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  • 1. Barenbaum, Joshua
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    The psychosocial aspects of children exposed to war: practice and policy initiatives.2004In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 41-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atrocities of war have detrimental effects on the development and mental health of children that have been documented since World War II. To date, a considerable amount of knowledge about various aspects of this problem has been accumulated, including the ways in which trauma impacts child mental health and development, as well as intervention techniques, and prevention methods. Considering the large populations of civilians that experience the trauma of war, it is timely to review existing literature, summarize approaches for helping war-affected children, and suggest future directions for research and policy.

  • 2. Caminis, Argyro
    et al.
    Henrich, Christopher
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Martin, Andrés
    Psychosocial predictors of sexual initiation and high-risk sexual behaviors in early adolescence.2007In: Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence.

    METHODS: Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175) of a small northeastern city in the United States.We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years.

    RESULTS: Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior.

    CONCLUSION: By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.

  • 3. DeYoung, Colin G.
    et al.
    Getchell, Marya
    Koposov, Roman A.
    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.
    Haeffel, Gerald J.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Pakstis, Andrew J.
    Grigorenko, Elena L.
    Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met polymorphism associated with conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms, among adolescent male delinquents2010In: Psychiatric Genetics, ISSN 0955-8829, E-ISSN 1473-5873, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 20-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) has been associated with antisocial behavior in populations with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined whether COMT would predict antisocial behavior in a sample with high levels of behavior problems, not necessarily ADHD. In addition, because previous research suggests that COMT may be associated with ADHD in males, association between COMT and ADHD symptoms was examined. Method This study tested whether variation in three polymorphisms of the COMT gene was predictive of symptoms of conduct disorder and ADHD, in a sample of 174 incarcerated Russian adolescent male delinquents. Results The Val allele of the Val(158)Met polymorphism was significantly associated with conduct disorder diagnosis and symptoms, whereas the Met allele was associated with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The Val(158)Met polymorphism of the COMT gene shows a complex relation to behavior problems, influencing conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms in opposite directions in a high-risk population. Psychiatr Genet 20:20-24 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 4.
    Elmelid, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.;Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm Ctr Hlth Soc Transit SCOHOST, Huddinge, Sweden.;Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Human Ecol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Henrich, Christopher C.
    Georgia State Univ, Dept Psychol, Atlanta, GA 30302 USA..
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference?2015In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 45, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

  • 5. Fazel, Seena
    et al.
    Buxrud, Petra
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Grann, Martin
    Homicide in discharged patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses: a national case-control study.2010In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 123, no 2-3, p. 263-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with homicide after discharge from hospital in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses.

    DESIGN: All homicides committed by patients with psychosis within 6 months of hospital discharge were identified in Sweden from 1988-2001 and compared with patients with psychoses discharged over the same time period who did not subsequently commit any violent offences. Medical records were then collected, and data extracted using a validated protocol. Interrater reliability tests were performed on a subsample, and variables with poor reliability excluded from subsequent analyses.

    RESULTS: We identified 47 cases who committed a homicide within 6 months of discharge, and 105 controls who did not commit any violent offence after discharge. On univariate analyses, clinical factors on admission associated with homicide included evidence of poor self-care, substance misuse, and being previously hospitalized for a violent episode. Inpatient characteristics included having a severe mental illness for one year prior to admission. After-care factors associated with homicide were evidence of medication non-compliance and substance misuse. The predictive validity of combining two or three of these factors was not high. Depression appeared to be inversely associated with homicide, and there was no relationship with the presence of delusions or hallucinations.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are a number of potentially treatable factors that are associated with homicide in schizophrenia and other psychoses. Associations with substance misuse and treatment compliance could be the focus of therapeutic interventions if validated in other samples. However, their clinical utility in violence risk assessment remains uncertain.

  • 6. Frey, Ariel
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Martin, Andrés
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Adolescents in transition: school and family characteristics in the development of violent behaviors entering high school.2009In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents are vulnerable to becoming involved in problematic behaviors, disengaging academically, and dropping out of school. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of self-perceived school attachment and family involvement on the development of these negative behaviors during adolescence. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) survey was conducted among 652 predominantly minority, inner-city adolescents during their transition from middle to high school in order to examine school attachment, perceived teacher support, parental control, and exposure to community violence as predictors of engagement in violent activities, development of aggressive beliefs, perception of school climate, and academic motivation one year later. Family and school factors appeared to be differentially associated with the negative outcomes. School attachment was associated with lower levels of violent delinquency and aggressive beliefs, as well as with academic motivation. Perceived teacher support was associated with positive perceptions of school climate and with academic motivation. Parental control was associated with lower levels of violent activity and with higher levels of academic motivation. Violence exposure was related to violent delinquency and negative perception of school climate. School attachment, teacher support, parental control, and violence exposure must all be incorporated into school reform efforts intended to break the inner city cycle of violence.

  • 7. Fritz, Marie Väfors
    et al.
    Wiklund, Gunnar
    Koposov, Roman A
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Psychopathy and violence in juvenile delinquents: what are the associated factors?2008In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 272-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was a) to examine the discriminative power of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), aggressive traits, impulsiveness, antisocial attitudes and alcohol-related problems between subgroups of Russian juvenile delinquents (n=175) with low versus high levels of violent behavior; and b) to compare the predictive value of these variables in two subgroups defined by higher versus lower levels of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated that the APSD score, traits of physical aggression and alcohol-related problems were able to discriminate between groups with various levels of violence. Furthermore, the level of violence was the only variant factor when comparing levels of psychopathy. Finally, different sets of predictors emerged for the group with higher versus lower psychopathy scores. The results are discussed in relation to specific features of psychopathy and environmental factors in general and the use of alcohol in particular.

  • 8. Grigorenko, Elena L.
    et al.
    DeYoung, Colin G.
    Eastman, Maria
    Getchell, Marya
    Haeffel, Gerald J.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Koposov, Roman A.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Pakstis, Andrew J.
    Ponomarev, Oleg A.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Singh, Jay P.
    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.
    Aggressive Behavior, Related Conduct Problems, and Variation in Genes Affecting Dopamine Turnover2010In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 158-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and D beta H in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n = 182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n = 60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.

  • 9. Grigorenko, Elena L.
    et al.
    Deyoung, Colin G.
    Getchell, Marya
    Haeffel, Gerald J.
    Klinteberg, Britt A F.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Pakstis, Andrew J.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Yale University.
    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.
    Exploring interactive effects of genes and environments in etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension2007In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1089-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is established that reading and reading-related processes are heritable; genes thus play an important role in the foundation of individual differences in reading. In this article, we focus on one facet of reading-comprehension. Comprehension is a higher order cognitive skill that requires many other cognitive processes for it to unfold completely and successfully. One such process is executive functioning, which has been associated with genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Genotypes and haplotypes of four single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT were investigated in 179 incarcerated adolescent delinquents. Four hierarchical logistic regression models predicting the presence/absence of comprehension difficulties were fitted to the data; genetic variation in COMT and the presence/absence of maternal rejection were investigated as main effects and as effects acting interactively. Three out of four interaction terms were found to be important predictors of individual differences in comprehension. These findings were supported by the results of the haplotype analyses, in which the four investigated polymorphisms were considered simultaneously.

  • 10.
    Gupta Löfving, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors2015In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context.

    METHOD: Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study.

    RESULTS: A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24 % of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress.

    CONCLUSION: Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  • 11. Haeffel, Gerald J.
    et al.
    Getchell, Marya
    Koposov, Roman A.
    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.
    DeYoung, Colin G.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Grigorenko, Elena L.
    Association between polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene and depression: evidence for a gene-environment interaction in a sample of juvenile detainees2008In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has generated examples of how genetic and environmental factors can interact to create risk for psychopathology. Using a gene-by-environment (G x E) interaction design, we tested whether three polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, also referred to as SLC6A3, located at 5p15.33) interacted with maternal parenting style to predict first-onset episodes of depression. Participants were male adolescents (N= 176) recruited from a juvenile detention center in northern Russia. As hypothesized, one of the polymorphisms (rs40184) moderated the effect of perceived maternal rejection on the onset of major depressive disorder, as well as on suicidal ideation. Further, this G x E interaction was specific to depression; it did not predict clinically significant anxiety. These results highlight the need for further research investigating the moderating effects of dopaminergic genes on depression.

  • 12.
    Hein, Sascha
    et al.
    Univ Houston, Houston, TX 77204 USA..
    Tan, Mei
    Univ Houston, Houston, TX 77204 USA..
    Rakhlin, Natalia
    Wayne State Univ, Detroit, MI USA..
    Doyle, Niamh
    SUNY Upstate Med Univ, Syracuse, NY 13210 USA..
    Hart, Lesley
    Univ Houston, Houston, TX 77204 USA..
    Macomber, Donna
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Grigorenko, Elena L.
    Univ Houston, Houston, TX 77204 USA.;Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Moscow State Univ Psychol & Educ, Moscow, Russia.;St Petersburg State Univ, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Psychological and Sociocultural Adaptation of Children Adopted from Russia and their Associations with Pre-Adoption Risk Factors and Parenting2017In: Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024, E-ISSN 1573-2843, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 2669-2680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated academic and behavioral outcomes of internationally adopted children and the associations between these outcomes and age at adoption, time spent in the adoptive family, and parenting. At two time points (T1 and T2, similar to 15 months apart), we examined early academic skills (school readiness), and parent-reported behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior) and adaptive functioning of a sample of 75 children (45.9% boys, mean age = 5.17 years) adopted from Russia into US families. We also collected parents' self-assessments of their parenting at T1. Children who were adopted at a younger age showed higher levels of early academic skills. Correlations between age at adoption and other outcomes were overall small and mostly non-significant. However, adoptees' academic and behavioral progress differed notably in several respects. Specifically, adoptees improved in early academic skills over time, whereas, as a group, their adaptive functioning and behavioral adjustment remained stable within the normal range. Early academic skills were not related to behavioral adjustment at each time point and over time. The time spent in the adoptive family was positively related to early academic skills at T2. Whereas outcomes showed little to no relation to parenting as reported by mother and father separately, higher discrepancies between mothers' and fathers' reports of positive parenting were related to higher levels of behavioral symptoms and lower levels of adaptive skills at T2. These differential results may be explained in part by drawing upon the notion of dissociated domains of psychological and sociocultural adaptation and acculturation, outlined in the immigration literature. These results also bring to light the possible importance of between-parent consistency in parenting for adoptees' behavioral outcomes.

  • 13.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Child Study Center, Yale University USA; Säter Psychiatric Clinic.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Unseen and Stressed? Gender Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms and Associations With Perceived Stress in Children With ADHD.2016In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigate the differences between parent and teacher ADHD ratings, and how these ratings relate to perceived stress in children with ADHD.

    METHOD: Ratings by parents and teachers with the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham ADHD symptom rating scale (SNAP-IV) were collected from children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n = 137). Also, information on medication was collected. Children (≥11 years of age; n = 64) were invited to complete the Pressure-Activation-Stress scale.

    RESULTS: Among girls, but not boys, teacher ratings were significantly lower than parental ratings on all symptom scales. Lower teacher ratings on hyperactivity symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress.

    CONCLUSION: The findings suggest a potential gender bias in ratings among teachers. Underrated, and hence underidentified, ADHD problems in the school setting seem to increase the perception of stress in the sense of pressure for both girls and boys.

  • 14.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stickley, A
    Koposov, R
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.; Sater Psychiat Clin, S-78327 Sater, Sweden..
    The danger of being inattentive - ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents.2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 47, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents.

    METHODS: The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students' self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.

    RESULTS: Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 773-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 ± 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 16. Koposov, Roman A
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Eisemann, Martin
    Sense of coherence: a mediator between violence exposure and psychopathology in Russian juvenile delinquents.2003In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 191, no 10, p. 638-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to community violence tends to have a hazardous impact on the health and well being of youth. In this context, sense of coherence is related to indicators of well being and mental health and is considered crucial for human information processing in resolving conflicts and coping with enduring stress. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of sense of coherence as a potential mediator in the relationships between community violence exposure and psychopathology, controlling for involvement in severe problem behavior. The study was conducted with a group of Russian juvenile delinquents (N = 159; a highly traumatized population with a history of frequent exposure to violence), who completed a set of questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, psychopathology, involvement in severe problem behaviors, and sense of coherence. The relationships among the variables of interest were explored using a structural equation modeling approach. Sense of coherence partially mediated the link between victimization and psychopathology. The direct relationships between victimization and psychopathology decreased in size, suggesting that higher levels of sense of coherence can potentially reduce the levels of psychopathology. These results have an important theoretical value and are meaningful for clinical work, suggesting that preventive and therapeutic interventions should aim at increasing sense of coherence, which might be especially valuable in populations at risk.

  • 17. Koposov, Roman A
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Eisemann, Martin
    Sidorov, Pavel I
    Alcohol abuse in Russian delinquent adolescents. Associations with comorbid psychopathology, personality and parenting.2005In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 254-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescent delinquency and alcohol abuse have become a growing concern in Russia. Psychopathology, a dysfunctional family and specific personality factors have all been linked to addictive and antisocial behavior. Since delinquent youth represent a specific risk group, where alcohol misuse tends to be more pronounced than in the general population, the objectives of this study were: 1) to compare differences in personality and parenting factors, and in psychopathology in juvenile delinquents with and without alcohol abuse; and 2) to evaluate the associations between alcohol abuse, personality and parenting factors, after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.

    METHODS: Psychopathology, including alcohol abuse, was assessed by means of a psychiatric interview in 229 Russian incarcerated male juvenile delinquents. In addition, alcohol use, personality, and parenting factors were assessed by self-reports.

    RESULTS: Alcohol-abusing delinquents (n=138) scored significantly higher on novelty seeking and maternal emotional warmth and reported higher levels of psychopathology, as compared to nonalcohol-abusing delinquents (n=91). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that personality and parenting factors were significantly related to alcohol abuse, even after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.

    CONCLUSION: Alcohol-abusing delinquents are at risk for a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Alcohol abuse is associated with personality and parenting factors independently of comorbid psychopathology. Early interventions with high-risk youths may help to reduce their psychiatric problems and alcohol abuse.

  • 18. Koposov, Roman A
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Eisemann, Martin
    Sidorov, Pavel I
    Alcohol expectancies in relation to personality and aggression among juvenile delinquents in Northern Russia.2005In: Journal of Drug Education, ISSN 0047-2379, E-ISSN 1541-4159, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 111-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between alcohol expectancies, level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors in 198 Russian male juvenile delinquents were assessed. A clustering procedure was used in order to establish main patterns of alcohol expectancies, yielding three major clusters. Level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors were compared across the identified clusters. It was established that juvenile delinquents with a high level of positive alcohol expectancies and aggression represented a risk-group for higher involvement in drinking behavior as well as problem drinking, which in turn are related to specific personality traits. Implications of these findings for alcohol prevention among the youth are discussed.

  • 19. Koposov, Roman A
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Eisemann, Martin
    Sidorov, Pavel I
    Alcohol use in adolescents from northern Russia: the role of the social context.2002In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 297-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking alcohol is an essential and commonplace part of life in Russia. Alcohol-related problems in the general population and among adolescents in particular has become a major public health concern. The problem cannot be solely explained by the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption. The social determinants of drinking alcohol also need to be considered. These are the focus of the present investigation. The social determinants of drinking behaviour were assessed by self-reports (Social Context of Drinking Scale, Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale and Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index) in 387 secondary school students in Arkhangelsk, Russia. The factor structure for the Social Context of Drinking Scale was similar to that noted in respect of the original study [Thombs and Beck (1994) Health Education and Research 9, 13-22]. Significant gender differences in problem drinking and the social contexts of drinking were found. High intensity girl drinkers were likely to drink in most social contexts, whereas high intensity drinking boys were more likely to drink in the context of Stress Control. Furthermore, boy problem drinkers were more likely to drink in the context of School Defiance and Peer Acceptance, whereas girl problem drinkers tended to drink in the contexts of School Defiance and Stress Control. In general, the Social Context of Drinking Scale demonstrated a good ability to discriminate high from low intensity drinkers, and high from low problem drinkers. These results may provide useful information for targeted prevention programmes for adolescents.

  • 20. Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Exposure to community violence, psychopathology, and personality traits in Russian youth.2011In: Depression Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-1321, E-ISSN 2090-133X, Vol. 2011, p. 909076-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research with the US inner-city youth demonstrated the hazardous effects of community violence exposure. It remains unclear, however, whether these findings are generalizable to other cultures and populations. Furthermore, the role of factors influencing the processing of traumatic events such as personality has not been investigated. Two groups of Russian adolescents (community youth (N = 546) and male delinquents (N = 352)) completed questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, conduct problems, internalizing psychopathology and personality. The study demonstrates that the relationships between exposure to violence and psychopathology are similar across different populations within the same culture (community youth and juvenile delinquents), suggesting similar mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The patterns of these relationships were also similar for boys and girls, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms across gender. Hence, the effects of community violence exposure are generalizable to other cultures outside the US. The associations between personality traits and specific types of behaviors also tend to be similar across different populations. Higher levels of novelty seeking were related to more severe problem behaviors and to higher levels of witnessing and victimization, whereas higher levels of harm avoidance were related to higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress.

  • 21.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT, Reg Ctr Child & Youth Mental Hlth & Child Welf, Tromso, Norway.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm Ctr Hlth & Social Change SCOHOST, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06510 USA;Sater Forens Psychiat Clin, Sater, Sweden.
    Inhalant use in adolescents in northern Russia2018In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 709-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the prevalence of inhalant use in Russian adolescents and to investigate associated psychosocial problems from a gender perspective. Data on inhalant use and comorbid psychopathology were collected by means of self-reports from 2892 (42.4% boys) sixth to tenth grade students in public schools in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in the levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in boys and girls, who were non-users and users of inhalants. The prevalence of inhalant use was 6.1% among boys and 3.4% among girls. Compared with non-users, inhalant users scored significantly higher on internalizing and externalizing problems, functional impairment and lower on academic motivation, with psychopathology increasing with age. While there were no gender differences for internalizing problems, increased levels of externalizing problems in inhalant users were gender-specific (significantly higher in boys). Inhalant use is related to significantly higher levels of comorbid psychopathology in Russian adolescents. Comprehensive, evidence-based prevention and intervention policies are needed to address inhalant use and its harmful effects.

  • 22.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Heiskala, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Koposov, Roman
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Comorbidity and Behavior Characteristics of Russian Male Juvenile Delinquents With ADHD and Conduct Disorder2015In: journal of attention disorders, ISSN 1557-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To test the previously suggested hypothesis that those with comorbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnoses differ from other antisocially involved youth in terms of higher rates of violent behavior, impulsiveness, and psychopathic traits.

    METHOD: Three hundred eighty juvenile incarcerated delinquents from Northern Russia were assessed by means of semi-structured psychiatric interview and by student and teacher self-reports.

    RESULTS: The study has demonstrated higher rates of psychiatric disorders and of comorbidity, as well as more complicated substance abuse and disruptive behaviors in those with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis, as compared with CD only, ADHD only, and no CD no ADHD groups. The results regarding psychopathic traits were inconclusive.

    CONCLUSION: The group with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis is more severely disturbed, both as concerns psychiatric comorbidity and more severe aggressive and disruptive behaviors. However, there is only limited evidence supporting a higher prevalence of psychopathic traits in this group.

  • 23. Långström, Niklas
    et al.
    Grann, Martin
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Sjöstedt, Gabrielle
    Fazel, Seena
    Risk factors for violent offending in autism spectrum disorder: a national study of hospitalized individuals.2009In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 1358-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about risk factors for violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study uses data from Swedish longitudinal registers for all 422 individuals hospitalized with autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome during 1988-2000 and compares those committing violent or sexual offenses with those who did not. Thirty-one individuals with ASD (7%) were convicted of violent nonsexual crimes and two of sexual offenses. Violent individuals with ASD are more often male and diagnosed with Asperger syndrome rather than autistic disorder. Furthermore, comorbid psychotic and substance use disorders are associated with violent offending. We conclude that violent offending in ASD is related to similar co-occurring psychopathology as previously found among violent individuals without ASD. Although this study does not answer whether ASDs are associated with increased risk of violent offending compared with the general population, careful risk assessment and management may be indicated for some individuals with Asperger syndrome.

  • 24.
    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT, Reg Ctr Child & Youth Mental Hlth & Child Welf, Tromso, Norway.
    Blatny, Marek
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Inst Psychol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hrdlicka, Michal
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 2, Univ Hosp Motol, Dept Child Psychiat, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA;Sater Forens Psychiat Clin, S-78327 Sater, Sweden.
    Community violence exposure and substance use: cross-cultural and gender perspectives2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 493-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of community violence exposure on child and adolescent mental health are well documented and exposure to community violence has been linked both to a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate cross-cultural and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure and substance abuse. A self-report survey was conducted among 10,575, 12-18 year old adolescents in three different countries, Czech Republic (N = 4537), Russia (N = 2377) and US (N = 3661). We found that in all three countries both substance use and problem behavior associated with it increased similarly along with severity of violence exposure and this association was not gender-specific. It was concluded that in spite of the differences in the levels of violence exposure and substance use cross-culturally and by gender, the pattern of their association is neither culturally nor gender bound.

  • 25. Martin, Andrés
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Caminis, Argyro
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Henrich, Christopher C
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Early to bed: a study of adaptation among sexually active urban adolescent girls younger than age sixteen.2005In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 358-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future).

    METHOD: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to students in the public school system in New Haven, CT (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools).

    RESULTS: Of 1,413 respondents (57% black, 28% Hispanic; mean age 13.4 +/- 1.7 years), 414 (29%) acknowledged prior sexual intercourse; the proportions of sexually active girls in 6th, 8th, and 10th grades were 14%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. In multivariate analyses of covariance, sexual activity was significantly associated with all four measures of psychosocial adaptation (p < .001). Other correlates of at least one measure of maladaptation included socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, and lower school grade (p < .001 for each), peer pressure (p < .01), and black ethnicity, and the interaction of sexual activity by lower school grade (p < .05 for each).

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with their sexually naive peers, sexually active adolescent girls had lower scores on global measures of psychosocial adaptation. These findings have clinical, policy, and research relevance to a vulnerable population at high risk of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

  • 26. O'Donnell, Deborah A
    et al.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary E
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    The mediating role of alienation in the development of maladjustment in youth exposed to community violence.2006In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 215-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to determine predictors of high risk/delinquent behavior and psychoemotional maladjustment in 1,478 sixth and eighth graders who took part in a survey of high-risk and adaptive behaviors. The first goal was to determine the extent to which two distinct dimensions of alienation, normlessness, and isolation/self-estrangement mediated the emergence of maladjustment in youth exposed to community violence. The second goal was to distinguish between violence witnessing and violence victimization, and determine whether these subtypes of violence exposure may differentially affect the proposed mediational factors. The results indicated that normlessness partially mediated the relationship between violence exposure and high-risk/delinquent behavior and between violence exposure and psychoemotional maladjustment. Isolation/self-estrangement partially mediated the relation between violence exposure and psychoemotional maladjustment. Although witnessing of, and victimization by, violence were both significant predictors of normlessness, only violent victimization was significantly linked to isolation/self-estrangement. These results elucidate the mechanisms by which community violence exposure may exert negative influences on youth and suggest that there are distinct patterns of risk associated with different forms of exposure.

  • 27. Pearce, Michelle J
    et al.
    Jones, Stephanie M
    Schwab-Stone, Mary E
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    The protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement on the development of conduct problems among youth exposed to violence.2003In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1682-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement for the development of conduct problems beyond the effects of risk factors. Measures of violence exposure, conduct problems, parent involvement, and religiousness, from the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment survey, were completed by 1,703 high-risk urban adolescents (12.5 +/- 1.7 years; 53% female). Witnessing of and victimization by community violence appeared to be significant risk factors for an increase in conduct problems over a 1-year period. Religiousness and parental involvement were each uniquely associated with a decrease in conduct problems. Moreover, several dimensions of religiousness moderated the relationship between violence exposure and conduct problems, buffering the negative effects of violence exposure. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 28. Perris, C
    et al.
    Frank, N
    Gusmao, R
    Henry, L
    Lundberg, M
    Schaub, A
    Simos, G
    Richter, J
    Rognoni, R
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Valls, J
    Assessment of dysfunctional working models of self and others in schizophrenic patients: a summary of data collected in nine nations. International Research Group.2000In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 336-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cross-cultural feasibility of a new scale for assessing dysfunctional working models of self and others, and to evaluate its discriminative power.

    METHOD: Schizophrenic patients (N=351), non-psychotic patients (N= 86) and non-clinical subjects (N= 511) collected in 10 centres completed the DWM-S. Current psychopathology was assessed by means of the BPRS.

    RESULTS: Alpha coefficients were high in all samples. Mean scores on the DWM-S appeared to be comparable in all countries, suggesting cross-national generalizability. No significant correlation was found with sex, age, levels of psychopathology and duration of illness. Discriminant analyses showed that more than 70% of the schizophrenic patients are correctly classified.

    CONCLUSION: The DWM-S is an easily administered self-report instrument which allows to pinpoint internal dysfunctional working models of self and others in various types of patients. It is a useful tool for case conceptualization, especially when psychotherapeutic interventions are part of the treatment programme.

  • 29. Ponnet, Kaat
    et al.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Jespers, Ine
    Mussche, Belo
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Deboutte, Dirk
    Suicidal behaviour in adolescents: associations with parental marital status and perceived parent-adolescent relationship.2005In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 89, no 1-3, p. 107-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Because equivocal findings exist with regard to the relationship between adolescents' suicidal behaviour and parental marital status, the aim of this study was to investigate this relationship and in particular the effect of the perceived parent-adolescent relationship on this association, taking into account the role of gender.

    METHOD: For this purpose, self-report surveys were administered to a representative school-based sample of 2707 adolescents in Antwerp (Belgium).

    RESULTS: 1) Boys living in a single parent family reported more suicidal ideations and self-harming behaviour than boys living in an intact family or in a remarried family; 2) Girls living in a remarried family reported more suicidal ideations and self-harming behaviour than girls living in an intact or in a single parent family; 3) Even after controlling for the levels of perceived parent-adolescent relationship, these associations remained significant.

    LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design, the retrospective assessment of suicidality and changes in family structure, the lack of external information and the assessment of the parent-adolescent relationship for both parents together, may have influenced the findings.

    CONCLUSIONS: When assessing risk factors for adolescent suicidality, marital status of the parents may bear clinical importance. In contrast to other studies, the perceived parent-adolescent relationship did not alter this association, a finding that needs further study.

  • 30.
    Rakhlin, Natalia
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Commun Sci & Disorders, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Hein, Sascha
    Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Doyle, Niamh
    SUNY Upstate Med Univ, Dept Pediat, Syracuse, NY 13210 USA..
    Hart, Lesley
    Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT, Reg Ctr Child & Youth Mental Hlth & Child Welf, Tromso, Norway..
    Macomber, Donna
    Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Strelina, Anastasia
    Arkhangelsk Reg Mental Hosp, Arkhangelsk, Russia..
    Tan, Mei
    Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Grigorenko, Elena L.
    Yale Univ, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Psychol, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Moscow State Univ Psychol & Educ, Moscow, Russia.;St Petersburg State Univ, Dept Psychol, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Sources of Heterogeneity in Developmental Outcomes of Children With Past and Current Experiences of Institutionalization in Russia: A Four-Group Comparison2017In: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, ISSN 0002-9432, E-ISSN 1939-0025, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 242-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study sought to compare 4 groups of age-and gender-matched children-(a) those reared in institutions for children without parental care in Russia; (b) those raised by their biological parents in Russia; (c) those adopted to the United States from Russian institutions; and (d) those born in the United States and raised by their biological parents-on indicators of cognition, language, and early learning. In addition, we aimed to compare the effects of the length of time spent in an institution, the age of initial placement in an institution, the age at adoption, and pre-institutional risk factors (i.e., prenatal substance exposure and prematurity and low birth weight) on the above-mentioned outcomes in the 2 groups of children with institutionalization experiences. Our results confirm previous reports demonstrating negative consequences of institutionalization and substantial ameliorating effects of adoption. They also underscore the complexity of the effects of institutionalization and adoption, showing that they are intertwined with the effects of pre-institutional risk factors.

  • 31. Rakhlin, Natalia
    et al.
    Hein, Sascha
    Doyle, Niamh
    Hart, Lesley
    Macomber, Donna
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Tan, Mei
    Grigorenko, Elena L
    Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect2015In: Journal of Communication Disorders, ISSN 0021-9924, E-ISSN 1873-7994, Vol. 57, no SI, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes.

    LEARNING OUTCOMES: (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first language with an adoptive language.

  • 32.
    Ruchkin, V
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Eisemann, M
    Sidorov, P I
    Parental rearing: a comparison between juvenile delinquents and controls in Russia.1997In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 86-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since parental maltreatment is commonly reported in studies of juvenile delinquency, our study aimed at a systematic investigation of perceived parental rearing by means of EMBU questionnaire in young male criminals (N = 190) compared to a matched control group (N = 120) in Russia. The results revealed significant differences between delinquents and non-delinquents in terms of the experience of more rejection, abuse, punishment and lack of emotional warmth in the former group. It became obvious that many of the differences were gender-specific, suggesting the crucial role of the fathers in the rearing practices towards their offsprings. The necessity of further study on the interrelationship between family variables and environmental correlates in an interactional model of delinquency is pointed out.

  • 33. Ruchkin, V V
    The forensic psychiatric system of Russia.2000In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 23, no 5-6, p. 555-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Ruchkin, V V
    et al.
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Eisemann, M
    Cloninger, C R
    Behaviour/emotional problems in male juvenile delinquents and controls in Russia: the role of personality traits.1998In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 231-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies based on the psychobiological theory of personality by Cloninger postulate a relationship between certain personality traits and various psychopathological manifestations. To test this theory, we administered the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Youth Self-Report to 188 male delinquents from a juvenile correction centre in Northern Russia, and to 111 age-matched male controls recruited from among schoolchildren. As assumed by previous studies, psychological symptoms were primarily positively correlated with harm avoidance and negatively correlated with self-directedness. At the same time, the higher levels of aggressive and delinquent behaviour were positively correlated with novelty-seeking and negatively correlated with co-operativeness. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are discussed.

  • 35. Ruchkin, V V
    et al.
    Eisemann, M
    Hägglöf, B
    Coping styles and psychosomatic problems: are they related?2000In: Psychopathology, ISSN 0254-4962, E-ISSN 1423-033X, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 235-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of recent studies have shown avoidant coping to be related with diverse types of somatic and mental pathology. In order to investigate the relevance of coping for both psychological and somatic problems in delinquent subjects, 185 boys from juvenile correction and 96 boys from secondary schools in Arkhangelsk, Northern Russia, were assessed by means of the Coping Scale for Children and Youth, the Youth Self-Report and the Giessen Subjective Complaints List - youth form. The results from the delinquent subjects partly confirmed previous findings on the dominant role of behavioural avoidance in the relationships between coping styles and both behavior/emotional problems and somatic complaints. Further implications of the results are discussed.

  • 36. Ruchkin, V V
    et al.
    Eisemann, M
    Hägglöf, B
    Juvenile male rape victims: is the level of post-traumatic stress related to personality and parenting?1998In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 889-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the level of post-traumatic stress in juvenile male rape victims and to test for its relationships with perceived parental rearing and personality dimensions.

    METHOD: Fifteen subjects (mean age of 16 years) were recruited from a correctional camp for juvenile criminals in Arkhangelsk, Russia. They were investigated by means of the "Revised Impact of Event Scale," the "Child Self-Report Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index," the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale," the "EMBU" (perceived parental rearing) and the "Temperament and Character Inventory" (TCI).

    RESULTS: The level of post-traumatic stress, in most cases moderate to high, correlated with the temperament dimensions of harm avoidance and reward dependence. As concerns parental rearing, the total level of post-traumatic stress reaction was negatively correlated with paternal emotional warmth and positively with paternal rejection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The experience of post-traumatic stress is influenced by temperamental characteristics as well as by perceived parental rearing practices. Assumingly, these factors also play a role in becoming a rape victim, which deserves further investigation.

  • 37. Ruchkin, V V
    et al.
    Eisemann, M
    Hägglöf, B
    Parental rearing and problem behaviours in male delinquent adolescents versus controls in northern Russia.1998In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 477-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between parental rearing practices and problem behaviours in a sample of male delinquent adolescents versus controls. A total of 133 subjects from a juvenile correction centre and 108 matched school-children in the Arkhangelsk region, Russia, were assessed by means of the EMBU questionnaire and Youth Self-Report. Delinquents were more severely treated by parents and had more pronounced problem scores. Furthermore, problem scores were found to be highly correlated with parental rejection and lack of emotional warmth in both delinquents and controls. Parental rearing practices may influence the development of problem behaviours. The implications of these findings with regard to preventive measures are discussed.

  • 38. Ruchkin, V V
    et al.
    Eisemann, M
    Hägglöf, B
    Cloninger, C R
    Interrelations between temperament, character, and parental rearing in male delinquent adolescents in northern Russia.1998In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 225-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.

  • 39. Ruchkin, V V
    et al.
    Koposov, R A
    Eisemann, M
    Hägglöf, B
    Conduct problems in Russian adolescents: the role of personality and parental rearing.2001In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to assess the predictive value of conduct problems prior to the age of 12 for the severity of antisocial behaviour during adolescence, and 2) to investigate the relationships between personality traits/parental rearing and childhood conduct problems/teenage antisocial behaviour. A group of 193 delinquents was assessed by means of the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Retrospective Childhood Problems (RETROPROB), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the EMBU questionnaire on parental rearing. The extreme groups of delinquents as defined by childhood conduct problems, differed significantly on the experience of a rejecting father and a self-directed character. Furthermore, some specific predictive patterns for current antisocial behaviour by childhood conduct disorder and both personality dimensions and parental rearing factors emerged. The findings are discussed in the light of the interactive nature of relations between personality and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behaviour among adolescents.

  • 40. Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Gilliam, Walter S
    Mayes, Linda
    Developmental pathway modeling in considering behavior problems in young Russian children.2008In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 49-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In planning interventions it is essential to understand how adverse risk factors in early childhood are associated with child mental health problems, whether some types of problems can be better explained by the specific risk factors, and whether early risk factors are differently related to different types of child behavior problems. A community sample of 692 1.5-3.5-year-old children from Northern Russia was assessed by means of maternal reports. The study compared two models for the development of internalizing (withdrawn, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive, destructive) behavior problems in relation to the same early risk factors using structural equation modeling. Findings suggested that the development of these problems is related to maternal psychological problems and alcohol use during pregnancy, and mediated by the continuing maternal and family dysfunction and compromised postnatal condition of the child. Results indicated good model fit for both internalizing and externalizing problems, and neither of the models fit significantly better than the other. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding developmental risk and informing intervention and prevention efforts.

  • 41.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Henrich, Christopher C
    Jones, Stephanie M
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Violence exposure and psychopathology in urban youth: the mediating role of posttraumatic stress.2007In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 578-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban adolescents (n=1,358) were surveyed using the Social and Health Assessment. The proposed relationships were examined using Structural Equation Modeling. Posttraumatic stress fully mediated the relationships between victimization and depression and anxiety in girls, and partially so in boys. In addition, posttraumatic stress partially mediated the relationships between violence exposure and commission of violence in boys. Current findings support the longitudinal effects of violence exposure on adolescent mental health. Posttraumatic stress represents a unique mechanism for the development of psychopathology in girls and is also related to negative outcomes in boys. These findings have direct implications for prevention and rehabilitation efforts among violence exposed youth.

  • 42.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Jones, Stephanie
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: the self-report version in American urban and suburban youth.2008In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 175-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in urban inner-city and suburban general population samples of American youth. The SDQ was administered to 4,661 predominantly minority urban youth (mean age = 13.0 years, SD = 2.02) and 937 predominantly Caucasian suburban youth (mean age = 14.0 years, SD = 1.56). The authors examined SDQ factor structure using structural equation modeling techniques. The fit for the 5-factor models in both samples was very good (comparative fit index = .96-.97). However, the factor loadings and, correspondingly, the scale reliabilities for most of the SDQ scales (except for Emotional Problems) were low, which suggests poor specificity of the items. Subsequent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 3-factor structure had a comparable model fit and better internal consistency of the scales. The study concluded that, although the SDQ scales do conform reasonably well to a 5-factor model, the scales are unsatisfactory in other respects and that, in its present form, the instrument has inadequate psychometric characteristics. Future research is needed for further scale development.

  • 43.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Koposov, Roman
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire: scale validation with Russian adolescents.2007In: Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0021-9762, E-ISSN 1097-4679, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 861-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed at confirming factor structure of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a general population of Russian adolescents. The SDQ and other psychopathology measures were administered to a representative sample of 13-18-year-old adolescents from Arkhangelsk, Russia (N = 2892). The original factor structure was examined on two randomly selected split-halves of the sample, using structural equation modeling techniques. The fit for all models was good, and when applying increasing constraints across the models, there was not a significant decrease in fit for the random split model. However, the factor loadings and, correspondingly, the scale reliabilities were low. The study concluded that although the Russian SDQ scales do conform reasonably well to a five-factor oblique model, the scales are unsatisfactory in other respects; in its present form, the Russian version of the instrument has inadequate psychometric characteristics. Future research is needed for further scale development.

  • 44.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Koposov, Roman
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Psychopathology and age at onset of conduct problems in juvenile delinquents.2003In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-6689, E-ISSN 1555-2101, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 913-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess psychopathology among incarcerated Russian juvenile delinquents in relation to the onset of conduct problems.

    METHOD: 358 male juvenile delinquents were interviewed from January to September 1999, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Early behavior problems, current antisocial behavior, and psychopathology were also assessed through self-reports. The presence of conduct disorder (CD) and other diagnoses was determined according to DSM-IV criteria.

    RESULTS: 73.2% of the incarcerated youths met criteria for CD. 23.5% of the total sample reported at least 1 criterion for CD being present before the age of 10 years. All participants from this early-onset group fulfilled the criteria for CD. This group also had significantly higher rates of psychopathology, and particularly of externalizing behaviors, as compared with youths whose conduct problems began at or after the age of 10 years.

    CONCLUSION: Poor psychosocial adaptation and future prognosis in juvenile delinquents with early-onset conduct problems may be related to their greater degree of psychiatric disturbance compared with later-onset delinquent youths. Need for psychiatric treatment should be carefully considered in prevention and rehabilitation efforts for troubled youths.

  • 45.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Koposov, Roman
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire: Russian validation of the teacher version and comparison of teacher and student reports.2012In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm factor structure of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and to compare teacher and student reports in Russian youth.

    METHOD: The SDQ and psychopathology measures were completed by teachers in a representative sample of urban adolescents (N = 528). The factor structure was examined on two randomly selected split-halves of the sample, and using a gender split. The functional impairment score was predicted by the SDQ problem scales.

    RESULTS: The fit for all models was acceptable. The fit did not decrease when applying increasing constraints in the random-split model, but became significantly worse for the gender model, suggesting lack of measure invariance. SDQ problem scales explained 37% of functional impairment variance. Significant scale interaction (emotional problems*peer problems and conduct problems*hyperactivity) suggest that combination of these problems produces an additional impact on functioning.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SDQ teacher report may represent a potentially useful screener for children and youth.

  • 46.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Lorberg, Boris
    Koposov, Roman
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Sukhodolsky, Denis G
    ADHD symptoms and associated psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents from the European north of Russia.2008In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia.

    METHOD: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports.

    RESULTS: Prevalence of individual ADHD symptoms ranges between 3.3% and 35%. Only 8.9% of boys and 3.6% of girls have positive ratings on six items in either inattention or hyperactivity subtype. These adolescents fare significantly worse regarding externalizing but not internalizing problems. Compared to girls with ADHD, boys with ADHD report higher levels of violent and nonviolent delinquency and are described by teachers as having more conduct problems. Possible ADHD status is associated with depressive symptoms in boys but not in girls.

    CONCLUSION: The estimates of ADHD prevalence rates obtained in this study are similar to those of other countries, suggesting the need for identification and treatment of the disorder. Evaluation of associated disruptive behavior disorders and depression, particularly in boys, is warranted.

  • 47. Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Martin, Andrés
    SSRIs and the developing brain.2005In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 365, no 9458, p. 451-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    A Longitudinal Study of Somatic Complaints in Urban Adolescents: The Role of Internalizing Psychopathology and Somatic Anxiety2014In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 834-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the frequent association between anxiety and somatization, the role of somatic anxiety-a tendency to experience somatic sensations, when anxious-in relationship to persistent somatic complaints has not been addressed previously. This study assessed the predictive role of internalizing psychopathology (anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depression) and somatic anxiety for somatic complaints over a 1-year period in a community sample of urban youth. The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was administered to 2,524 (mean age = 12.8, 54 % female) American urban adolescents in two consecutive years. There was significant continuity of somatic complaints over 1 year. Girls reported higher levels of somatic complaints and somatic anxiety than boys. All types of internalizing psychopathology significantly predicted somatic complaints over time. Somatic anxiety was associated with somatic complaints over and above the role of internalizing symptoms. Internalizing psychopathology and somatic anxiety should both be considered in the assessment and treatment of youth with persistent somatic complaints.

  • 49.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    What can we learn from developmental studies of psychiatric disorders?2003In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 362, no 9400, p. 1951-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Jones, Stephanie
    Cicchetti, Domenic V
    Koposov, Roman
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Is posttraumatic stress in youth a culture-bound phenomenon? A comparison of symptom trends in selected U.S. and Russian communities.2005In: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 538-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The cross-cultural applicability of the concept of posttraumatic stress was investigated by assessing symptom frequency and levels of comorbid psychopathology in adolescents from the United States and Russia.

    METHOD: A self-report survey was conducted in representative samples of 2,157 adolescents 14 to 17 years old from urban communities of the United States (N=1,212) and Russia (N=945).

    RESULTS: In both countries, the levels of all three major clusters of posttraumatic symptoms (reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal), as well as of internalizing psychopathology, increased along with the level of posttraumatic stress. Expectations about the future had a tendency to decrease with increasing posttraumatic stress. No differences between countries in significant interaction effects for symptom levels were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that posttraumatic symptoms and their associations with other adolescent mental health problems are not culture bound and that the psychological consequences of trauma follow similar dynamics cross-culturally.

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