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  • 1.
    Debusmann, Ralph
    et al.
    Saarland University.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration2009In: Resource-Adaptive Cognitive Processes / [ed] Matthew W. Crocker, Jörg Siekmann, Springer , 2009, p. 365-388Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Drewes, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Kuhlmann, MarcoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Applications of Tree Automata in Natural Language Processing2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Drewes, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Kuhlmann, MarcoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Tree Automata Techniques in Natural Language Processing2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ferrara Boston, Marisa
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Cornell University.
    Hale, John
    Department of Linguistics, Cornell University.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Dependency Structures Derived from Minimalist Grammars2010In: The Mathematics of Language: 10th and 11th Biennial Conference, MOL 10, Los Angeles, CA, USA, July 28–30, 2007, and MOL 11, Bielefeld, Germany, August 20–21, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Springer , 2010, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an interpretation of Minimalist Grammars (Stabler, 1997; Stabler & Keenan, 2003) in terms of dependency structures. Under this interpretation, merge operations derive projective dependency structures, and movement operations create both non-projective and illnested structures. This provides a new characterization of the generative capacity of Minimalist Grammar, and makes it possible to discuss the linguistic relevance of non-projectivity and illnestedness based on grammars that derive structures with these properties.

  • 5.
    Gómez-Rodriguez, Carlos
    et al.
    Departamento de Computación, Universidade da Coruña.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Satta, Giorgio
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua.
    Weir, David
    Department of Informatics, University of Sussex.
    Optimal Reduction of Rule Length in Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems2009In: Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2009, p. 539-547Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear Context-free Rewriting Systems (LCFRS) is an expressive grammar formalism with applications in syntax-based machine translation. The parsing complexity of an LCFRS is exponential in both the rank of a production, defined as the number of nonterminals on its right-hand side, and a measure for the discontinuity of a phrase, called fan-out. In this paper, we present an algorithm that transforms an LCFRS into a strongly equivalent form in which all productions have rank at most 2, and has minimal fan-out. Our results generalize previous work on Synchronous Context-Free Grammar, and are particularly relevant for machine translation from or to languages that require syntactic analyses with discontinuous constituents.

  • 6.
    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos
    et al.
    Departamento de Computación, Universidade da Coruña.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Satta, Giorgio
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua.
    Efficient Parsing of Well-Nested Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems2010In: Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010, p. 276-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of well-nested linear context-free rewriting systems has been empirically motivated for modeling of the syntax of languages with discontinuous constituents or relatively free word order. We present a chart-based parsing algorithm that asymptotically improves the known running time upper bound for this class of rewriting systems. Our result is obtained through a linear space construction of a binary normal form for the grammar at hand.

  • 7.
    Kallmeyer, Laura
    et al.
    Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    A Formal Model for Plausible Dependencies in Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several authors have pointed out that the correspondence between LTAG derivation trees and dependency structures is not as direct as it may seem at first glance, and various proposals have been made to overcome this divergence. In this paper we propose to view the correspondence between derivation trees and dependency structures as a tree transformation during which the direction of some of the original edges is reversed. We show that, under this transformation, LTAG is able to induce both ill-nested dependency trees and dependency trees with gap-degree greater than 1, which is not possible under the direct reading of derivation trees as dependency trees.

  • 8.
    Koller, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Potsdam.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    A Generalized View on Parsing and Translation2011In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT), 2011, p. 2-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a formal framework that generalizes a variety of monolingual and synchronous grammar formalisms for parsing and translation. Our framework is based on regular tree grammars that describe derivation trees, which are interpreted in arbitrary algebras. We obtain generic parsing algorithms by exploiting closure properties of regular tree languages.

  • 9.
    Koller, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Potsdam.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Decomposing TAG Parsing Algorithms Using Simple Algebraizations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review a number of different ‘algebraic’ perspectives on TAG and STAG in the framework of interpreted regular tree grammars (IRTGs). We then use this framework to derive a new parsing algorithm for TAGs, based on two algebras that describe strings and derived trees. Our algorithm is extremely modular, and can easily be adapted to the synchronous case.

  • 10.
    Koller, Alexander
    et al.
    Department of Computational Linguistics, Saarland University.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Dependency Trees and the Strong Generative Capacity of CCG2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel algorithm for extracting dependencies from CCG derivations. Unlike earlier proposals, our dependency structures are always tree-shaped. We then use these dependency trees to compare the strong generative capacities of CCG and TAG and obtain surprising results: Although both formalisms generate the same string languages, their strong generative capacities are equivalent if we ignore word order, and incomparable if we take it into account.

  • 11.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Dependency Structures and Lexicalized Grammars: An Algebraic Approach2010Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Mildly Non-Projective Dependency Grammar2013In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 355-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long-standing tradition in descriptive linguistics, and receive considerable interest in many applications. Nevertheless, dependency syntax has remained somewhat of an island from a formal point of view. Moreover, most formalisms available for dependency grammar are restricted to projective analyses, and thus not able to support natural accounts of phenomena such as wh-movement and cross–serial dependencies. In this article we present a formalism for non-projective dependency grammar in the framework of linear context-free rewriting systems. A characteristic property of our formalism is a close correspondence between the non-projectivity of the dependency trees admitted by a grammar on the one hand, and the parsing complexity of the grammar on the other. We show that parsing with unrestricted grammars is intractable. We therefore study two constraints on non-projectivity, block-degree and well-nestedness. Jointly, these two constraints define a class of “mildly” non-projective dependency grammars that can be parsed in polynomial time. An evaluation on five dependency treebanks shows that these grammars have a good coverage on empirical data.

  • 13.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos
    Universidade da Coruña.
    Satta, Giorgio
    University of Padua.
    Dynamic Programming Algorithms for Transition-Based Dependency Parsers2011In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011, p. 673-682Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a general dynamic programming technique for the tabulation of transition-based dependency parsers, and apply it to obtain novel, polynomial-time algorithms for parsing with the arc-standard and arc-eager models. We also show how to reverse our technique to obtain new transition-based dependency parsers from existing tabular methods. Additionally, we provide a detailed discussion of the conditions under which the feature models commonly used in transition-based parsing can be integrated into our algorithms.

     

  • 14.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Koller, Alexander
    Cluster of Excellence, Saarland University.
    Satta, Giorgio
    Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Padua.
    The Importance of Rule Restrictions in CCG2010In: Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010, p. 534-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) is generally construed as a fully lexicalized formalism, where all grammars use one and the same universal set of rules, and cross-linguistic variation is isolated in the lexicon. In this paper, we show that the weak generative capacity of this `pure’ form of CCG is strictly smaller than that of CCG with grammar-specific rules, and of other mildly context-sensitive grammar formalisms, including Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG). Our result also carries over to a multi-modal extension of CCG.

  • 15.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Niehren, Joachim
    INRIA Lille Nord Europe.
    Logics and Automata for Totally Ordered Trees2008In: Rewriting Techniques and Applications, Proceedings / [ed] Voronkov, A, 2008, p. 217-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A totally ordered tree is a tree equipped with an additional total order on its nodes. It provides a formal model for data that comes with both a hierarchical and a sequential structure; one example for such data are natural language sentences, where a sequential structure is given by word order, and a hierarchical structure is given by grammatical relations between words. In this paper, we study monadic second-order logic (MSO) for totally ordered terms. We show that the MSO satisfiability problem of unrestricted structures is undecidable, but give a decision procedure for practically relevant sub-classes, based on tree automata.

  • 16.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Nivre, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Transition-Based Techniques for Non-Projective Dependency Parsing2010In: Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT), ISSN 2000-1533, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an empirical evaluation of three methods for the treatment of non-projective structures in transition-based dependency parsing: pseudo-projective parsing, non-adjacent arc transitions, and online reordering. We compare both the theoretical coverage and the empirical performance of these methods using data from Czech, English and German. The results show that although online reordering is the only method with complete theoretical coverage, all three techniques exhibit high precision but somewhat lower recall on non-projective dependencies and can all improve overall parsing accuracy provided that non-projective dependencies are frequent enough. We also find that the use of non-adjacent arc transitions may lead to a drop in accuracy on projective dependencies in the presence of long-distance non-projective dependencies, an effect that is not found for the two other techniques.

  • 17.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Satta, Giorgio
    University of Padua.
    Tree-Adjoining Grammars are not Closed Under Strong Lexicalization2012In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar is a tree-adjoining grammar where each elementary tree contains some overt lexical item. Such grammars are being used to give lexical accounts of syntactic phenomena, where an elementary tree defines the domain of locality of the syntactic and semantic dependencies of its lexical items. It has been claimed in the literature that for every tree-adjoining grammar, one can construct a strongly equivalent lexicalized version. We show that such a procedure does not exist: Tree-adjoining grammars are not closed under strong lexicalization.

  • 18.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Satta, Giorgio
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua.
    Treebank Grammar Techniques for Non-Projective Dependency Parsing2009In: Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2009, p. 478-486Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An open problem in dependency parsing is the accurate and efficient treatment of non-projective structures. We propose to attack this problem using chart-parsing algorithms developed for mildly context-sensitive grammar formalisms. In this paper, we provide two key tools for this approach. First, we show how to reduce non-projective dependency parsing to parsing with Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems (LCFRS), by presenting a technique for extracting LCFRS from dependency treebanks. For efficient parsing, the extracted grammars need to be transformed in order to minimize the number of nonterminal symbols per production. Our second contribution is an algorithm that computes this transformation for a large, empirically relevant class of grammars.

  • 19.
    Nivre, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Hall, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    An Improved Oracle for Dependency Parsing with Online Reordering2009In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT), Association for Computational Linguistics , 2009, p. 73-76Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Satta, Giorgio
    et al.
    University of Padua.
    Kuhlmann, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Efficient Parsing for Head-Split Dependency Trees2013In: Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Vol. 1, no July, p. 267-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Head splitting techniques have been successfully exploited to improve the asymptotic runtime of parsing algorithms for projective dependency trees, under the arc-factored model. In this article we extend these techniques to a class of non-projective dependency trees, called well-nested dependency trees with block-degree at most 2, which has been previously investigated in the literature. We define a structural property that allows head splitting for these trees, and present two algorithms that improve over the runtime of existing algorithms at no significant loss in coverage.

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