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  • 1.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Biologins paradox: föränderliga kön och rigida normer2011In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, no 4, p. 26-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an enormous variation in sex and sexuality among animals. How has this diversity been explained by evolutionary theory? Evolutionary theory regarding sex differences has focused on males and their characteristics and despite theoretical development away from stereotypic notions of females and males, some gender bias remains, both in theory and empirical studies. Heteronormativity is abundant in evolutionary biology. Even though same-sex sexual behaviour has been described in more than one thousand species, the focus on reproduction, which is the basis for evolutionary theory, has long hindered the insight of how widespread it is. Biological arguments for what is natural are abounding in society, and this review of variation in biological sex challenges stereotypic notions of what femaleness and maleness mean. Finally, I discuss how we can aim for a non-normative evolutionary biology.

  • 2.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Challenging popular myths of sex, gender and biology2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Female sexual selection in light of the Darwin–Bateman paradigm2011In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Flexible mate choice2010In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior / [ed] Janice Moore & Michael D. Breed, Elsevier , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Gender and queer perspectives on Evolutionary Biology2010In: Never mind the gap!: Gendering Science in Transgressive Encounters / [ed] M. Blomqvist & E. Ensmyr, Centre for Gender Research, Uppsala University. , 2010, p. 143-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Genusperspektiv på biologi2012Book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Nature queer, vers un point de vue non-normatif sur la diversité biologique.2013In: Le sexe biologique - Anthologie historique et critique Volume 1, Femelles et Mâles ? Histoire naturelle des (deux) sexes / [ed] Thierry Hoquet, Editions Hermann, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    On anisogamy and the evolution of 'sex-roles'2013In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Queer nature: towards a non-normative perspective on biological diversity2009In: Body Claims, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Queering animal sexual behavior in biology textbooks2013In: Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics, ISSN 2001-4562, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 46-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Toy story: En vetenskaplig kritik av forskningom apors leksakspreferenser2009In: Tidskrift för genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, no 1, p. 45-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological sex differences have long been used as argumentsjustifying male dominance and sexist oppression. Animal studies ofsex differences are used to claim that human sex roles have a longevolutionary history. For example, in a study of toy preferences invervet monkeys, the authors conclude that sex-differentiatedobject preferences arose early in human evolution. In this paper Iscrutinize the study and reveal that both the hypotheses, theperformed preference tests and the conclusions drawn are flawed.In the study, the authors hypothesise that male vervets shouldprefer a ball and a car based on the human hunter-gathererhypothesis. Men are suggested to be selected for navigatingabilities useful for hunting and women for nurturing babies. Thishypothesis is then transferred to vervets which is a tree-livingspecies, subsisting of a mainly vegetarian diet, where skills such asnavigating in space ought to be necessary for survival - in bothmales and females. Furthermore, the presentation of toys isconducted in groups, individual interactions with a toy is taken as apreference for the sex of that individual. Therefore it is impossibleto derive individual preferences from these tests. Vervets arematrilinear with females sometimes being dominant to males. Froman animal behaviour framework, I would interpret the preferencesas an interaction between individuals. Perhaps low-rankedindividuals approach new objects first, as they may be dangerous.The results are interpreted and presented with graphs and picturesin order to tell the convincing story about sex differences in toypreference that the authors wanted to find, but there is no support tfor these conclusions.Hence, from the evidence presented in this study, we cannotconclude that human sex-differentiated toy preferences date morethan 23 million years back in time.

  • 12.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Problemet med "könsroller" kvarstår2013In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, no 1, p. 136-137Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Vad kan vi lära av biologisk forskning om “könsroller”?2012In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Gowaty, Patricia A.
    A reaction norm perspective on sex and mate choice2013In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 53, no S1, p. E2-E2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 621 Charles E Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Ethnol Hist Relig & Gender Studies, Univ Vagen 10 E, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gowaty, Patricia Adair
    Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 621 Charles E Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, DPO, Box 0948,AA 34002-9998, Washington, DC USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Environm & Sustainabil, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    A conceptual review of mate choice: stochastic demography, within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and individual flexibility2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 14, p. 4607-4642Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice hypotheses usually focus on trait variation of chosen individuals. Recently, mate choice studies have increasingly attended to the environmental circumstances affecting variation in choosers' behavior and choosers' traits. We reviewed the literature on phenotypic plasticity in mate choice with the goal of exploring whether phenotypic plasticity can be interpreted as individual flexibility in the context of the switch point theorem, SPT (Gowaty and Hubbell ). We found >3000 studies; 198 were empirical studies of within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and sixteen showed no evidence of mate choice plasticity. Most studies reported changes from choosy to indiscriminate behavior of subjects. Investigators attributed changes to one or more causes including operational sex ratio, adult sex ratio, potential reproductive rate, predation risk, disease risk, chooser's mating experience, chooser's age, chooser's condition, or chooser's resources. The studies together indicate that choosiness of potential mates is environmentally and socially labile, that is, induced - not fixed - in the choosy sex with results consistent with choosers' intrinsic characteristics or their ecological circumstances mattering more to mate choice than the traits of potential mates. We show that plasticity-associated variables factor into the simpler SPT variables. We propose that it is time to complete the move from questions about within-sex plasticity in the choosy sex to between- and within-individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making of both sexes simultaneously. Currently, unanswered empirical questions are about the force of alternative constraints and opportunities as inducers of individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making, and the ecological, social, and developmental sources of similarities and differences between individuals. To make progress, we need studies (1) of simultaneous and symmetric attention to individual mate preferences and subsequent behavior in both sexes, (2) controlled for within-individual variation in choice behavior as demography changes, and which (3) report effects on fitness from movement of individual's switch points.

  • 16.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Hayward, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Toxic sexes—Perverting pollution and queering hormone disruption2013In: O-zone: A Journal of Object Oriented Studies, ISSN ISSN 2326-8344, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    The influence of territoriality and mating system for the evolution of male care, a phylogenetic study on fish2005In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of male care is still poorly understood. Using phylogeneticallymatched-pairs comparisons we tested for effects of territoriality and matingsystem on male care evolution in fish. All origins of male care were found inpair-spawning species (with or without additional males such as sneakers) andnone were found in group-spawning species. However, excluding groupspawners, male care originated equally often in pair-spawning species withadditional males as in strict pair-spawning species. Evolution of male care wasalso significantly related to territoriality. Yet, most pair-spawning taxa withmale care are also territorial, making their relative influence difficult toseparate. Furthermore, territoriality also occurs in group-spawning species.Hence, territoriality is not sufficient for male care to evolve. Rather, we arguethat it is the combination of territoriality and pair spawning with sequentialpolygyny that favours the evolution of male care, and we discuss our results inrelation to paternity assurance and sexual selection.

  • 18.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Nylin, Sören
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Sex in an Evolutionary Perspective: Just Another Reaction Norm2010In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 234-246Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common to refer to all sorts of clear-cut differences between the sexes as something that is biologically almost inevitable. Although this does not reflect the status of evolutionary theory on sex determination and sexual dimorphism, it is probably a common view among evolutionary biologists as well, because of the impact of sexual selection theory. To get away from thinking about biological sex and traits associated with a particular sex as something static, it should be recognized that in an evolutionary perspective sex can be viewed as a reaction norm, with sex attributes being phenotypically plastic. Sex determination itself is fundamentally plastic, even when it is termed “genetic”. The phenotypic expression of traits that are statistically associated with a particular sex always has a plastic component. This plasticity allows for much more variation in the expression of traits according to sex and more overlap between the sexes than is typically acknowledged. Here we review the variation and frequency of evolutionary changes in sex, sex determination and sex roles and conclude that sex in an evolutionary time-frame is extremely variable. We draw on recent findings in sex determination mechanisms, empirical findings of morphology and behaviour as well as genetic and developmental models to explore the concept of sex as a reaction norm. From this point of view, sexual differences are not expected to generally fall into neat, discrete, pre-determined classes. It is important to acknowledge this variability in order to increase objectivity in evolutionary research.

  • 19.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Phylogenetic analysis of twinning in Callitrichinae2000In: American Journal of Primatology, ISSN 0275-2565, E-ISSN 1098-2345, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The callitrichines are known for twinning and for a communal rearingsystem in which all or most group members help care for the offspring.The origin of twinning has been the subject of much speculation. In thisstudy predictions from earlier hypotheses are tested on the basis of twoalternative phylogenetic trees. From this analysis we infer that helpingbehavior and male care preceded the origin of twinning, and that thesetraits did not coevolve with, but might have been important prerequisitesfor twinning in callitrichines. Small body size does not necessarilyresult in twinning, although it might still have been a prerequisite forits evolution. Gum feeding was an ecological change which evolved alongwith twinning. If nutrition was a limiting factor in the number of offspringproduced, then the use of a new feeding resource could have beencrucial for the origin of twinning in callitrichines. According to one of thetwo alternative solutions inferred by the total evidence tree, and in accordancewith the morphological tree, semi-annual breeding appears inthe marmosets together with specialization in gum feeding. The fact thatgums are available for these monkeys all year may have facilitated semiannualbreeding. We suggest that the exploitation of gums as a feedingresource could have been the decisive factor in the increase of the reproductiverate by twinning and by semi-annual breeding.

  • 20.
    Barron, Andrew B.
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Herberstein, Marie E.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Plenty of sex, but no sexuality in biologyundergraduate curricula2011In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 899-902Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    et al.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Temrin, Hans
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Phylogenetic reconstruction of the parental-care system in the ancestors of birds2002In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 357, p. 251-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the controversy surrounding incipient avian parental care, ancestral parental care systems werereconstructed in a phylogeny including major extant amniote lineages. Using two different resolutions forthe basal avian branches, transitions between the states no care, female care, biparental care and malecare were inferred for the most basal branches of the tree. Uniparental female care was inferred for thelineage to birds and crocodiles. Using a phylogeny where ratites and tinamous branch off early and anordered character-state assumption, a transition to biparental care was inferred for the ancestor of birds.This ancestor could be any organism along the lineage leading from the crocodile–bird split up to modernbirds, not necessarily the original bird. We discuss the support for alternative avian phylogenies and thehomology in parental care between crocodiles and birds. We suggest that the phylogenetic pattern shouldbe used as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of parental care systems in birds and their relatives.

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