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  • 1.
    Arbat, Anna
    et al.
    SIC, Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Edqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Casanova Mohr, Raimon
    SIC, Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Brufau, Jordi
    SIC, Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Canals, J.
    SIC, Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Samitier, Joseph
    SIC, Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Dieguez, Angle
    SIC, Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Design and validation of the control circuits for a micro-cantilever tool for a micro-robot2009In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the design and validation of a cantilever-based contact sensing system for a micro-robot. Key elements of the fabrication process of the sensor and the electrical model extraction used to design the control electronics are described. The architecture used for the sensor corresponds to a micro-cantilever fabricated of piezoelectric-polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene stacked in a multilayer structure with the possibility of both actuating and sensing. A lumped electro mechanical equivalent model of the micro-cantilever was used to design the control electronics for the cantilever. A driving signal from, the control system is used to vibrate the cantilever at its first mechanical resonance frequency. The control system contains an analog front-end to measure the sensor output signal and a digital control unit designed to track and keep the resonance frequency of the cantilever. By integrating the cantilever control system is integrated in the application specified integrated circuit used to control of the circuit is simplyfied and very compact. Experimental results show a similar behavior between the electrical model and the fabricated system, and the deviations between the model and the measured structure are analyzed. The results also show that the designed control system is capable to detect the resonance frequency of the system and to actuate despite small deviations in process parameters of different batches of cantilevers. The whole system was designed to be integrated into an autonomous micro-robot, although it can be used in other applications.

  • 2.
    Edqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Corradi, Paolo
    Center for Applied Research in Micro Engineering, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Italy.
    A vibrating microcantilever sensor for microrobotic applicationsIn: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to actively interact with the environment and to perform advanced tasks, microrobots need to be equipped with sensing tools to detect object and obstacles, and eventually manipulate and transport micro-parts. The concept, design, simulations and first characterization of a simple multifunctional microsystem, a vibrating microcantilever, capable of working as touch sensor and potentially as manipulation tool with feedback sensing is presented. The presented microcantilever was designed to be integrated onboard a microrobot of about 3 × 3 × 3 mm3. The microcantilever is applied as a sensing antenna on the microrobot in order to recognize objects or obstacles through direct contact, causing a voltage drop in a feedback layer. The microcantilever produced is 2.85×0.45×0.098 mm, and the experiments verified that it could be used as a contact sensor featuring high sensitivity with extremely low power consumption and good mass-manufacturability.

  • 3.
    Edqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hedlund, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Design and manufacturing considerations of low voltage multilayer P(VDF-TrFE) actuators2009In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 115019-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An actuator unit consisting of three multilayered cantilevers with poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) on top of a flexible printed circuit board substrate is presented. The multilayer structure has five active polymer layers and six electrodes with an alternating ground and phase configuration. Different aspects regarding processing and deflection advantages, depending on which side of the substrate the multilayer structure is manufactured, are discussed.  One of the cantilever configurations is dynamically modelled using a finite element software and the results are compared to measured values. Because of the combination of a multilayer design and the resonant driving mode, the actuators could be powered by solar cells or used in portable electronics. A 2 V sine wave signal resulted in a tip deflection of 56 μm. To test the unit as a conveyer, speed measurements were conducted. With a 2.5 V square wave signal the speed was 29 µm/s whereas a 8 V signal resulted in 732 µm/s. Motion in all four directions could be confirmed by tuning the frequency of a 10 V square wave signal from 640 Hz to 740 Hz.

  • 4.
    Edqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hedlund, Emma
    Resonating low voltage P(VDF-TrFE) multilayered microactuator built on flexible printed circuit boardIn: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A resonating low voltage microactuator module is presented and evaluated as conveyer. The characterized module has four cantilevers, of which three are used as legs and one as a sensor. A lithographically patterned flexible printed circuit board acts as the passive part of the cantilever whereas the active part consist of 14 layers of spin coated poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) with alternating evaporated aluminum electrodes. Among the process steps developed are: a batchwise contacting of the multilayer stack, a batchwise polarization method, and an extended polarization procedure. In the final manufacturing step, the legs are bent 60° out of the plane using a folding equipment. The locomotion module is characterized by connecting it with four copper wires and tested with the legs downwards and upside down against a glass plate. Different weights are added to the module and different driving voltage levels and frequencies are tested. The module was found to operate already at 3.0 V peak-to-peak and capable of forward, backward, right and left movement. With wires attached to it, and using a 80 V peak-to-peak square wave signal at 18020 Hz, it could move 150 mg, which is more than 37 times it own weight.

  • 5.
    Edqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hedlund, Emma
    Lundberg, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Quasi-static and dynamic electromechanical response of piezoelectric multilayer cantilever beams2010In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 157, no 2, p. 198-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric multilayer cantilever beams were considered with the aim to establish a simple but general theoretical model, fabricate such beams by a procedure suitable for devices on millimetre scale such as actuators, and study their quasi-static and dynamic electro-mechanical responses. In addition to Euler-Bernoulli assumptions, the beams were assumed to be lossless and have linear piezoelectric response. Four types of beams of nominal length 10 mm, width 2 mm and thickness either 55 or 86 µm, and with two asymmetric configurations of 14 or 15 layers, were fabricated. From top to bottom, each beam consisted of six aluminium electrode layers alternating with five active P(VDF-TrFE) layers, of one passive such layer, and of one polyimide and one copper layer, or vice versa. The thicknesses of the layers and of the beam were determined by use of focused ion beam, scanning electron microscope, light microscope, and Heidenhain probe. Both theoretical and experimental results for resonance frequencies and transverse tip displacement per unit driving voltage showed fair overall agreement from quasi-static conditions to frequencies above the second resonance frequency. Deviations observed are mainly due to variations resulting from the manufacturing process, to nonlinear piezoelectricity and to the presence of losses.

  • 6.
    Edqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Materials Science.
    Snis, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Materials Science.
    I-SWARM, Mass Produced Miniaturized Autonomous Robots2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Edqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Snis, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Casanova Mohr, Raimon
    SiC, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Scholz, Oliver
    IBMT, Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, St Ingbert, Germany.
    Corradi, Paolo
    Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Gao, Jianbo
    IBMT, Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, St Ingbert, Germany.
    Di´eguez, Angel
    SiC, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wyrsch, Nicolas
    Institut de Microtechnique, University of Neuchˆatel, Neuchˆatel, Switzerland.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Evaluation of building technology for mass producible millimetre-sized robots using flexible printed circuit boards2009In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 11pp-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial tests of a building technology for a compact three-dimensional mass produciblemicrorobot are presented. The 3.9 × 3.9 × 3.3 mm3 sized prototype robot represents amicrosystem with actuators, sensors, energy management and integrated electronics. Theweight of a folded robot is 65 mg and the total volume is less than 23 mm3. The design of theinterfaces of the different modules in the robot, as well as the building technology, isdescribed. The modules are assembled using conductive adhesive with industrial surfacemounting technology on a thin double-sided flexible printed circuit board. The final shape ofthe microrobots is achieved by folding the flexible printed circuit board twice. Electrical andmechanical studies are performed to evaluate the assembly and it is concluded that thetechnology can be used for this type of microsystem. Several issues using the presentedassembly technique are identified and addressed.

  • 8.
    Edqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Snis, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Gentle dry etching of P(VDF-TrFE) multilayer micro actuator structures by use of an inductive coupled plasma2008In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 015007-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To fully utilize the actuator properties of poly(vinylidenefluoride) (P(VDF))-based polymers, the electric field has to be rather high and one way to accomplish this, in particular with low voltage drive signals, is to build multilayered structures. This paper focuses on how to structure poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) by presenting an etch method to create multilayered miniaturized actuators, with intermediate aluminium electrodes. To create inter-connect areas for the multilayer electrodes, a modified Bosch process in an inductive couple plasma (ICP) etcher is used to remove all P(VDF-TrFE) not covered by the electrodes. Since each electrode mask is slightly different from the others, the result is a staircase-like inter-electrode contact area that is connected from above using a conductive adhesive. The developed ICP etch results in high selective etching and a good agreement between theoretical and measured capacitance values. The manufactured cantilevers, consisting of a multilayer on top of a flexible printed circuit (FPC) board, were tested and the resonant stroke was confirmed to agree with expected values. The successful establishment of interlayer connections between the electrodes open up the possibility for batch fabrication of cheap low voltage micro actuators built on a standard substrate used in millions of commercial products. 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 9.
    Hedlund, E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Westerberg, L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Malyshev, O. B.
    Edqvist, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leandersson, M.
    Kollmus, H.
    Bellachioma, M. C.
    Bender, M.
    Krämer, A.
    Reich-Sprenger, H.
    Zajec, B.
    Krasnov, A.
    Ar ion induced desorption yields at the energies 5-17.7 MeV/u2009In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 599, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle accelerators have, during operation with heavy ion beams, shown a significant pressure rise when the intensity of the beam is increased. This pressure rise is due to ion induced desorption, which is the result of beam ions colliding with residual gas atoms in the beam pipe, where they undergo charge exchange. This causes them to hit the vacuum chamber after the next dipole magnet and gas to be released. For the upgrade of the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI the intensity has to be a few orders of magnitude higher than it is today at the injection energy of 10 MeV/u. The aim of this experiment is to measure desorption yields, η, (released molecules per incident ion) from materials commonly used in accelerators: 316LN stainless steel, Cu, etched Cu, gold coated Cu and Ta, using an Ar beam at impact energies in the range of 5–17.7 MeV/u for perpendicular incidence. The measured initial desorption yields vary for the same material from sample to sample: up to 4.5 times for stainless steel and up to 3 times for etched Cu. Therefore more samples should be studied to have better statistics. Beam conditioning at lower energy does not significantly reduce the desorption yield at higher energy. There is a significant difference of up to a few times in desorption yield between flat and tubular samples. The desorption yield from a Cu sample at grazing incident angle of 125 mrad was an order of magnitude larger than at normal incident angle. It was found that the total number of positively and negatively charged secondary particles, emitted from the surface bombarded with heavy ions, does not exceed 40 secondary particles per impact heavy ion. The current of negatively charged particles was about 2.3 times larger than the current for positively charged particles. The impact from secondary particles on dynamic gas pressure was not possible to investigate.

  • 10.
    Hedlund, E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Westerberg, L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Malyshev, O. B.
    Leandersson, M.
    Fridén, C-J.
    Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory.
    Edqvist, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Kollmus, H.
    Bellachioma, M. C.
    Reich-Sprenger, H.
    Krasnov, A.
    A new test stand for heavy ion induced gas desorption measurements at TSL2008In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 586, no 3, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several experiments at CERN, GSI and BNL it has been found that the lifetime of highly energetic heavy ions in synchrotrons decreases with increasing number of injected ions. This phenomenon occurs due to the collisions of beam ions and residual gas molecules leading to the change of charge of the ions and their loss on the vacuum chamber walls, which in turn cause ion-induced gas desorption and further pressure increase. To gain a deeper understanding of the ion-induced desorption process in the energy range 5-45 MeV/u, a dedicated test stand was built at the end of the K beamline at The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden. The energy range was chosen due to the fact that the injection energy of the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI will be 10 MeV/u, and that there are insufficient data in this energy range. A Test Particle Monte-Carlo model of the experimental set-up was build-up, run and analysed for different sample configurations. An important result is that for the same sample material the desorption yield from a flat sample causes a 1.58 times larger pressure increase than that of a tubular sample. A detailed explanation of the set-up is presented.

  • 11.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Edqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Kratz, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Almqvist, Monica
    Electrical Measurements, Lund University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Simulation and Evaluation of Small High-Frequency Side Scan Sonars Using COMSOL2009In: COMSOL Conference 2009 Milan, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High frequency side-scan sonar, to be fitted on a miniaturized submersible explorer, have been simulated and built. The purpose of this study is to see if COMSOL Multiphysics can be used to predict the performance of the sonar, especially the beam width, setting the resolution of the system. Four models were created, from simple 2-D geometries to more complex 3-D models. The simulated beam widths were compared with measurements to see which of the models agreed best. It was found that all models agree with the experimental results to varying degrees, and mostly with a difference of less than 6%. . It was found that the simplest model agreed best with the measurements, closely followed by the most complex model. Also taking the computational load into consideration the simpler model might then be a better choice to use.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Edqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Kratz, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Almqvist, Monica
    Electrical Measurements, Lund University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Simulation, manufacturing, and evaluation of a sonar for a miniaturized submersible explorer2010In: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, ISSN 0885-3010, E-ISSN 1525-8955, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 490-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-beam side-scan sonar elements, to be fitted on a miniaturized submersible, are here simulated, manufactured, and evaluated. Finite element analysis simulations are compared with measurements, and an overall observation is that the agreement between simulations and measurements deviates from the measured values of 1.5 to 2°, for the narrow lobe angle, by less than 10% for most models. An overall finding is that the lobe width along the track direction can be accurately simulated and, hence, the resolution of the sonars can be predicted. This paper presents, to the authors’ knowledge, the world’s smallest side-scan sonars.

  • 13. Kollmus, H.
    et al.
    Krämer, A.
    Bender, M.
    Bellachioma, M. C.
    Reich-Sprenger, H.
    Mahner, E.
    Hedlund, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Westerberg, L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Malyshev, O. B.
    Leandersson, M.
    Edqvist, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Energy Scaling of the Ion-Induced Desorption Yield for Perpendicular Collisions of Ar and U with Stainless Steel in the Energy Range between 5 and 100 MeV/u2009In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 245-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the GSI future project Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research a beam intensity of 10(12)U(28+)ions/s is planned to be extracted from the GSI heavy ion synchrotron SIS18. Measurements performed in 2001 showed that the beam lifetime of the ions in the synchrotron is decreasing with increasing number of injected particles due to vacuum   instabilities caused by ion-induced desorption. The injection energy for the SIS18 is about 10 MeV/u and U28+ ions are accelerated to 200 MeV/u limited by the magnetic rigidity for the low charge state. The aim of this work was to measure the desorption yield as a function of   the impact energy from injection to extraction of SIS18 at GSI. Low energy yields at 5.0, 9.7, and 17.7 MeV/u were measured at the Cyclotron of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. High energy yields at 40, 80, and 100 MeV/u were measured at SIS18 of GSI in a different   setup. It was found that the desorption yield scales with the electronic energy loss (dE/dx)(el)(n), with n between 2 and 3, decreasing for increasing impact energy above the Bragg maximum.

  • 14.
    Nguyen, Hugo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Edqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Sundqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Kratz, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    A heavily miniaturized submersible: a terrestrial kickoff2008In: Proceedings of ASTRA 2008, 2008, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision of exploring extraterrestrial water findings employing a remotely operated submersible, as proposed by JPL/NASA for the investigation of the possible ocean underneath the frozen crust of Jupiter’s moon Europa, is now taking a step further into fulfilment. The Ångström Space Technology Centre has developed a sophisticated vehicle concept based on microtechnology for most of the navigational systems and payload systems. This enables a high function density, and a compact vehicle with a diameter of 50 mm and length of 200 mm, i.e. an overall size allowing the vehicle to be deployed through a borehole like that typical for arctic drilling.

    Here, the system architecture of the vehicle complying with the requirements on manoeuvrability, operational functions, and mission objectives is presented. In short, the vehicle in the first version will operate in deep and narrow waters, and will be equipped with a camera, sonar imaging system, an electronic tongue for chemical sampling, and a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensor. Although the vehicle will be given certain autonomy in later versions, the first edition will rely on remote manual guidance. Commands for this, as well as power download, and data upload will be communicated through an optic fibre.

    The objective of this contribution is to present, for the first time, the status of the project including, briefly, the first results from miniaturized sonar, the vehicle bus design, and the design, realization and testing of the propulsion and attitude control systems differing in manoeuvrability, weight/volume, redundancy and efficiency.

  • 15.
    Nguyen, Hugo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Edqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sundqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Kratz, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Heavily Miniaturized Submersible – A Terrestrial Kickoff2008In: Heavily Miniaturized Submersible – A Terrestrial Kickoff, 2008, p. S14-01Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision of exploring extraterrestrial water findings employing a remotely operated submersible, as proposed by JPL/NASA for the investigation of the possible ocean underneath the frozen crust of Jupiter’s moon Europa, is now taking a step further into fulfilment. The Ångström Space Technology Centre has developed a sophisticated vehicle concept based on microtechnology for most of the navigational systems and payload systems. This enables a high function density, and a compact vehicle with a diameter of 50 mm and length of 200 mm, i.e. an overall size allowing the vehicle to be deployed through a borehole like that typical for arctic drilling.

    Here, the system architecture of the vehicle complying with the requirements on manoeuvrability, operational functions, and mission objectives is presented. In short, the vehicle in the first version will operate in deep and narrow waters, and will be equipped with a camera, sonar imaging system, an electronic tongue for chemical sampling, and a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensor. Although the vehicle will be given certain autonomy in later versions, the first edition will rely on remote manual guidance. Commands for this, as well as power download, and data upload will be communicated through an optic fibre.

    The objective of this contribution is to present, for the first time, the status of the project including, briefly, the first results from miniaturized sonar, the vehicle bus design, and the design, realization and testing of the propulsion and attitude control systems differing in manoeuvrability, weight/volume, redundancy and efficiency.

  • 16.
    Snis, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Materials Science.
    Edqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Materials Science.
    Simu, Urban
    Johansson, S.
    Multilayered P(VDF-TrFE) actuators for swarming robots2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Snis, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Edqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Simu, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Monolithic fabrication of multilayer P(VDF-TrFE) cantilevers2008In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 314-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When operating a piezoelectric actuator the use of multilayers has for a long time proven to be a good solution to maintain a high electric field at a reduced applied voltage. The piezoelectric copolymer polyvinylidene-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) has rather low piezoelectric constant compared to piezoceramics but it can withstand much higher electric fields. As the copolymer can be spin coated the individual layer thickness of the multilayer can easily be reduced to a few m and rather large strains can be achieved at a moderate voltage. Here a monolithic fabrication technique for producing P(VDF-TrFE) actuators, without any lamination or adhesive layers, is presented. To fabricate the multilayer successive spin coating of the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) and electrode evaporation on a substrate was performed. Four different substrate materials were coated with a multilayer stack of 6 active P(VDF-TrFE) layers and 7 aluminum electrodes. The monolithic multilayer structures with patterned electrodes were diced by a cutting saw to produce unimorph cantilevers. No delamination or dissolution could be observed between adjacent copolymer layers. The cantilevers were evaluated in terms of static and resonant deflection and the Q-factor was estimated from the frequency spectra. A discussion regarding the influence of the Q-factor on the fabrication process tolerance is given. The different substrate materials used was stainless steel, flexible printed circuit board (FPC), polycarbonate and aluminum. The Q-factor varied from 30 for the polycarbonate to 83 for the stainless steel. These results provide guidelines for the material choices of a forthcoming locomotion module to be used in the 3 mm 3 mm 3 mm I-SWARM robots. The FPC substrate showed to have the best compatibility to the fabrication processes and the most suitable Q-value of 42. This together with the high deflections makes the FPC the preferred substrate materials the future actuators for the I-SWARM locomotion module. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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