and the teacher deals with and demonstrates typical tasks on the whiteboard and group work is common for special issues related to tasks from the textbook or elaborating. The aim with this study is to analyze why physics teachers in upper secondary school choose to teach energy as they do. Data emerging from a questionnaire focused on indicators of the teachers' cultural and economic assets, or capital, according to the work of Pierre Bourdieu´s sociology. Especially his concept on life styles and habitus provide a tool for analysis. We focus on physics teachers' positions in the social space, dispositions and standpoints towards the ideal way to teach physics in upper secondary school (n=268). Our response rate is 29 % and due to the low response rate a non response bias analysis was made. In our analysis we primarily sought for groups, with a cluster analysis based on the teaching practice, revealed common features for both what and how they teach and three different teaching types emerged. Then we reconstructed the group habitus of the teachers by analyzing dispositions and standpoints and related those to the specific polarization of sacred values, that is struggles about the natural order (doxa) in the social space of science education, which is a part of and has boundaries to dominating fields like the natural sciences and the political fields (curriculum etc.). Three teacher-groups' habituses are described and analyzed; 1. The Manager of the

    Traditional, 2. The Challenger for Technology and 3. The Challenger for Citizenship. By constructing the habitus of the teachers in the different groups we can explain why teachers teach as they do and thereby make a contribution to both science education research and to teaching training, whereas reflective approach which also includes the individual dispositions and representations are paramount. In our paper we elaborate the grounds and implications of these findings further.

  • 31.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Distinction in physics teaching. Change or status quo?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the societies of today political steering documents highlights that all education should include sustainable development. But it seems to be others competing ideals for teaching physics. Physics teachers in secondary school in Sweden have generally, in energy teaching, manifesting on facts and a strong link with scientific concepts and mathematics.  The aim with this study is to analyze why physics teachers in upper secondary school choose to teach energy as they do. Discussing the data emerging from a questionnaire which focuses on indicators of the teachers’ cultural and economical assets, or capital, according to the work of Pierre Bourdieu´s sociology and especially his concept on habitus provide a tool for analysis. Primarily we sought for groups, with a cluster analysis based on the teaching practice, revealed common features for both what and how they teach and three different teacher types emerged. We describe these teacher-groups habitus; The Manager of the Traditional, The Challenger for Technology and The Challenger for citizenship. By making the habitus of the teachers in the different groups visibly, we can explain why teachers teach as they do and thereby make a contribution to both science education research and to teaching training. In a teaching training where a reflective approach which also includes the individual dispositions and representations is paramount.

  • 32.
    Niklasson, Laila
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Carlhed, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    In search for transparency and participation: organization for reform of national course syllabi in compulsory school2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The  article present and discuss how a national reform initiative was created and carried out during 2009 and 2010 in Sweden aiming at change of national curriculum and course syllabi for compulsory school. The research objective is to study how the organization for the revision was constructed and how the work process was carried out.  The vision the National Agency for Education had was to increase transparency and participation during the process, compared with earlier revisions of curricula and syllabi.  As a part of the transparency the work with the revision was also evaluated. It is part of the evaluation that is referred to in this study. As a way of evaluating the work, participants in the revision were asked to comment. The participant groups comprise those who worked with the first version of the course syllabi such as workgroups, reference groups with experts and schools all over the country, researchers, teachers and the staff at the National Agency for Education who wrote the last version. The method used for data collection comprises text analysis, observations, interviews and questionnaires. A conclusion that can be made from the design of the reform process is that transparency and participation can be discussed both from a political and a practical perspective. The different actors found the model for the organization suitable, but gave a lot of suggestions for improving the work process in general.

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