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  • 1.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Yang, W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Strömberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Visualization of functionalization of nano-particles and graphene in the TEM2010In: Advanced Materials Workshop 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the activity on functionalized nano-objects has strongly increased. Yet, there are, to our knowledge no techniques available that visualize the attachment of molecules to nano-entities such as nanoparticles and graphene. In this work, we show a methodology to analyse the attachment of molecules to nanoparticles and graphene. The difficulty of such transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization consists in the high beam sensitivity of these nanoobjects. We employed a high resolution- as well as diffraction contrast-imaging methods to characterize graphene. First, we have developed a method to measure the thickness of free-standing graphene-like layers. The refinement of these imaging techniques enabled the imaging of functionalized C60 (fullerene) on top of a few-layer graphene flake by TEM. We also developed a methodology to visualize the attachment of functionalized gold and magnetic nanoparticles (different sizes) to nonstained and unlabeled single strand DNA-coils. This technique can be used to understand the interaction of a large variety of functionalized nanoparticles with their solution environment and/or macromolecular structures for their large applications.

  • 2.
    Blom, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Jafri, Hassan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Cavalca, Filippo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Di Cristo, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Exfoliation, transfer and electrical characterization of graphene2010In: Indian-Swedish Conference on Functional Materials, Uppsala, Sweden; 28-30 June 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Cavalca, Filippo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Jafri, S.H.M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Blom, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    DIY graphene production, transfer and characterization2009In: First Nordic Workshop on graphene science in 20-21 April, 2009, Uppsala., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Chen, Song
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Univ Oslo, Dept Phys, Oslo, Norway; Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Chem, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Westlund, Viktoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Ott, Marjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Highly repeatable synthesis of nHA with high aspect ratio2015In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 159, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Development and use of a cryo-FIB-cryo-TEM technique for site-specific lift-out of TEM samples2014In: Scandem proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Akhtar, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Blom, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jafri, Hassan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Electrical measurements on graphene in a Au-nanoparticle-bridge platform2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Oppeneer, Peter
    Eriksson, Olle
    Liebig, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Mapping of the EMCD signal in real and reciprocal space forquantitative analysis of magnetic samples2010In: Scandem 2010 Proceedings; Stockholm, Sweden, 8-11 June 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rusz, J.
    Lidbaum, H
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Oppeneer, P.
    Eriksson, O.
    Measurement of the EMCD signal in real and reciprocal space2011In: Proceedings of Microscopy Conference, Kiel, Germany, 2011., Kiel, Germany,: Microscopy Conference, Kiel, Germany, , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Liebig, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Oppener, Peter
    Eriksson, Olle
    Mapping of the EMCD signal in real and reciprocal space for quantitative analysis of magnetic samples2010In: IMC 17, Rio de Janeiro,19-24 September 2010; Proceedings, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Oppeneer, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Quantitative assessment of EMCD signals in real and reciprocal space in single and multilayer samples2012In: Proceedings of the 15th European Microscopy Congress: Volume 2: Physical Sciences: Tools and Techniques / [ed] D. J. Stokes and W. M. Rainforth, 2012, p. 727-728Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Li, Ling-Guang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Dynamics of SiO2 Buried Layer Removal from Si-SiO2-Si and Si-SiO2-SiC Bonded Substrates by Annealing in Ar2014In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 541-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon-on-silicon-carbide substrates could be ideal for high-power and radiofrequency silicon devices. Such hybrid wafers, when made by wafer bonding, contain an intermediate silicon dioxide layer with poor thermal characteristics, which can be removed by high-temperature annealing in an inert atmosphere. To understand the dynamics of this process, removal of 2.4-nm-thick SiO2 layers from Si-SiO2-Si and Si-SiO2-SiC substrates has been studied at temperatures ranging from 1100A degrees C to 1200A degrees C. The substrates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and ellipsometry, before and after annealing. For oxide thickness less than 2.4 nm, the activation energy for oxide removal was estimated to be 6.4 eV, being larger than the activation energy reported for removal of thicker oxides (4.1 eV). Under the same conditions, the SiO2 layer became discontinuous. In the time domain, three steps could be distinguished: bulk diffusion, bulk diffusion with void formation, and bulk diffusion with disintegration. The void formation, predominant here, has an energetic cost that could explain the larger activation energy. The oxide remaining after prolonged annealing corresponds to one layer of oxygen atoms.

  • 12.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Liebig, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Oppeneer, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Theoretical Magnetism.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Quantitative EMCD yields nano-information on magnetic moments2009In: EDGE 2009: International EELS-Workshop, May 17 – May 22, 2009, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rusz, Ján
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Liebig, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Reciprocal and real space maps for EMCD experiments2010In: Ultramicroscopy, ISSN 0304-3991, E-ISSN 1879-2723, Vol. 110, no 11, p. 1380-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) is an emerging tool for quantitative measurements of magnetic properties using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), with the possibility of nanometer resolution. The geometrical conditions, data treatment and electron gun settings are found to influence the EMCD signal. In this article, particular care is taken to obtain a reliable quantitative measurement of the ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moment using energy filtered diffraction patterns. For this purpose, we describe a method for data treatment, normalization and selection of mirror axis. The experimental results are supported by theoretical simulations based on dynamical diffraction and density functional theory. Special settings of the electron gun, so called telefocus mode, enable a higher intensity of the electron beam, as well as a reduction of the influence from artifacts on the signal. Using these settings, we demonstrate the principle of acquiring real space maps of the EMCD signal. This enables advanced characterization of magnetic materials with superior spatial resolution.

  • 14.
    Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Weng, Hong
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Tang, Liping
    Ott, Marjam Karlsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle morphology on the acute inflammatory response2016In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 90, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomedical implants have been widely used in bone repair applications. However, nanosized degradation products from these implants could elicit an inflammatory reaction, which may lead to implant failure. It is well known that the size, chemistry, and charge of these nanoparticles can modulate this response, but little is known regarding the role that the particle's morphology plays in inducing inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (HANPs) morphology on inflammation, in-vitro and in-vivo. Four distinct HANP morphologies were fabricated and characterized: long rods, dots, sheets, and fibers. Primary human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs), mononuclear cells (MNCs), and human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) were exposed to HANPs and alterations in cell viability, morphology, apoptotic activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evaluated, in vitro. PMNCs and hDFs experienced a 2-fold decrease in viability following exposure to fibers, while MNC viability decreased 5-fold after treatment with the dots. Additionally, the fibers stimulated an elevated ROS response in both PMNCs and MNCs, and the largest apoptotic behavior for all cell types. Furthermore, exposure to fibers and dots resulted in greater capsule thickness when implanted subcutaneously in mice. Collectively, these results suggest that nanoparticle morphology can significantly impact the inflammatory response.

  • 15.
    Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Robino, Stefano
    Weng, Hong
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Tang, Liping
    Ott, Marjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle morphology on inflammatory response2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Weng, H
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington.
    Tang, Liping
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington.
    Karlsson Ott, Marjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle morphology on inflammatory response2015In: European Cells and Materials, ISSN 1473-2262, E-ISSN 1473-2262, Vol. 29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Chen, Song
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Weng, Hong
    Tang, Liping
    Ott, Marjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle morphology on inflammatory response2015In: European Cells and Materials, ISSN 1473-2262, E-ISSN 1473-2262, Vol. 29, no S1, p. 43-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Electron microscopy as a tool for basic and applied research2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Univ Victoria, Adv Microscopy Facil, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Govt Coll Univ, Ctr Adv Studies Phys, Katchery Rd, Lahore 54000, Pakistan..
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    A Simple Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Fast Thickness Characterization of Suspended Graphene and Graphite Flakes2016In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 250-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple, fast method for thickness characterization of suspended graphene/graphite flakes that is based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We derive an analytical expression for the intensity of the transmitted electron beam I-0(t), as a function of the specimen thickness t (t < < lambda; where lambda is the absorption constant for graphite). We show that in thin graphite crystals the transmitted intensity is a linear function of t. Furthermore, high-resolution (HR) TEM simulations are performed to obtain lambda for a 001 zone axis orientation, in a two-beam case and in a low symmetry orientation. Subsequently, HR (used to determine t) and bright-field (to measure I-0(0) and I-0(t)) images were acquired to experimentally determine lambda. The experimental value measured in low symmetry orientation matches the calculated value (i.e., lambda = 225 +/- 9 nm). The simulations also show that the linear approximation is valid up to a sample thickness of 3-4 nm regardless of the orientation and up to several ten nanometers for a low symmetry orientation. When compared with standard techniques for thickness determination of graphene/graphite, the method we propose has the advantage of being simple and fast, requiring only the acquisition of bright-field images.

  • 20.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Melin, Petter
    Dept of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Searle, Andrew
    Gatan Inc, Abingdon Oxon, UK.
    Spellward, Paul
    Gatan Inc, Abingdon Oxon, UK.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    A site-specific focused-ion-beam lift-out method for cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy2012In: Journal of Structural Biology, ISSN 1047-8477, E-ISSN 1095-8657, Vol. 180, no 3, p. 572-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focused-ion-beam (FIB) is the method of choice for site-specific sample preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in material sciences. A lamella can be physically lifted out from a specific region of a bulk specimen with submicrometer precision and thinned to electron transparency for high-resolution imaging in the TEM. The possibility to use this tool in life sciences applications has been limited by the lack of lift-out capabilities at the cryogenic temperatures often needed for biological samples. Conventional cryo-TEM sample preparation is mostly based on ultramicrotomy, a procedure that is not site-specific and known to produce artifacts. Here we demonstrate how a cooled nanomanipulator and a custom-built transfer station can be used to achieve cryo-preparation of TEM samples with the FIB, enabling high-resolution investigation of frozen-hydrated specimens in the TEM.

  • 21.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Hanson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hogmark, Sture
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    EFTEM studies on the adhesion of stainless steel against a V40 steel forming tool2009In: EDGE 2009 - International EELS Workshop, Banff, Canada 17-22 May 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Jafri, Hassan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Blom, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Carva, Karel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Sanyal, Biplab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Fransson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Widenkvist, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Karis, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Quinlan, Ronald A.
    Department of Applied Science, The College of William and Mary, 325 McGlothin Street Hall, Williamsburg, VA 23187, USA.
    Holloway, Brian C.
    Department of Applied Science, The College of William and Mary, 325 McGlothin Street Hall, Williamsburg, VA 23187, USA.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Oppeneer, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Liebig, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Schattschneider, Peter
    Institute for Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology.
    Stöger-Pollach, Michael
    University Service Center for Transmission Electron Microscopy, Vienna University of Technology.
    Hurm, Christian
    NWF II - Physik, University of Regensburg, D - 93040 Regensburg, Germany.
    Zweck, Josef
    NWF II - Physik, University of Regensburg, D - 93040 Regensburg, Germany.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    In-situ contacting of nanosheets and remote EMCD2009In: 2nd International Workshop on Remote Electron Microscopy and In Situ Studies, Gothenburg, Sweden 16-18 November 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Melin, Petter
    Spellward, Paul
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Cryo-electron Microscopy Specimen Preparation By Means Of a Focused Ion Beam2014In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 89, article id e51463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a protocol used to prepare cryo-TEM samples of Aspergillus niger spores, but which can easily be adapted for any number of microorganisms or solutions. We make use of a custom built cryo-transfer station and a modified cryo-SEM preparation chamber2. The spores are taken from a culture, plunge-frozen in a liquid nitrogen slush and observed in the cryo-SEM to select a region of interest. A thin lamella is then extracted using the FIB, attached to a TEM grid and subsequently thinned to electron transparency. The grid is transferred to a cryo-TEM holder and into a TEM for high resolution studies. Thanks to the introduction of a cooled nanomanipulator tip and a cryo-transfer station, this protocol is a straightforward adaptation to cryogenic temperature of the routinely used FIB preparation of TEM samples. As such it has the advantages of requiring a small amount of modifications to existing instruments, setups and procedures; it is easy to implement; it has a broad range of applications, in principle the same as for cryo-TEM sample preparation. One limitation is that it requires skillful handling of the specimens at critical steps to avoid or minimize contaminations.

  • 24.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Razaq, Aamir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Spatial Mapping of Elemental Distributions in Polypyrrole-Cellulose Nanofibers using Energy-Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy2010In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 114, no 43, p. 13644-13649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) technique has been used to study ion-exchange processes in conductive polymer composite nanofibers. The elemental distributions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, boron, phosphorus, molybdenum, and sulfur within polypyrrole-cellulose nanofibers, used as potential controlled electrochemical solid phase extraction media, have been studied by EFTEM. The distribution of ions within the polypyrrole-cellulose nanofibers and the penetration depth of ions into the material as a function of the size and charge of the latter were investigated. Further, the spatial distribution of single stranded DNA hexamers inside polypyrrole-cellulose nanofibers was mapped subsequent to the electrochemically controlled extraction of DNA from a borate buffer solution. The results show that the EFTEM mapping technique provides unpreceded possibilities for studies of the distribution of ions inside conductive polymer composites.

  • 25.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Razaq, Aamir
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Tracking Ion Distributions in Polypyrrole Coated Cellulose Nanofibers by means of Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy2010In: 17th International Microscopy Congress - Rio de Janeiro19-24 September 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Razaq, Aamir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Tracking Ion Distributions in Polypyrrole Coated Cellulose Nanofibers by means of Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Schattschneider, Peter
    (Inst. für Festkörperphysik und Univ. Serviceeinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Technische Universität Wien,Vienna, Austria.
    Detection of Magnetic Circular Dichroism using TEM and EELS2011In: 43rd Erice Crystallographic Course, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Schattschneider, Peter
    (Inst. für Festkörperphysik und Univ. Serviceeinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Technische Universität Wien,Vienna, Austria.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Verbeeck, Johan
    EMAT, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Observation of magnetic dichroism in the electron microscope2010In: 7th International Conference on Fine Particle Magnetism - Uppsala 21-24 June 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Schattschneider, Peter
    Inst. für Festkörperphysik und Univ. Serviceeinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Technische Universität Wien,Vienna, Austria.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Verbeeck, Johan
    EMAT, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Simulation of magnetic circular dichroism in the electron microscope2010In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 43, no 47, p. 474005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe the same transitions from core–shell states to unoccupied states above the Fermi energy, it should always be possible to apply the two techniques to the same physical phenomena, such as magnetic dichroism, and obtain the same information. Indeed, the similarity in the expression of the electron and x-ray cross-sections had been already exploited to prove the equivalence of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism and anisotropy in EELS, by noting that the polarization vector of a photon plays the same role as the momentum transfer in electron scattering. Recently, the same was proven true for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) by establishing a new TEM technique called EMCD (electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism) (Schattschneider P et al 2006 Nature 441 486–8), which makes use of special electron scattering conditions to force the absorption of a circularly polarized virtual photon.The intrinsic advantage of EMCD over XMCD is the high spatial resolution of electron microscopes, which are readily available. Among the particular obstacles in EMCD that do not exist for synchrotron radiation, is the notoriously low signal and the very particular scattering conditions necessary to observe a chiral dichroic signal. In spite of that, impressive progress has been made in recent years. The signal strength could be considerably increased, and some innovations such as using a convergent beam have been introduced. EMCD has evolved into several techniques, which make full use of the versatility of the TEM and energy filtering, spectroscopy or STEM conditions (Rubino S 2007 Magnetic circular dichroism in the transmission electron microscope PhD Thesis Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria).

  • 30.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Schattschneider, Peter
    Institute for Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1040, Austria; and Service Centre for TEM, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1040, Austria.
    Stöger-Pollach, Michael
    Service Centre for TEM, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1040, Austria.
    Hébert, Cécile
    SB-CIME Station 12, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Theoretical Magnetism.
    Calmels, Lionel
    Nanomaterieaux Group, CEMES-CNRS, FR-31400 Toulouse, France.
    Warot-Fonrose, Benedicte
    Nanomaterieaux Group, CEMES-CNRS, FR-31400 Toulouse, France.
    Houdellier, Florent
    Nanomaterieaux Group, CEMES-CNRS, FR-31400 Toulouse, France.
    Serin, Virginie
    Nanomaterieaux Group, CEMES-CNRS, FR-31400 Toulouse, France.
    Novak, Pavel
    Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague CZ-18221, Czech Republic.
    Energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD): Magnetic chiral dichroism in the electron microscope2008In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 2582-2590Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique called energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) has recently been developed [P. Schattschneider, et al. Nature 441, 486 (2006)] to measure magnetic circular dichroism in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a spatial resolution of 10 nm. This novel technique is the TEM counterpart of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, which is widely used for the characterization of magnetic materials with synchrotron radiation. In this paper we describe several experimental methods that can be used to measure the EMCD signal [P. Schattschneider, et al. Nature 441, 486 (2006); C. Hébert, et al. Ultramicroscopy 108(3), 277 (2008); B. Warot-Fonrose, et al. Ultramicroscopy 108(5), 393 (2008); L. Calmels, et al. Phys. Rev. B 76, 060409 (2007); P. van Aken, et al. Microsc. Microanal. 13(3), 426 (2007)] and give a review of the recent improvements of this new investigation tool. The dependence of the EMCD on several experimental conditions (such as thickness, relative orientation of beam and sample, collection and convergence angle) is investigated in the transition metals iron, cobalt, and nickel. Different scattering geometries are illustrated; their advantages and disadvantages are detailed, together with current limitations. The next realistic perspectives of this technique consist of measuring atomic specific magnetic moments, using suitable spin and orbital sum rules, [L. Calmels, et al. Phys. Rev. B 76, 060409 (2007); J. Rusz, et al. Phys. Rev. B 76, 060408 (2007)] with a resolution down to 2 to 3 nm.

  • 31.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kádas, Krisztina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Hedberg, Stefan
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta, Sweden.
    Collin, Marianne
    AB Sandvik Tooling R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Annika
    Ångström Materials Academy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Electron Microscopy studies on stainless steel transfer onto a TiN coated cutting tool2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kádas, Krisztina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Hedberg, Stefan
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta, Sweden.
    Collin, Marianne
    AB Sandvik Tooling R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Annika
    Ångström Materials Academy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Electron Microscopy studies on stainless steel transfer onto a TiN coated cutting tool2010In: 17th International Microscopy Congress - Rio de Janeiro19-24 September 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Rusz, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Johansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Calculations of orientation-sensitive ELNES on crystalline materials2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Rusz, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Liebig, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Quantitative magnetic measurements with transmission electron microscope2010In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 322, no 9-12, p. 1478-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We briefly review the state-of-the-art electronmagnetic chiraldichroism experiments and theory with focus on quantitative measurements of the atom-specific orbital to spin moment ratio m(1)/m(s). Our approach of quantitative method, based on reciprocal space mapping of the magnetic signal, is described. We discuss additional symmetry considerations for m(1)/m(s) measurements, which are present due to dynamical diffraction effects. The selead to a preference for the 3-beam orientation of the sample. Further on, we describe a method of correcting a symmetries present due to imperfect 3-beam orientation-the so-called double-difference correction.

  • 35.
    Rusz, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Oppeneer, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Influence of plural scattering on quantitative magnetic information measured by EMCD2011In: 10th Multinational Congress on Microscopy, Urbino, Italy; 4-9 Sep. 2011, 2011, p. 43-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Rusz, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Oppeneer, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    On precision of ELNES calculations for EMCD applications2009In: MC 2009 - Microscopy Conference 2009 in Graz, Austria 30/8-4/9 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Rusz, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Asymmetry of the two-beam geometry in EMCD experiments2010In: Journal of Microscopy, ISSN 0022-2720, E-ISSN 1365-2818, Vol. 237, no 3, p. 465-468Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Rusz, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Oppeneer, Peter M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Local electronic structure information contained in energy-filtered diffraction patterns2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, no 6, p. 064444-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the information contained in energy-filtered diffraction patterns measured on core-level edges. By inversion of the sum rules for electron energy loss near edge structures we calculate the reciprocal space distribution of the contribution to the total signal originating from spin moment, orbital moment, spin-orbital interaction, and individual components of magnetic and spin-orbital anisotropy tensors. We demonstrate, in particular, that the diffraction patterns contain information about all three vector components of the spin and orbital magnetic moments.

  • 39.
    Rusz, Ján
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Oppeneer, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of plural scattering on the quantitative determination of spin and orbital moments in electron magnetic chiral dichroism measurements2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 83, no 13, p. 132402-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent quantitative measurements of the orbital to spin magnetic moment ratio m(L)/m(S) in electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) experiments have given a m(L)/m(S) ratio that is larger than commonly accepted values. We demonstrate here that plural scattering may noticeably influence the m(L)/m(S) ratio. An equation is derived which describes its influence as a function of the spectral integrals of the plasmon scattering region and zero-loss peak. The influence of the electron-plasmon scattering can be removed when electron energy-loss spectra of the ionization edge are deconvoluted by the low-loss signal. For a bcc-Fe sample we obtain m(L)/m(S) = 0.04 after plasmon removal. We conclude that the plural scattering should be considered when extracting quantitative information from EMCD measurements.

  • 40.
    Schattschneider, Peter
    et al.
    (Inst. für Festkörperphysik und Univ. Serviceeinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Technische Universität Wien,Vienna, Austria.
    Stoeger-Pollach, Michael
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Sperl, Matthias
    Hurm, Christian
    Zweck, Josef
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Detection of magnetic circular dichroism on the two-nanometer scale2008In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 78, no 10, p. 104413-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) is a standard technique for the study of magnetic properties of materials in synchrotron beamlines. We present here a scattering geometry in the transmission electron microscope through which MCD can be observed with unprecedented spatial resolution. A convergent electron beam is used to scan a cross sectional preparation of a Fe/Au multilayer sample. Differences in the energy-loss spectra induced by the magnetic moments of the Fe atoms can be resolved with a resolution of better than 2 nm. This is a breakthrough achievement when compared both to the previous energy-loss MCD resolution (200 nm) or the best x-ray MCD experiments (approximately 20 nm).

  • 41.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Ito, Yasuo
    Northern Illinois University.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Zamani, Atieh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Wen, Jianguo
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Zaluzec, Nestor
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Structural and EMCD analysis of Fe/V multilayers2012In: Proceedings of the 15th European Microscopy Congress: Volume 1: Physical Sciences: Applications / [ed] D. J. Stokes and W. M. Rainforth, 2012, p. 277-278Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rusz, Jan
    Rubino, Stefano
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Ito, Y.
    Zaluzec, N.J
    Energy-loss Magnetic Circular Dichroism on a magnetite-encapsulated Fe thin film2013In: Annual Meeting of the Nordic Microscopy Society, Copenhagen, 2013., Copenhagen: Nordic Microscopy Society, Copenhagen , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Ito, Yasuo
    No Illinois Univ, Dept Phys, De Kalb, IL 60115 USA.
    Zaluzec, Nestor J.
    Argonne Natl Lab, NanoSci & Technol Div, Electron Microscopy Ctr, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Quantitative analysis of magnetic spin and orbital moments from an oxidized iron (110) surface using electron magnetic circular dichroism2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 13012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the ramifications of reduced crystalline symmetry on magnetic behavior is a critical step in improving our understanding of nanoscale and interfacial magnetism. However, investigations of such effects are often controversial largely due to the challenges inherent in directly correlating nanoscale stoichiometry and structure to magnetic behavior. Here, we describe how to use Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) to obtain Electron Magnetic Circular Dichroism (EMCD) signals as a function of scattering angle to locally probe the magnetic behavior of thin oxide layers grown on an Fe (1 1 0) surface. Experiments and simulations both reveal a strong dependence of the magnetic orbital to spin ratio on its scattering vector in reciprocal space. We exploit this variation to extract the magnetic properties of the oxide cladding layer, showing that it locally may exhibit an enhanced orbital to spin moment ratio. This finding is supported here by both spatially and angularly resolved EMCD measurements, opening up the way for compelling investigations into how magnetic properties are affected by nanoscale features.

  • 44.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Ito, Yasuo
    Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University.
    Zaluzec, Nestor
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Distinguishing overlapping EMCD signals on oxidized metals in the TEM2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Ito, Yasuo
    Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University.
    Zaluzec, Nestor
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Nanoscale magnetic behavior quantified with EMCD2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Wessman, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala Bioctr, Dept Microbiol, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Sebastian
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala Bioctr, Dept Microbiol, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Formulations for freeze-drying of bacteria and their influence on cell survival2013In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 78, article id e4058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular water can be removed to reversibly inactivate microorganisms to facilitate storage. One such method of removal is freeze-drying, which is considered a gentle dehydration method. To facilitate cell survival during drying, the cells are often formulated beforehand. The formulation forms a matrix that embeds the cells and protects them from various harmful stresses imposed on the cells during freezing and drying. We present here a general method to evaluate the survival rate of cells after freeze-drying and we illustrate it by comparing the results obtained with four different formulations: the disaccharide sucrose, the sucrose derived polymer Ficoll PM400, and the respective polysaccharides hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), on two strains of bacteria, P. putida KT2440 and A. chlorophenolicus A6. In this work we illustrate how to prepare formulations for freeze-drying and how to investigate the mechanisms of cell survival after rehydration by characterizing the formulation using of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), surface tension measurements, X-ray analysis, and electron microscopy and relating those data to survival rates. The polymers were chosen to get a monomeric structure of the respective polysaccharide resembling sucrose to a varying degrees. Using this method setup we showed that polymers can support cell survival as effectively as disaccharides if certain physical properties of the formulation are controlled.

  • 47.
    Wessman, Per
    et al.
    Department of Mircobiology, SLU, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mahlin, Denny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kessler, Vadim
    Department of Chemistry, SLU, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Håkansson, Sebastian
    Department of Microbiology, SLU, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Impact of matrix properties on survival of freeze-dried bacteria2011In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 91, no 14, p. 2518-2528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Disaccharides are in general first choice as formulation compounds when freezedrying microorganisms. Although polysaccharides and other biopolymers are considered too large to stabilize and interact with cell components in the same beneficial way as disaccharides, polymers have been reported to support cell survival. In the present study we compare the efficiency of sucrose, the polymers Ficoll, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polyvinylalcohol to support survival of three bacterial strains during freeze-drying. The initial osmotic conditions were adjusted to be similar for all formulations. Formulation characterization was used to interpret the impact that different compound properties had on cell survival.

    Results:

    Despite differences in molecular size, both sucrose and the sucrose based polymer Ficoll supported cell survival after freeze-drying equally well. All formulations became amorphous upon dehydration. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction data showed that the discerned differences in structure of the dry formulations had little impact on the survival rates. The capability of the polymers to support cell survival correlated with the surface activity of the polymers in a similar way for all investigated bacterial strains.

    Conclusion:

    Polymer-based formulations can support cell survival as effectively as disaccharides if formulation properties of importance for maintaining cell viability are identified and controlled.

  • 48.
    Widenkvist, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Boukhvalov, Danil
    Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University of Nijmegen.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Quinlan, Ronald
    Department of Applied Science, The College of William and Mary.
    Katsnelson, Mikhail I.
    Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University .
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Mild sonochemical exfoliation of bromine-intercalated graphite a new route towards graphene2009In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 112003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to produce suspensions of graphene sheets by combining solution-based bromine intercalation and mild sonochemical exfoliation is presented. Ultrasonic treatment of graphite in water leads to the formation of suspensions of graphite flakes. The delamination is dramatically improved by intercalation of bromine into the graphite before sonication. The bromine intercalation was verified by Raman spectroscopy as well as by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show an almost ten times lower interlayer binding energy after introducing Br2 into the graphite. Analysis of the suspended material by transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) revealed a significant content of few-layer graphene with sizes up to 30 µm, corresponding to the grain size of the starting material

  • 49.
    Widenkvist, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Quinlan, R.A.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Boukhvalov, D.W.
    Katsnelson, M.I.
    Sanyal, Biplab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Intercalation and Ultrasonic Treatment of Graphite: a New Synthetic Route to Graphene2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We will demonstrate that ultrasonic treatment of a graphite crystal in water can lead to the formation of small graphene-like flakes in solution. The delamination of the graphite can be increased dramatically by intercalation of bromine from a Br2-saturated water solution. After ultrasonic treatment, large amounts of graphene-like flakes with varying thickness are observed in SEM and TEM. They can be adsorbed onto a surface of a suitable substrate by a simple dipping technique. The effect of polar and non-polar solvents as well as adsorption of the graphene on hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates will be demonstrated and compared. DFT calculations of the intercalation process have been carried out using the SIESTA package and the effect of bromine intercalation on cohesive energy and electronic structure will be discussed and compared with experimental data. Finally, the general approach of using ultrasonic treatment and intercalation as a facile route to graphene synthesis compared to other methods will be discussed.

  • 50.
    Widenkvist, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Fabrication of graphene by sonochemical exfoliation of bromine-graphite2009In: UUCC 2009 - Uppsala University Chemistry Conference - Uppsala Sweden, 12 March 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 59
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