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  • 1.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ekman, Joakim
    Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Procedural fairness and political trust among young people: Evidence from a panel study on Swedish high school students2015In: Acta Politica, ISSN 0001-6810, E-ISSN 1741-1416, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 253-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of ‘fair’ institutions in developing democratic legitimacy has received increased attention. Citizens who perceive – on basis of past experiences – that they are being treated fairly by authorities have been held to have greater trust in political institutions. However, previous studies on the relationship between procedural fairness and political trust have not paid sufficient attention to individuals with limited first-hand experiences of authorities. We examine the relationship on an authority that virtually all individuals meet early in life: the school. Using structural equation modeling on unique panel data covering 1,500 Swedish adolescents (ages ranging from 13 to 17), we find a reciprocal relationship: personal encounters with school authorities shape young people’s political trust; however, the images that adolescents get of the political system (through family, peers, media, etc.) have also consequences on their perceptions about the authorities they encounter in their daily lives. The analysis increases our understanding of how individuals form their political allegiances by showing that the relationship between fairness and trust is more dynamic than has previously been suggested: neither an accumulated set of experiences of authorities nor formal ties with political institutions (as voters, etc.) are required for a relationship to emerge. 

  • 2.
    Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Holm, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    När staten ska förnya civilsamhället: Arvsfondens bidrag till föreningslivet2012Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Youth & Society.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    A Political Science Perspective on Socialization Research: Young Nordic Citizens in a Comparative Light2010In: Handbook of Research on Civic Engagement in Youth / [ed] Lonnie R. Sherrod, Judith Torney-Purta, Constance A. Flanagan, Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2010, p. 43-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    A Feminist Opposition to Gender Equality?: Making Sense of the Social Democratic Party's Internal Struggle over Extending Parental-Leave Quotas in Sweden2018In: Varieties of Opposition to Gender Equality in Europe / [ed] Mieke Verloo, Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Analyzing Failure, Understanding Success: A Research Strategy for Explaining Gender Equality Policy Adoption2013In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 280-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major challenges within feminist research is to understand the conditions under which gender equality policies are adopted. This article addresses the issue from a methodological point of view: it suggests that previous research on gender equality policy adoption has mostly focused on “successful” cases, and it presents a research strategy for systematically analysing opposition and “failed” attempts at gender equality policy adoption, that is, reform attempts that have not become laws or regulations. A closer analysis of failure is important for understanding success: we cannot be sure that the factors identified as conducive to gender equality reform are really missing in unsuccessful reform attempts unless we pay explicit attention to such attempts. The research strategy suggests three issues that should be addressed: (1) specify and select “unsuccessful” cases, (2) focus explicitly on resistance to the reform proposal, and (3) conduct a dynamic analysis of the strategies of proponents and opponents. We illustrate the research strategy by making use of a failed attempt at reform in the Swedish labour market: the individualization of the parental leave system.

  • 6.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Gendered Leeway: Male Privilege, Internal and External Mandates, and Gender Equality Policy Change2018In: Politics, Groups, and Identities, ISSN 2156-5503, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 576-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the question of why male politicians continue to be relatively unlikely to act in favor of gender-equality policy change, despite the advances in gender equality in recent decades. Drawing together literature on men and masculinities, feminist institutionalism and women’s substantive representation, we present a theoretical argument in which we distinguish between an internal and an external mandate to push for genderequality policy change. We argue that both these mandates apply to female politicians but not to their male colleagues. As a consequence, a gendered leeway exists: men have more leeway than women in political maneuvering. We illustrate this argument by analyzing high-ranked party representatives within the selflabelled feminist Swedish Social Democratic Party. This article contributes theoretically to the launching of a research agenda on the role of men in processes of gender-equality policy adoption.

  • 7.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Impact of Gender Quotas on Political Party Recruitment: The Limited Reform Potential of Reserved Seats2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Yoon, Mi Yung
    Hannover College.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gender Quotas and the Re(pro)duction of Corruption2018In: Gender and Corruptoon: Historical Roots and New Avenues for Research / [ed] Helena Stensöta and Lena Wängnerud, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gender Equality Reforms on an Uneven Playing Field: Candidate Selection and Quota Implementation in Electoral Authoritarian Tanzania2016In: Government and Opposition, ISSN 0017-257X, E-ISSN 1477-7053, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 464-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the dynamics that gender quota reforms create withinand between government and opposition parties in electoral authoritariandominant-party states. A dominant-party state regularly holds relativelycompetitive elections, but the political playing field is skewed in favour of thegovernment party. We investigate the circumstances under which genderquotas’ goal of furthering political gender equality within political parties canbe reconciled with parties’ electoral concerns. We address these issues byanalysing the implementation of reserved seats by the three largest parties inthe dominant-party state of Tanzania. The empirical analysis suggests that theuneven playing field leaves an imprint on the specific priorities parties makewhen implementing candidate selection reforms. Because of large resource gapsbetween parties, the ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi – (CCM), is able toreconcile gender equality concerns with power-maximizing partisan strategies toa greater extent than the opposition parties.

  • 10.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Political Parties and Gender Quota Implementation: The Role of Bureaucratized Candidate Selection Processes2016In: Comparative politics, ISSN 0010-4159, E-ISSN 2151-6227, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 393-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article scrutinizes the role of political parties in gender quota implementation. First, it theoretically specifies and operationalizes the concept of bureaucratization in relation to candidate selection. Second, it examines whether parties with bureaucratized selection procedures are better at implementing legally mandated candidate quotas than other parties. We measure implementation as the number of women candidates and women elected (the latter measuring implementation of the spirit of quota laws). Using unique data on almost 100 Latin American parties, the analysis shows that once quotas are in place, parties with bureaucratized selection procedures put substantially more women on their candidate lists than other parties. However, these parties are only better at implementing the letter of the law: they do not get more women elected.

  • 11.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Political parties, formal selection criteria, and gendered parliamentary representation2019In: Party Politics, ISSN 1354-0688, E-ISSN 1460-3683, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 325-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political parties sometimes set up formal criteria to define the pool of potential candidates. This article represents the first large-scale comparative analysis of potential unintended gendered consequences of these formal selection criteria for parliamentary representation. Using unique data on 101 political parties in 32 African, Asian, and postcommunist European countries, we find that there is indeed a relationship between formal selection criteria and men's and women's political representation. Criteria that concern ethnic or geographic background and intraparty experiences are harmful to women. On the other hand, gendered consequences are not as pronounced as a result of criteria concerning qualifications or requirements in relation to electability. Taken together, the analysis points to the need to pay increased attention to formal selection criteria and how this under-researched aspect of candidate selection shapes the parliamentary representation of underrepresented groups.

  • 12.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Removing Quotas, Maintaining Representation: Overcoming Gender Inequalities in Political Party Recruitment2011In: Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, ISSN 0034-4893, E-ISSN 1749-4001, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 187-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender quotas are often referred to as temporary measures to be removed once the barriers for women's political representation have permanently been broken. This article explores theoretically the potential for different quota types to be removed whilst maintaining a high level of women's representation. We find that implemented party/legislative quotas with rank order specifications is the quota type that is most likely to both increase women's numerical representation and to reform political parties' practices in a gender-equal way.

  • 13.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Impacts of gender Quotas on Candidate Selection Procedures: Towards a Theoretical Framework2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Why are Representational Guarantees Adopted for Women and Minorities?: Comparing Constituency Formation and Electoral Quota Design Within Countries2014In: Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, ISSN 0034-4893, E-ISSN 1749-4001, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 307-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the underlying motives for ensuring the political inclusion of marginalised groups. More specifically, it analyses whether laws guaranteeing representation are designed differently for women and minorities and, if so, whether these differences correspond to normative arguments for group representation. We use a novel research strategy by comparing quota designs in all countries that have adopted quotas for both groups. Theoretically, we reconceptualise the relevant distinction between quota types by focusing on whether a special constituency is created or not. We identify substantial differences in quota design between the two groups. Minorities tend to be guaranteed representation through the creation of special constituencies, whereas gender quotas more commonly imply integration into pre-existing constituencies. The analysis largely supports those who argue that quotas for minorities aim to increase the autonomy of the group in question while gender quotas are adopted with the intention to integrate women into the political system.

  • 15.
    Clayton, Amanda
    et al.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Nashville, TN 37203 USA.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Quota Shocks: Electoral Gender Quotas and Government Spending Priorities Worldwide2018In: Journal of Politics, ISSN 0022-3816, E-ISSN 1468-2508, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 916-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid expansion of electoral gender quotas in the past few decades has been met with considerable scholarly and public attention. Despite this, there has been little empirical work examining the global legislative consequences of gender quotas over time. Developing a unique time-series cross-sectional data set from 139 states during the peak period of quota adoption and implementation (1995-2012), we test whether and how quotas are associated with subsequent changes in government spending priorities. We find that substantial quota shocks-those associated with a large increase in women's parliamentary representation-are followed by increased government expenditures toward public health. Further, we find that increases in health spending are offset by relative decreases in military spending and other spending categories. Our findings provide strong evidence that quota policies influence government priorities in historically feminized policy areas but principally when they are complied with and have substantial numerical consequences.

  • 16.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Södertörns högskola.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Bidrag till vad?: En kunskapsöversikt över effekter och metoder rörande statliga bidrag till ideella organisationer : Rapport till Ungdomsstyrelsen April 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ekman, Joakim
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Schools and Democratic Socialization: Assessing the Impact of Different Educational Settings on Swedish 14-Year Olds’ Political Citizenship2011In: Politics, Culture and Socialization, ISSN 1866-3427, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 171-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the role of schools in fostering political citizens – i.e. providing them with the competencies and skills needed to realize their status as political actors in a democratic society. We pay attention to three dimensions of political citizenship: internal political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation. Drawing on the Swedish part of the 2009 International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS), we analyze the impact of four school-related factors on the development of the political citizenship of 3,464 Swedish 14-year olds. The student information is paired with school data (a school questionnaire), in order to assess the effect of different school contexts; and we have access to official statistics (census data) which provides us with reliable information about the socioeconomic status of the students. The analysis demonstrates that there is only one school factor that seems to have a distinct impact on the development of the political citizenship of 14-year olds: the socioeconomic embeddedness of the school. As a result, the article suggests that the development of political citizenship is determined less by what goes on in the classroom and more by the composition of the students that populate a school.

  • 18.
    Ekman, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet & Södertörns högskola.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Svenska 14-åringars medborgarkompetens: En analys av elevenkäten i ICCS-undersökningen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ekman, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet & Södertörns högskola.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vad förklarar skillnaderna mellan 14-åringars medborgarkompetens: En tvånivåanalys av den svenska delen av ICCS-undersökningen2010In: Skolor som politiska arenor: medborgarkompetens och kontrovershantering : internationella studier, Stockholm: Fritzes , 2010, p. 80-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hughes, Melanie M.
    et al.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Sociol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Paxton, Pamela
    Univ Texas Austin, Sociol & Publ Affairs, Austin, TX 78712 USA;Univ Texas Austin, Liberal Arts, Austin, TX 78712 USA.
    Clayton, Amanda B.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Polit Sci, 221 Kirkland Hall, Nashville, TN 37235 USA.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Global Gender Quota Adoption, Implementation, and Reform2019In: Comparative politics, ISSN 0010-4159, E-ISSN 2151-6227, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 219-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last fifty years, gender quotas have transformed the composition of national legislatures worldwide. But a lack of systematic cross-national longitudinal data limits the questions researchers are able to ask about quotas. This article introduces a new dataset-QAROT (Quota Adoption and Reform Over Time)-the first global dataset on gender quota adoption, implementation, and reform over time. Theoretically, we clarify important issues in extant quota research. The dataset moves beyond traditional categorizations of quota policies with new measures of quota design, quota thresholds, placement mandates, sanctions for non-compliance, and quota effectiveness. We also create a single-variable measure of the presence of an effective quota to be used by comparative politics researchers to control for this powerful institutional feature.

  • 21.
    Krook, Mona Lena
    et al.
    Rutgers University.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Electoral quotas and political representation: Comparative perspectives2014In: International Political Science Review, ISSN 0192-5121, E-ISSN 1460-373X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electoral quotas have emerged as one of the critical political reforms of the last two decades, affecting a widerange of representative processes. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive with regard to what quotas‘mean’ more broadly, either for politics at large or for the empowerment of group members. Taking up thischallenge, this special issue brings together articles that collectively expand the current research agenda totheorise and assess the wider impact of electoral quotas. A unifying theme is the use of comparative researchstrategies to illuminate dynamics indicating the possibilities and limits of what quotas can achieve. Thisintroductory article reviews the existing literature and then details the research strategies and theoretical andempirical findings of the articles that follow, concluding with directions for future research and implicationsof this work for connecting central debates within political science.

  • 22.
    Krook, Mona Lena
    et al.
    Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA.
    Zetterberg, PärUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gender Quotas and Women's Representation: New directions in research2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electoral gender quotas have emerged as one of the most critical political reforms of the last two decades, having now been introduced in more than 130 countries worldwide. The recent and global nature of these developments has sparked both scholarly and popular interest in the in which these quotas are designed, as well as their origins and effects.

    This volume seeks to expand these existing agendas to forge new directions in research on gender quotas and political representation. The topics considered include new paths to adoption, as well as – in the wake of quota introduction – changes in the dynamics of candidate selection, the status and role of women in legislative institutions, and the impact that women have on policy-making. Expanding the scope of quota studies, the contributions also address trends in different political parties and different levels of government, the effectiveness of quotas in democratic and non-democratic settings, and whether there might be non-quota mechanisms that could be pursued together with, or in lieu of, gender quotas in order to increase women’s political representation.

  • 23.
    Krook, Mona Lena
    et al.
    Rutgers University.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Introduction: Gender quotas and women's representation - New directions in research2014In: Representation: Journal of Representative Democracy, ISSN 0034-4893, E-ISSN 1749-4001, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 287-294Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lundin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström-Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Leadership Experiences within Civil Organizations and Candidacy in Public Elections: Causal Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Approach2016In: Political Behavior, ISSN 0190-9320, E-ISSN 1573-6687, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standing as a candidate in public elections has been characterized as the ultimate act of political participation. We test the hypothesis that acquiring office within civil organizations increases the probability of becoming a candidate in public elections. In order to take self-selection problems into account, we provide quasi-experimental evidence using election discontinuities, in which we compare the likelihood of being nominated for public office between closely ranked winners and losers in Swedish student union (SU) elections. Our original data cover 5,000 SU candidates and register data on their candidacies in public elections (1991–2010). The analysis provides support to the hypothesis: Students elected to SU councils were about 34 percent (6 percentage points) more likely to become a candidate in a public election than SU council candidates who were not elected. The causal impact is fairly stable over time. The analysis makes important contributions to two interrelated bodies of literature: First, it provides political recruitment literature with causal evidence that acquiring leadership experiences at arenas outside of representative democ­ratic institutions facilitate entry into election processes. Second, it provides strong evidence to an increasingly contested issue within political participation research by showing that certain organizational activities increase individuals’ political involvement.

  • 25.
    Reuterswärd, Camilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Molyneux, Maxine
    University of London, Institute for the Study of the Americas.
    Abortion Law Reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: Issue Networks and Opportunity Contexts2011In: Development and Change, ISSN 0012-155X, E-ISSN 1467-7660, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 805-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun’s (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  • 26.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Do Gender Quotas Foster Women's Political Engagement?: Lessons from Latin America2009In: Political research quarterly, ISSN 1065-9129, E-ISSN 1938-274X, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 715-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender quotas have been held to have more far-reaching consequences than increasing women’s political representation. Some scholars claim that they foster women’s overall political engagement. After elaborating a theoretical framework on how affirmative action policies to legislative bodies might be beneficial to constituents of the targeted group, I test this hypothesis on women in 17 Latin American countries. Contrasting previous claims, I show that there is no general proof of attitudinal or behavioral effects. The analysis represents an initial attempt to theorize and use large-scale data to examine the more long-term consequences of quota policies on female constituents’ political involvement.

  • 27.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Engineering Equality?: Assessing the Multiple Impacts of Electoral Gender Quotas2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The driving question of this compilation thesis is whether quotas for political assemblies represent an effective tool for breaking down gender inequality in the political sphere. To put it differently, focus is on the possibilities for policy-makers to engineer equality. As a response to persistent patterns of male dominance in political decision-making, approximately 100 countries, both democratic and authoritarian, have adopted these affirmative action measures.

    The introductory section presents an argument as to why we should focus on certain impacts in order to be able to answer the question about the effectiveness of quotas. It suggests that the point of departure for empirical assessments of quota policies should be the normative arguments for supporting the reform, and the effects that normative theorists and quota advocates expect from these measures.

    The three studies that make up the core of the thesis build on previous empirical research on quotas, and examine some of their possible effects at both the elite level and mass level. Study I theoretically scrutinizes how the procedures for selecting women to political office shape these women's legislative autonomy, and thereby their possibilities to substantively represent women. The study identifies mainly two factors as important: a large body selecting the candidates and a rule-bound and thus bureaucratized selection procedure.

    Study II empirically tests the claim that women elected through quotas are more likely to suffer from institutional constraints in the legislature, and thereby have a harder time working for the benefit of women, than other female representatives. By conducting a comparative case-study of two Mexican state legislatures, no support is found for this hypothesis.

    Quotas have also been justified because of their likely impacts on female citizens' perceptions about politics. Study III addresses this issue by performing a statistical analysis on the impacts of quotas on Latin American women's political attitudes and behavior. In contrast to previous research on the topic, the study finds little proof of positive impacts of quotas on women's political engagement.

    Taken together, the thesis does not provide a clear-cut answer to the question as to whether it is possible to engineer equality within politics. However, it sheds new light on the complexities of quota impacts, and it qualifies and nuances the picture for those who expect quotas to be an overall solution for problems of gender inequality.

    List of papers
    1. The downside of gender quotas?: institutional constraints on women in mexican state legislatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The downside of gender quotas?: institutional constraints on women in mexican state legislatures
    2008 (English)In: Parliamentary Affairs, ISSN 0031-2290, E-ISSN 1460-2482, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 442-460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a rich and varied body of literature has developed that focuses on the way that institutional structures limit women’s substantive representation. Claims have been made that some women legislators are more likely to suffer from institutional constraints than others; those entering legislature via legal gender quotas. Examining two Mexican state legislatures, where only one has adopted legal gender quotas, empirical testing gives no support to the hypothesis; ‘quota women’ do not seem to confront more obstacles than other women. No such negative side effect of quota legislation is identified. Two reasons are put forward; first, dependency on particular leaders is not isolated to quota women but is part of the overall political system. Secondly, the most strident battles occur within political parties for positions of power; hence gender quotas are perceived as a threat mainly to male colleagues within the party. Two key aspects are identified that deserve closer attention in order to gain a more comprehensive picture of the relationship between gender quotas and institutional obstacles to women’s substantive representation: the political agendas raised by quota women and the interplay between different quota provisions and candidate selection rules.

    Keywords
    gender, quotas, Mexico, substantive representation, candidate selection, tokenism, stigmatization
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-27497 (URN)10.1093/pa/gsn016 (DOI)000257191100003 ()
    Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Do Gender Quotas Foster Women's Political Engagement?: Lessons from Latin America
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Gender Quotas Foster Women's Political Engagement?: Lessons from Latin America
    2009 (English)In: Political research quarterly, ISSN 1065-9129, E-ISSN 1938-274X, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 715-730Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gender quotas have been held to have more far-reaching consequences than increasing women’s political representation. Some scholars claim that they foster women’s overall political engagement. After elaborating a theoretical framework on how affirmative action policies to legislative bodies might be beneficial to constituents of the targeted group, I test this hypothesis on women in 17 Latin American countries. Contrasting previous claims, I show that there is no general proof of attitudinal or behavioral effects. The analysis represents an initial attempt to theorize and use large-scale data to examine the more long-term consequences of quota policies on female constituents’ political involvement.

    Keywords
    quotas, gender, political engagement, Latin America, policy feedback, symbolic representation
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Research subject
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100820 (URN)10.1177/1065912908322411 (DOI)000271826800007 ()
    Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Gender Quotas and Women's Legislative Autonomy: Theorizing the Role of Candidate Selection Procedures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender Quotas and Women's Legislative Autonomy: Theorizing the Role of Candidate Selection Procedures
    (English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Keywords
    quotas; gender; candidate selection; substantive representation; autonomy; political parties
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100821 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
  • 28.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gender quotas and political effectiveness: women's experiences in mexican state legislatures2007In: ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Helsinki, May 7-12 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Gender Quotas and Women's Legislative Autonomy: Theorizing the Role of Candidate Selection ProceduresManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Political Engagement and Democratic Legitimacy in Mexico2012In: The Impact of Gender Quotas / [ed] Susan Franceschet, Mona Lena Krook & Jennifer M. Piscopo, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 173-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Quotas and Women’s Symbolic Representation: Lessons from Mexico2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Diffusion of Sub-National Gender Quotas in Mexico and Their Impacts2011In: Diffusion of Gender Quotas in Latin America and Beyond: Advances and Setbacks in the Last Two Decades / [ed] Adriana Piatti-Crocker, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group , 2011, p. 53-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The downside of gender quotas?: institutional constraints on women in mexican state legislatures2008In: Parliamentary Affairs, ISSN 0031-2290, E-ISSN 1460-2482, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 442-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a rich and varied body of literature has developed that focuses on the way that institutional structures limit women’s substantive representation. Claims have been made that some women legislators are more likely to suffer from institutional constraints than others; those entering legislature via legal gender quotas. Examining two Mexican state legislatures, where only one has adopted legal gender quotas, empirical testing gives no support to the hypothesis; ‘quota women’ do not seem to confront more obstacles than other women. No such negative side effect of quota legislation is identified. Two reasons are put forward; first, dependency on particular leaders is not isolated to quota women but is part of the overall political system. Secondly, the most strident battles occur within political parties for positions of power; hence gender quotas are perceived as a threat mainly to male colleagues within the party. Two key aspects are identified that deserve closer attention in order to gain a more comprehensive picture of the relationship between gender quotas and institutional obstacles to women’s substantive representation: the political agendas raised by quota women and the interplay between different quota provisions and candidate selection rules.

  • 34.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Dynamic Relationship between Gender Quotas and Political Institutions2013In: Politics & Gender, ISSN 1743-923X, E-ISSN 1743-9248, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 316-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars of gender quotas have paid increasing attention to the ways in which formal and informal institutions shape the outcome of this electoral reform (Hassim 2009; Jones 2009; Zetterberg 2009). Quotas, however, are not only affected by the institutional context in which they are adopted; their transformative nature also implies that they (should) contribute to changing political institutions. This dynamic relationship has consequences for the analysis of key institutions within representative democracy: Electoral quotas may, in some cases, challenge well-defined analytical frameworks and established ways to study political life. This essay aims to demonstrate theoretically how quota adoption exerts an impact on established political structures and thus challenges existing understandings within subfields of comparative politics. More specifically, I bring up two institutions within representative democracy that are likely to be affected by quotas: the political recruitment process and intraparty politics within legislative institutions.

  • 35.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Women's Conditioned Access to Political Office in Mexico2018In: Gender and Representation in Latin America / [ed] Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer, New York: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 196-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Amnå, Erik
    Youth & Society, Örebro universitet.
    Bidra med vad?: Effekter av statsbidrag till kvinnors organisering och jämställdhetsprojekt2010Report (Other academic)
1 - 36 of 36
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