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  • 1.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fredén, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Petersson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Öhrvall, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    A two-year clinical lifestyle intervention program for weight loss in obesity2008In: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 52, p. 1656-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In recent randomised prospective studies, lifestyle intervention induced a weight loss of approximately 5%. OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate a 2-year on-going group intervention program in clinical practice in terms of weight loss and changes in metabolic risk factors, i.e. sagital abdominal diameter (SAD), triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. DESIGN: The aim of the intervention program was to motivate lifestyle changes concerning food intake and physical activity. The emphasis was on lifestyle modification, followed up at regular visits during 2 years. Subjects evaluated were 100 women with mean BMI 37.6 kg/m(2) and 26 men with mean BMI 36.5 kg/m(2). RESULTS: One hundred of 151 enrolled women and 26 of 36 men completed the program. Mean weight decreased by 3.8 kg in women (from 103.5 to 99.7, p<0.001) and 4.4 kg in men (from 116.5 to 112.1, p<0.05), respectively. SAD decreased by 5% (p=0.001 in women, p=0.01 in men), and triglycerides by 16% in women (p=0.01) and 24% in men (p=0.001), however systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased slightly but significantly. CONCLUSION: It is possible to perform a clinical lifestyle intervention program for outpatients on an ongoing basis with weight loss, lowered SAD and triglycerides, and a similar or lower dropout rate compared to clinical trials.

  • 2.
    Bjermo, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Observational and Interventional Studies2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro.

    This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observational and interventional studies. In Paper I and II, fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters was used as objective marker of dietary fat quality and related to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and other circulating inflammatory markers in two population-based cohorts, conducted in middle-aged men and elderly men and women, respectively. In Paper III and IV, the impact of diets differing in fat quality on inflammation and oxidative stress was investigated in randomised controlled studies, in subjects with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.

    In Paper I and II, a low proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum was associated with higher CRP concentrations, indicating that a low intake of vegetable fats may be related to low-grade inflammation. High CRP concentrations were also associated with high proportions of palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and high stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase index, possibly reflecting altered fat metabolism and/or high SFA intake in this population. When comparing two high-fat diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, and two low-fat diets with or without long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation during 12 weeks (Paper III), no differences in inflammation or oxidative stress markers were observed. Moreover, a 10-week intervention (Paper IV) with high linoleic acid intake showed no adverse effects on inflammation or oxidative stress. Instead, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 decreased after linoleic acid intake compared with a diet high in SFA.

    The results in this thesis indicate that dietary n-6 PUFA found in vegetable fats is associated with lower inflammation marker levels, and to some extent reduces systemic inflammation when compared with SFA. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA did not exert any systemic anti-inflammatory effects, maybe due to a relatively low dose.

    List of papers
    1. Serum fatty acid composition and indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity are associated with systemic inflammation: longitudinal analyses in middle-aged men
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum fatty acid composition and indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity are associated with systemic inflammation: longitudinal analyses in middle-aged men
    2008 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 1186-1189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Altered fatty acid (FA) composition is related to insulin resistance and CVD. One possible mediator may be inflammation, but longitudinal data relating FA composition to inflammation taking insulin resistance into account are limited. We investigated the long-term association between FA composition and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in a large population-based cohort study in 767 men followed for 20 years. The association between FA composition in serum cholesteryl esters at age 50 and CRP concentrations at age 70 was investigated using linear regression. In addition, desaturase activities (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), Delta 5- and Delta 6-desaturase) were estimated using FA product-to-precursor ratios. Insulin resistance was measured directly at follow-up by euglycaemic clamp. After adjusting for confounders (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, obesity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) CRP concentrations were inversely associated with the proportion of 18:2n-6 (P=0.002) and positively associated with 16:1n-7 (P=0.008), 18: 1n-9 (P=0.0003), 20:5n-3 (P=0.04) and estimated SCD-1 (P=0.005) and Delta 6-desaturase (P=0.02) activities. After adding insulin resistance to the model, 18: 1n-9, 18:2n-6 and SCD-1 remained significant predictors of CRP. A FA composition indicating low intake of 18:2n-6, high intake of SFA and high SCD-1 activity is, in a Swedish population of middle-aged men, associated with CRP concentrations 20 years later, even independently of obesity and insulin resistance.

    Keywords
    C-reactive protein, fatty acids, SCD-1, inflammation
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17694 (URN)10.1017/S0007114507871674 (DOI)000255955500006 ()18062827 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-08-15 Created: 2008-08-15 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Relationships between serum fatty acid composition and multiple markers of inflammation and endothelial function in an elderly population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between serum fatty acid composition and multiple markers of inflammation and endothelial function in an elderly population
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 203, no 1, p. 298-303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA) composition in serum has been associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), but associations with other markers of inflammation and endothelial function, e.g. adhesion molecules are unknown. We recently suggested a possible role of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) in inflammation. This study investigates the associations between serum FA composition, including SCD-1 index, and various inflammatory and endothelial function markers. METHODS: 264 Swedish men and women aged 70 years participated in this cross-sectional population-based study. FA composition was measured in serum cholesteryl esters and was correlated to inflammatory markers (CRP, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, vascular cellular adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, interferon-gamma, and monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1), using linear regression analysis. SCD-1 activity was estimated by FA product-to-precursor ratio (16:1/16:0). RESULTS: Serum FA composition was significantly associated with CRP and E-selectin but not with other inflammatory markers. After adjusting for BMI, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and lipid-lowering therapy, the proportion of palmitoleic acid and SCD-1 index were positively correlated with CRP concentrations (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: A FA composition reflecting high intake of saturated fat and a high SCD-1 index is independently related to CRP concentrations, but not to other markers of inflammation and endothelial function in this population of elderly men and women. Given the absent association between FA composition and the other markers, CRP may be the preferable marker to use when investigating potential relationships between FAs and low-grade inflammation.

    Keywords
    Fatty acids, Inflammation, Endothelial function, SCD-1, C-reactive protein, Adhesion molecules
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-103687 (URN)10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.06.020 (DOI)000264510700045 ()18687433 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-05-20 Created: 2009-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Effects of dietary fat modification on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the LIPGENE study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of dietary fat modification on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the LIPGENE study
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 1357-1362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be implicated in these conditions. We investigated the impact of four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality on 8-iso-PGF2α (a major F2-isoprostane and oxidative stress indicator), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major PGF2α metabolite and marker of cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a 12-week parallel multicentre dietary intervention study (LIPGENE), 417 volunteers with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of the four diets: two high-fat diets (38 % energy (%E)) rich in SFA or MUFA and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets (28 %E) with (LFHCC n-3) or without (LFHCC) 1·24 g/d of very long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Urinary levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α were determined by RIA and adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. Serum concentration of CRP was measured by ELISA. Neither concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α nor those of CRP differed between diet groups at baseline (P>0·07) or at the end of the study (P>0·44). Also, no differences in changes of the markers were observed between the diet groups (8-iso-PGF2α, P = 0·83; 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, P = 0·45; and CRP, P = 0·97). In conclusion, a 12-week dietary fat modification did not affect the investigated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among subjects with the MetS in the LIPGENE study.

    Keywords
    Dietary fat; Oxidative stress; Inflammation; Metabolic syndrome; LIPGENE study
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133408 (URN)10.1017/S000711451000228X (DOI)000284015300012 ()20569506 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Dietary fat modification and liver fat content in abdominal obesity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary fat modification and liver fat content in abdominal obesity
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156073 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-08-02 Created: 2011-07-11 Last updated: 2011-11-10
  • 3.
    Bjermo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Persson, Lena
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Pulkki, Kari
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Rudling, Mats
    Arner, Peter
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1003-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory.

    OBJECTIVE:

    We investigated the effects of PUFAs on liver fat, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders.

    DESIGN:

    We randomly assigned 67 abdominally obese subjects (15% had type 2 diabetes) to a 10-wk isocaloric diet high in vegetable n-6 PUFA (PUFA diet) or SFA mainly from butter (SFA diet), without altering the macronutrient intake. Liver fat was assessed by MRI and magnetic resonance proton (1H) spectroscopy (MRS). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9, a hepatic LDL-receptor regulator), inflammation, and adipose tissue expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes were determined.

    RESULTS:

    A total of 61 subjects completed the study. Body weight modestly increased but was not different between groups. Liver fat was lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet [between-group difference in relative change from baseline; 16% (MRI; P < 0.001), 34% (MRS; P = 0.02)]. PCSK9 (P = 0.001), TNF receptor-2 (P < 0.01), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P = 0.02) concentrations were lower during the PUFA diet, whereas insulin (P = 0.06) tended to be higher during the SFA diet. In compliant subjects (defined as change in serum linoleic acid), insulin, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were lower during the PUFA diet than during the SFA diet (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue gene expression was unchanged.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Compared with SFA intake, n-6 PUFAs reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss. A high n-6 PUFA intake does not cause any signs of inflammation or oxidative stress. Downregulation of PCSK9 could be a novel mechanism behind the cholesterol-lowering effects of PUFAs.

  • 4.
    Bjermo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Should dietary SFA be exchanged for linoleic acid?: Reply2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 945-946Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Petersson, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Arnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Serum fatty acid composition and insulin resistance are independently associated with liver fat markers in elderly men2010In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate the relationships of serum fatty acid (FA) composition and estimated desaturase activities with the liver fat marker alanine aminotransferase (ALT). METHODS: 546 Swedish elderly men of a population-based cohort participated in this cross-sectional study. FA composition was assessed in serum cholesterol esters to determine dietary fat quality (e.g. linoleic) and desaturation products (e.g. dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid). Desaturase indices, including stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), were calculated by FA product-to-precursor ratios. RESULTS: In linear regression analyses adjusting for lifestyle, abdominal obesity and insulin sensitivity, the dietary biomarker linoleic acid (n-6), but not n-3 FAs, was inversely related to ALT. Desaturation products including palmitoleic, oleic, gamma-linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids, and Delta6-desaturase and SCD-1 indices were directly related to ALT (all p<0.05). After further adjustment for factors previously linked to fatty liver (i.e. serum lipids, adiponectin concentrations), SCD-1 index (p=0.004) and insulin resistance (p<0.0001) were independent determinants of ALT activity, whereas waist circumference, triglycerides, non-esterified FA and adiponectin were not. CONCLUSION: A low dietary intake of linoleic acid and elevated SCD-1 index may contribute to higher ALT activity in elderly men, even independently of obesity and insulin resistance.

  • 6.
    Petersson, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Serum fatty acid composition and indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity are associated with systemic inflammation: longitudinal analyses in middle-aged men2008In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 1186-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altered fatty acid (FA) composition is related to insulin resistance and CVD. One possible mediator may be inflammation, but longitudinal data relating FA composition to inflammation taking insulin resistance into account are limited. We investigated the long-term association between FA composition and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in a large population-based cohort study in 767 men followed for 20 years. The association between FA composition in serum cholesteryl esters at age 50 and CRP concentrations at age 70 was investigated using linear regression. In addition, desaturase activities (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), Delta 5- and Delta 6-desaturase) were estimated using FA product-to-precursor ratios. Insulin resistance was measured directly at follow-up by euglycaemic clamp. After adjusting for confounders (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, obesity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) CRP concentrations were inversely associated with the proportion of 18:2n-6 (P=0.002) and positively associated with 16:1n-7 (P=0.008), 18: 1n-9 (P=0.0003), 20:5n-3 (P=0.04) and estimated SCD-1 (P=0.005) and Delta 6-desaturase (P=0.02) activities. After adding insulin resistance to the model, 18: 1n-9, 18:2n-6 and SCD-1 remained significant predictors of CRP. A FA composition indicating low intake of 18:2n-6, high intake of SFA and high SCD-1 activity is, in a Swedish population of middle-aged men, associated with CRP concentrations 20 years later, even independently of obesity and insulin resistance.

  • 7.
    Petersson, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Daryani, Achraf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sagittal abdominal diameter as a marker of inflammation and insulin resistance among immigrant women from the Middle East and native Swedish women: a cross-sectional study2007In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 6, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immigrant women from the Middle East have elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), a simple marker of intra-abdominal fat, predicts insulin resistance and cardiovascular mortality in men. Its usefulness in immigrant women is however unknown. To investigate the predictive role of SAD compared to other anthropometric measures, we examined a random sample of native-Swedes and immigrant women from the Middle East living in Sweden.

    Methods

    157 women participated in the study; 107 immigrants and 50 natives. Anthropometric measurements (SAD, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] and waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]; all measured in supine position) and cardiovascular risk factors (C-reactive protein [CRP], insulin, glucose, insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], blood pressure and serum lipids) were assessed. The anthropometric measures were compared in their relation to cardiovascular risk factors using linear regression analyses.

    Results

    Overall, SAD showed a slightly higher correlation with most cardiovascular risk factors, especially insulin resistance, insulin, CRP, apolipoprotein B and triglycerides (all P-values < 0.01) than other anthropometric measures. BMI was however a better predictor of HDL cholesterol. SAD explained a greater proportion of the variation of insulin resistance and CRP levels, even independently of the other anthropometric measures.

    Conclusion

    SAD identifies insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation or raised serum lipids in a Swedish population with a large proportion of immigrant women from the Middle East. If these results could be confirmed in a larger population, SAD could be a more clinically useful risk marker than other anthropometric measures in women at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • 8.
    Petersson, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hulthe, Johannes
    Elmgren, Anders
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Relationships between serum fatty acid composition and multiple markers of inflammation and endothelial function in an elderly population2009In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 203, no 1, p. 298-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA) composition in serum has been associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), but associations with other markers of inflammation and endothelial function, e.g. adhesion molecules are unknown. We recently suggested a possible role of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) in inflammation. This study investigates the associations between serum FA composition, including SCD-1 index, and various inflammatory and endothelial function markers. METHODS: 264 Swedish men and women aged 70 years participated in this cross-sectional population-based study. FA composition was measured in serum cholesteryl esters and was correlated to inflammatory markers (CRP, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, vascular cellular adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, interferon-gamma, and monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1), using linear regression analysis. SCD-1 activity was estimated by FA product-to-precursor ratio (16:1/16:0). RESULTS: Serum FA composition was significantly associated with CRP and E-selectin but not with other inflammatory markers. After adjusting for BMI, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and lipid-lowering therapy, the proportion of palmitoleic acid and SCD-1 index were positively correlated with CRP concentrations (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: A FA composition reflecting high intake of saturated fat and a high SCD-1 index is independently related to CRP concentrations, but not to other markers of inflammation and endothelial function in this population of elderly men and women. Given the absent association between FA composition and the other markers, CRP may be the preferable marker to use when investigating potential relationships between FAs and low-grade inflammation.

  • 9.
    Petersson, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    McMonagle, Jolene
    Gulseth, Hanne L
    Tierney, Audrey C
    Morange, Sophie
    Helal, Olfa
    Shaw, Danielle I
    Ruano, Juan A
    López-Miranda, José
    Kieć-Wilk, Beata
    Gołąbek, Iwona
    Blaak, Ellen E
    Saris, Wim H M
    Drevon, Christian A
    Lovegrove, Julie A
    Roche, Helen M
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Effects of dietary fat modification on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the LIPGENE study2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 1357-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be implicated in these conditions. We investigated the impact of four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality on 8-iso-PGF2α (a major F2-isoprostane and oxidative stress indicator), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major PGF2α metabolite and marker of cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a 12-week parallel multicentre dietary intervention study (LIPGENE), 417 volunteers with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of the four diets: two high-fat diets (38 % energy (%E)) rich in SFA or MUFA and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets (28 %E) with (LFHCC n-3) or without (LFHCC) 1·24 g/d of very long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Urinary levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α were determined by RIA and adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. Serum concentration of CRP was measured by ELISA. Neither concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α nor those of CRP differed between diet groups at baseline (P>0·07) or at the end of the study (P>0·44). Also, no differences in changes of the markers were observed between the diet groups (8-iso-PGF2α, P = 0·83; 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, P = 0·45; and CRP, P = 0·97). In conclusion, a 12-week dietary fat modification did not affect the investigated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among subjects with the MetS in the LIPGENE study.

  • 10.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Bjermo, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters and phospholipids is linked to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue content in elderly individuals: a cross-sectional study2017In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 16, p. 1-10, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and truncal fat predict cardiometabolic disease. Intervention trials suggest that saturated fatty acids (SFA), e. g. palmitic acid, promote abdominal and liver fat storage whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), e. g. linoleic acid, prevent fat accumulation. Such findings require investigation in population-based studies of older individuals. We aimed to investigate the relationships of serum biomarkers of PUFA intake as well as serum levels of palmitic acid, with abdominal and total adipose tissue content.

    Methods: In a population-based sample of 287 elderly subjects in the PIVUS cohort, we assessed fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) by gas chromatography and the amount of VAT and abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), liver fat by MR spectroscopy (MRS), and total body fat, trunk fat and leg fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR.

    Results: VAT and trunk fat showed the strongest correlation with insulin resistance (r = 0.49, P < 0.001). Linoleic acid in both CE and PL was inversely related to all body fat depots (r = -0.24 to -0.33, P < 0.001) including liver fat measured in a sub-group (r = -0.26, P < 0.05, n = 73), whereas n-3 PUFA showed weak inverse (18: 3n-3) or positive (20: 5n-3) associations. Palmitic acid in CE, but not in PL, was directly correlated with VAT (r = 0.19, P < 0.001) and trunk fat (r = 0.18, P = 0.003). Overall, the significant associations remained after adjusting for energy intake, height, alcohol, sex, smoking, education and physical activity. The inverse correlation between linoleic acid and VAT remained significant after further adjustment for total body fat.

    Conclusions: Serum linoleic acid is inversely related to body fat storage including VAT and trunk fat whereas palmitic acid was less consistently but directly associated, in line with recent feeding studies. Considering the close link between VAT and insulin resistance, a potential preventive role of plant-based PUFA in VAT accumulation warrants further study.

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