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  • 1.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Kreutz, JoakimDepartment of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last?2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A responsibility to talk: mediation and violence against civilians2018In: International Mediation in a Fragile World / [ed] David Carment and Evan Hoffman, New York: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarv i skottgluggen2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ANALYS Den Islamiska staten attacker mot Palmyra och andra kulturarv i Syrien och Irak har fått stor uppmärksamhet i internationella medier. Men attacker mot kulturarv i väpnade konflikter är inte unikt för IS, och dessa attacker kan ha en rad olika syften. Det skriver Johan Brosché, Joakim Kreutz och Mattias Legner utifrån ett nytt tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt.

  • 4.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Political Science, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Heritage under Attack: motives for targeting cultural property during armed conflict2017In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 248-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although attacks on cultural property have caused international outcry,our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, littleresearch has been directed towards exploring the motivations for suchattacks. Therefore, we ask: What are the motives for attacking sites, buildingsor objects representing cultural heritage? By combining insights from peaceand conflict research with findings from heritage studies we present atypology of motivations for attacking cultural property. We identify four,not mutually exclusive, broad groups of motives: (i) attacks related to conflictgoals, in which cultural property is targeted because it is connected to theissue the warring parties are fighting over (ii), military-strategic attacks, inwhich the main motivation is to win tactical advantages in the conflict (iii),signalling attacks, in which cultural property is targeted as a low-risk targetthat signals the commitment of the aggressor, and (iv) economic incentiveswhere cultural property provides funding for warring parties. Our typologyoffers a theoretical structure for research about why, when, and by whom,cultural property is targeted. This is not only likely to provide academicbenefits, but also to contribute to the development of more effective toolsfor the protection of cultural property during armed conflict.

  • 5.
    Croicu, Mihai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Communication Technology and Reports on Political Violence: Cross-National Evidence Using African Events Data2017In: Political research quarterly, ISSN 1065-9129, E-ISSN 1938-274X, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of Internet and mobile phone access around the world has implications for both the processe s of contentious politics and subsequent reporting of protest, terrorism, and war. In this paper, we explore whether political violent events that occur close to modern communication networks are systematically better reported than others. Our analysis app roximates information availability by the level of detail provided about the date of each political violent event in Africa from 2008 to 2010 and finds that although access to communication technology improves reporting, the size of the effect is very smal l. Additional investigation finds that the effect can be attributed to the ability of journalists to access more diverse primary sources in remote areas due to increased local access to modern communication technology.

  • 6.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Argentina2005In: Defense and Security: A Compendium of National Armed Forces and Security Policies, ABC Clio, Santa Barbara , 2005Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Burma/The Union of Myanmar2007In: Civil Wars of the World, ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, USA. , 2007Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 8.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Calling a conflict a conflict: Violence and other aspects of war2008In: Databases on conflict, IOS Press, Amsterdam , 2008Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Civil war outcomes and successful peace: setting the record straight2015Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Colombia2007In: Civil Wars of the World, ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, USA. , 2007Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Colombia2005In: Defense and Security: A Compendium of National Armed Forces and Security Policies, 2005Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 12.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Conflicts without borders: What do we know about non-state conflict2007In: States in Armed Conflict 2006, Universitetstryckeriet, Uppsala , 2007Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Dismantling the Conflict Trap: Essays on Civil War Resolution and Relapse2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries that have experienced civil war suffer a greater risk for new conflict than countries with no prior history of civil war. This empirical finding has been called a conflict trap where the legacy of previous war - unsolved issues, indecisive outcomes, and destruction – leads to renewed fighting. Yet, countries like Cambodia, El Salvador, Indonesia, and Mozambique have managed to overcome decade-long conflicts without relapse. This dissertation addresses this empirical puzzle by seeking to dismantle the conflict trap and look at microlevel explanations for civil war resolution and relapse. It adds to existing scholarship in three ways: first, by using disaggregated empirics on war termination and how fighting resumes; second, by exploring government agency in conflict processes; and third, by disaggregating rebel organizations. Essay I present original data on the start and end dates and means of termination for all armed conflicts, 1946-2005. Contrary to previous work, this data reveal that wars does not always end through victory or peace agreement, but commonly end under unclear circumstances. Essay II addresses how developments exogenous to the conflict influence governments’ decision to engage in a peace process. The results show that after natural disasters when state resources need to be allocated towards disaster relief, governments are more willing to negotiate and conclude ceasefires with insurgents. Essay III focuses on the post-conflict society, and posits that security concerns among former war participants will push them towards remobilizing into rebellion. The findings indicate that if ex-belligerent elite’s security is compromised, the parties of the previous war will resume fighting, while insecurity among former rank-and-file leads to the formation of violent splinter rebel groups. Finally, Essay IV seeks to explain why governments sometimes launch offensives on former rebels in post-conflict countries. The results show that internal power struggles provide leaders with incentives to use force against domestic third parties to strengthen their position against intra-government rivals. Taken together, this dissertation demonstrates that there is analytical leverage to be had by disaggregating the processes of violence in civil war and post-conflict societies, as well as the actors involved – both the government and rebel sides.

    List of papers
    1. How and when armed conflicts end: Introducing the UCDP Conflict Termination dataset
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How and when armed conflicts end: Introducing the UCDP Conflict Termination dataset
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 243-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents new data on the start and end dates and the means of termination for armed conflicts, 1946-2005. These data contribute to quantitative research on conflict resolution and recurrence in three important respects: the data cover both interstate and intrastate armed conflicts, the data cover low-intensity conflicts, and the data provide information on a broad range of termination outcomes. In order to disaggregate the UCDP-PRIO Armed Conflict dataset into multiple analytical units, this dataset introduces the concept of conflict episodes, defined as years of continuous use of armed force in a conflict. Using these data, general trends and patterns are presented, showing that conflicts do not exclusively end with decisive outcomes such as victory or peace agreement but more often under unclear circumstances where fighting simply ceases. This pattern is consistent across different types of conflict, as is the finding that victories are more common in conflicts with short duration. The article then examines some factors that have been found to predict civil war recurrence and explores whether using the new dataset produces similar results. This exercise offers a number of interesting new insights and finds that the determinants for civil war recurrence identified in previous research are sensitive to alternate formulations of conflict termination data. The findings suggest that intrastate conflicts are less likely to recur after government victories or after the deployment of peacekeepers. If the previous conflict is fought with rebels aiming for total control over government or if the belligerents mobilized along ethnic lines, the risk of recurrence increases. The discrepancy in findings with previous research indicates the need for further study of conflict resolution and recurrence, for which this dataset will be useful.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Sage Publications, 2010
    Keywords
    civil war duration, new dataset, peace agreement, victory, war termination
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-137562 (URN)10.1177/0022343309353108 (DOI)000274532700011 ()
    Available from: 2010-12-15 Created: 2010-12-15 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. From Tremors to Talks: Do Natural Disasters Produce Ripe Moments for Resolving Separatist Conflicts?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Tremors to Talks: Do Natural Disasters Produce Ripe Moments for Resolving Separatist Conflicts?
    2012 (English)In: International Interactions, ISSN 0305-0629, E-ISSN 1547-7444, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 482-502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests that natural disasters can produce a ripe moment for conflict resolution because governments faced with the demand for effective disaster relief have incentives to offer concessions to separatist challengers. An analysis of the prevalence of new negotiations, ceasefires, and peace agreements during 12-month periods prior to and post natural disasters for separatist dyads 1990-2004 reveal some support for this proposition. Natural disasters increase the likelihood that parties will initiate talks or agree to ceasefires but have less effect on the signing of peace agreements. In line with the proposed mechanism, these results are particularly strong in democracies and following more severe disasters where the need to provide relief is most acute.   

    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172225 (URN)10.1080/03050629.2012.697404 (DOI)000307930600007 ()
    Available from: 2012-04-03 Created: 2012-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    4.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
  • 14.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    EU Policy Towards Belarus and Cuba: A Comparative Analysis2009Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From Tremors to Talks: Do Natural Disasters Produce Ripe Moments for Resolving Separatist Conflicts?2012In: International Interactions, ISSN 0305-0629, E-ISSN 1547-7444, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 482-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests that natural disasters can produce a ripe moment for conflict resolution because governments faced with the demand for effective disaster relief have incentives to offer concessions to separatist challengers. An analysis of the prevalence of new negotiations, ceasefires, and peace agreements during 12-month periods prior to and post natural disasters for separatist dyads 1990-2004 reveal some support for this proposition. Natural disasters increase the likelihood that parties will initiate talks or agree to ceasefires but have less effect on the signing of peace agreements. In line with the proposed mechanism, these results are particularly strong in democracies and following more severe disasters where the need to provide relief is most acute.   

  • 16.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hard Measures by a Soft Power?: Sanctions Policy of the European Union2006Report (Other scientific)
  • 17.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    How and when armed conflicts end: Introducing the UCDP Conflict Termination dataset2010In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 243-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents new data on the start and end dates and the means of termination for armed conflicts, 1946-2005. These data contribute to quantitative research on conflict resolution and recurrence in three important respects: the data cover both interstate and intrastate armed conflicts, the data cover low-intensity conflicts, and the data provide information on a broad range of termination outcomes. In order to disaggregate the UCDP-PRIO Armed Conflict dataset into multiple analytical units, this dataset introduces the concept of conflict episodes, defined as years of continuous use of armed force in a conflict. Using these data, general trends and patterns are presented, showing that conflicts do not exclusively end with decisive outcomes such as victory or peace agreement but more often under unclear circumstances where fighting simply ceases. This pattern is consistent across different types of conflict, as is the finding that victories are more common in conflicts with short duration. The article then examines some factors that have been found to predict civil war recurrence and explores whether using the new dataset produces similar results. This exercise offers a number of interesting new insights and finds that the determinants for civil war recurrence identified in previous research are sensitive to alternate formulations of conflict termination data. The findings suggest that intrastate conflicts are less likely to recur after government victories or after the deployment of peacekeepers. If the previous conflict is fought with rebels aiming for total control over government or if the belligerents mobilized along ethnic lines, the risk of recurrence increases. The discrepancy in findings with previous research indicates the need for further study of conflict resolution and recurrence, for which this dataset will be useful.

  • 18.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    How Civil Wars End (and Recur)2014In: Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars, LONDON: Routledge, 2014, p. 349-362Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Human Rights, Geostrategy, and EU Foreign Policy, 1989–20082015In: International Organization, ISSN 0020-8183, E-ISSN 1531-5088, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 195-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is foreign policy influenced by humanitarian concern, or are concepts such as human security merely rhetoric for traditional power politics? In this paper, I systematically explore whether military and economic interventions by the European Union are conducted in response to humanitarian atrocities. Using a multilevel modelling technique and a unique dataset of military and economic EU intervention 1989-2008, I find that this is the case, but that geostrategic concerns also influence EU action. Whilst the EU consistently is more likely to act against countries with greater civilian victimization, the size of the effect is influenced by spatial considerations. The EU is most attentive to human rights violations in non-EU European states, followed by countries in sub-Saharan Africa, while it has been least active in Asia and the Americas.

  • 20.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Issues in Global Conflict Data2005In: Conversion Survey 2005: Global Disarmament, Demilitarization And Demobilization, Nomos Verlagsgesellscaft, Baden-baden , 2005Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 21.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Myanmar's Economic Potential: Peace making or peace breaking?2013In: Myanmar in Reform 2013: International Academic Symposium / [ed] Ian Holliday, Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong , 2013, p. 225-228Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    New Rebels in Postconflict Settings: The Principal-Agent Dilemma of Peacebuilding2018In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 218-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the processes that lead to different types of civil war outbreak in postconflict societies, combining quantitative analysis with case studies of Myanmar and Sierra Leone to disaggregate situations in which former rebels resume fighting from those when new rebels emerge in the postconflict environment. The analysis, based in principal–agent theory, illuminates how relations between the government and ex‐rebel elites, group cohesion among rebels, and the relationship between the government and the ex‐combatants all can lead to resumed civil war. Its findings suggest that victories and settled conflicts are the most important outcome for preventing conflict recurrence by former rebels, but do not prevent the rise of new insurgencies. Moreover, the absence of government repression emerges as the factor most likely to reduce the risk of new rebellion.

  • 23.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Stockholms universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Peace by external withdrawal2017In: Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last? / [ed] Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz, Copenhagen: NIAS Press , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Reviewing the EU Arms Embargo on China: the Clash between Value and Rationale in the European Security Strategy2004In: Perspectives: The Central European Review of International Affairs, ISSN 1210-762X, no 22, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examining a current review of the EU arms embargo on China, the article reveals a clash between value and rationale in the European Security Strategy. The adoption of the Solana strategy has received widespread praise as a measure aimed at increasing EU policy coherence. However, with regard to the EU arms embargo in force against China since 1989, it seems like improving coherence should focus first on EU actors rather than on EU policy.

  • 25.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Separating dirty war from dirty peace: Revisiting the conceptualization of state repression in quantitative data2015In: European Political Science, ISSN 1680-4333, E-ISSN 1682-0983, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 458-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is state repression? This article explores in detail how state repressionis conceptualized by the two most prevalent data sets employed byqualitative scholars: the Political Terror Scale (PTS) and the Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) data set. The article uses disaggregated data on thecharacteristics of state’s repressive strategy and compare changes in thesesubcomponents in years when the overall measure of repression increasesor decreases. Following bivariate and multivariate analyses of eighteenWest African countries with a history of fluctuating human rights practices,the article finds that both the PTS and CIRI scores are primarily influencedby military involvement in human rights violations. The article highlightsthe need for more scholarship on the mechanisms behind the finding thatdemocracies are less repressive than other regimes and motivates morestudies on how and when repression decreases.

  • 26.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    The war that wasn't there: Managing unclear cases in conflict data2015In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 120-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When collecting data, some observations will always be hard to confidently classify in accordance with stated definitions of war, civil conflict, or political violence. This research note draws on the experiences of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program in the last decade in managing such unclear cases. After explaining the difference between unclear and non-cases, I describe the data generating process and how this uncertainty is distributed over time in the data. This exercise reveals that the 1980s may have been more conflict-filled than the 1990s, challenging arguments about the stability of the bipolar global order as well as the sudden ‘rise’ of warfare in the immediate post-Cold War era. The final section suggests different ways that researchers may use existing information regarding unclear cases as a way to conceptualize the nature of civil strife without having to engage in additional data collection.

  • 27.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Venezuela2005In: Defense and Security: A Compendium of National Armed Forces and Security Policies, 2005Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 28.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Stockholms universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Introduction: Debating Peace, Debating East Asia2017In: Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last? / [ed] Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz, Copenhagen: NIAS Press , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Guthrey, Holly L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Tønnesson, Stein
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The East Asian Peace: will it last?2017In: Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is, How it came about, Will it last? / [ed] Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2017, p. 281-296Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Stockholms universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Eck, Kristine
    Guthrie, Holly
    Melander, Erik
    Svensson, Isak
    Tönnesson, Stein
    The East Asian Peace - Will it last?2017In: Debating the East Asian Peace: What it is. How it came about. Will it last? / [ed] Elin Bjarnegård, Joakim Kreutz, Copenhagen: NIAS Press , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A responsibility to talk: Mediation and violence against civilians2013In: Canadian Foreign Policy, ISSN 1192-6422, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Stockholms universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Cardenas, Magda
    Women, peace and intervention: how the international community responds to sexual violence in civil conflict2017In: Canadian Foreign Policy, ISSN 1192-6422, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 260-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To end sexual violence in civil conflict is often mentioned as motivation and aim for contemporary interventions by the international community. But what types of measures are used for this end? This study identifies two competing logics that motivate different types of measures depending on whether women’s security is viewed as part of the Responsibility to Protect doctrine, or as a separate policy field: More Women, More Peace. According to the first, women are viewed as victims and interventions are likely to be punitive in nature, to provide protection and punish perpetrators. The second sees the problem as women’s exclusion from power and lack of agency, and will more likely be followed by measures that promote participation such as mediation and peacekeeping. Following a global analysis of civil conflicts 1989–2009, we find that both the United Nations and regional organizations deploy peacekeepers to conflicts with high prevalence of sexual violence. We also find different patterns of intervention for sexual violence than for other forms of civilian abuse, suggesting limited linkages between the Responsibility to Protect and Women, Peace and Security agendas.

  • 33.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hinkkainen Elliott, Kaisa
    University of Leeds.
    Natural resource wars in the shadow of the future: Explaining spatial dynamics of violence during civil war2019In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 499-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on natural resources and civil wars find that the presence of natural resources increases both civil conflict risk and duration. At the same time, belligerents often cooperate over resource extraction, suggesting a temporal variation in the contest over this subnational space. This study argues that parties fight over natural resources primarily when they expect that the conflict is about to end, as the importance of controlling them increases in the post-conflict setting. In contrast, belligerents that anticipate a long war have incentives to avoid fighting near natural resources since excessive violence will hurt the extraction, trade, and subsequent taxation that provide conflict actors with income from the resource. We test our argument using yearly and monthly grid-cell-level data on African civil conflicts for the period 1989–2008 and find support for our expected spatial variation. Using whether negotiations are underway as an indicator about warring parties’ expectations on conflict duration, we find that areas with natural resources in general experience less intense fighting than other areas, but during negotiations these very areas witness most of the violence. We further find that the spatial shift in violence occurs immediately when negotiations are opened. A series of difference-in-difference estimations show a visible shift of violence towards areas rich in natural resources in the first three months after parties have initiated talks. Our findings are relevant for scholarship on understanding and predicting the trajectories of micro-level civil conflict violence, and for policymakers seeking to prevent peace processes being derailed.

  • 34.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Laskaris, Stamatis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rising powers and the responsibility to protect: Will the norm suvirve in the age of BRICS?2015In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the view of the BRICS countries regarding the international community's Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) against civilian atrocities? This article revisits the debate on international humanitarian action in Libya and Syria in 2011–2012; a time with BRICS states as members of the United Nation Security Council. While BRICS countries from the outset had different views on RtoP, the experiences of the Libyan intervention led to a unanimous reluctance to initiate any humanitarian action in Syria. We find, however, that all BRICS except Russia in general are positive to the RtoP concept and are willing to participate in further developments to specify how and when it applies. On the basis of our analysis, we expect that RtoP will continue to be an important feature of international relations but that it primarily will be used against non-state actors and that the behaviour of the interveners may be subjected to UNSC scrutiny.

  • 35.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Marsh, Nicholas
    Peace Research Institute Oslo.
    Lethal Instruments: Small arms and deaths in armed conflict2012In: Small arms, crime and conflict : global governance and the threat of armed violence. / [ed] Owen Greene and Nicholas Marsh, London: Routledge, 2012, p. 43-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Marsh, Nicholas
    Peace Research Institute Oslo.
    Torre, Manuela
    Scuola Superiore Sant´ Anna of Advanced Studies, Pisa.
    Regaining state control: arms and violence in post-conflict countries2012In: Small arms, crime and conflict : global governance and the threat of armed violence / [ed] Owen Greene and Nicholas Marsh, London: Routledge, 2012, p. 64-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nussio, Enzo
    Center for Security Studies, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Destroying Trust in Government: Effects of a Broken Pact among Colombian Ex-Combatants2019In: International Studies Quarterly, ISSN 0020-8833, E-ISSN 1468-2478, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 1175-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mistrust between conflict parties after civil war is a major hurdle to sustainable peace. However, existing research focuses on elite interactions and has not examined the trust relationship between government and rank-and-file members of armed groups, despite their importance for postconflict stability. We use the unexpected decision of the Colombian government to extradite top-level former paramilitary leaders to the United States in 2008 to identify how a peace deal reversal influences ex-combatants’ trust in government. In theory, they may lose trust for instrumental reasons, if they suffer personal costs, or for normative reasons, if they think the government is failing its commitments. Using quasi-experimental survey evidence, we find that extradition decreases trust substantially among ex-paramilitaries, but not in a comparison group of ex-guerrillas not part of the same peace deal. Even though paramilitaries are seen as particularly opportunistic, our evidence suggests that normative rather than instrumentalist considerations led to trust erosion.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Protracted conflicts: Issues or dynamics at stake?2010In: New Routes, ISSN 1403-3755, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 3-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Spagat, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Royal Holloway College, University of London.
    Mack, Andrew
    School for International Studies, Simon Fraser University.
    Cooper, Tara
    School for International Studies, Simon Fraser University.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Estimating War Deaths: An Arena of Contestation2009In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 934-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a much-cited recent article, Obermeyer, Murray, and Gakidou (2008a) examine estimates of wartime fatalities from injuries for thirteen countries. Their analysis poses a major challenge to the battle-death estimating methodology widely used by conflict researchers, engages with the controversy over whether war deaths have been increasing or decreasing in recent decades, and takes the debate over different approaches to battledeath estimation to a new level. In making their assessments, the authors compare war death reports extracted from World Health Organization (WHO) sibling survey data with the battle-death estimates for the same countries from the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO). The analysis that leads to these conclusions is not compelling, however. Thus, while the authors argue that the PRIO estimates are too low by a factor of three, their comparison fails to compare like with like. Their assertion that there is “no evidence” to support the PRIO finding that war deaths have recently declined also fails. They ignore war-trend data for the periods after 1994 and before 1955, base their time trends on extrapolations from a biased convenience sample of only thirteen countries, and rely on an estimated constant that is statistically insignificant.

  • 40.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Introducing the UCDP Non-State Conflict Dataset2012In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) by presenting new global data on non-state conflict, or armed conflict between two groups, neither of which is the state. The dataset includes conflicts between rebel groups and other organized militias, and thus serves as a complement to existing datasets on armed conflict which have either ignored this kind of violence or aggregated it into civil war. The dataset also includes cases of fighting between supporters of different political parties as well as cases of communal conflict, that is, conflict between two social groups, usually identified along ethnic or religious lines. This thus extends UCDP's conflict data collection to facilitate the study of topics like rebel fractionalization, paramilitary involvement in conflict violence, and communal or ethnic conflict. In the article, we present a background to the data collection and provide descriptive statistics for the period 1989-2008 and then illustrate how the data can be used with the case of Somalia. These data move beyond state-centric conceptions of collective violence to facilitate research into the causes and consequences of group violence which occurs without state participation.

1 - 40 of 40
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