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  • 1. Balmer, Richard S.
    et al.
    Friel, Ian
    Hepplestone, Steven
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Uren, Michael J.
    Markham, Matthew L.
    Palmer, Nicola L.
    Pilkington, James
    Huggett, Paul
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lang, Richard
    Transport behavior of holes in boron delta-doped diamond structures2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 033702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron delta-doped diamond structures have been synthesized using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and fabricated into FET and gated Hall bar devices for assessment of the electrical characteristics. A detailed study of variable temperature Hall, conductivity, and field-effect mobility measurements was completed. This was supported by Schrodinger-Poisson and relaxation time calculations based upon application of Fermi's golden rule. A two carrier-type model was developed with an activation energy of similar to 0.2 eV between the delta layer lowest subband with mobility similar to 1 cm(2)/Vs and the bulk valence band with high mobility. This new understanding of the transport of holes in such boron delta-doped structures has shown that although Hall mobility as high as 900 cm(2)/Vs was measured at room temperature, this dramatically overstates the actual useful performance of the device.

  • 2.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hallen, Anders
    Linnarsson, Margareta
    Schoner, Adolf
    Twitchen, Daniel
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Compensation in boron-doped CVD diamond2008In: Physica status solidi. A, Applications and Materials Science, ISSN 1862-6300, Vol. 205, no 9, p. 2190-2194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hall-effect measurements on single crystal boron-doped CVD diamond in the temperature interval 80-450 K are presented together with SIMS measurements of the dopant concentration. Capacitance-voltage measurements on rectifying Schottky junctions manufactured on the boron-doped structures are also presented in this context. Evaluation of the compensating donor (N-D) and acceptor concentrations (N-A) show that in certain samples very low compensation ratios (N-D/N-A below 10(-4)) have been achieved. The influence of compensating donors on majority carrier transport and the significance for diamond device performance are briefly discussed.

  • 3.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Twitchen, Daniel
    Element Six Ltd, Ascot Berkshire, UK.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Electron and hole drift velocity in chemical vapor deposition diamond2011In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 063719-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time-of-flight technique has been used to measure the drift velocities for electrons and holes in high-purity single-crystalline CVD diamond. Measurements were made in the temperature interval 83 ≤ T ≤ 460 K and for electric fields between 90 and 4 × 103 V/cm, applied in the <100> crystallographic direction. The study includes low-field drift mobilities and is performed in the low-injection regime to perturb the applied electric field only minimally.

  • 4.
    Hammersberg, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Twitchen, D. J.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Stability of polarized states for diamond valleytronics2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 104, no 23, p. 232105-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of valley polarized electron states is crucial for the development of valleytronics. A long relaxation time of the valley polarization is required to enable operations to be performed on the polarized states. Here, we investigate the stability of valley polarized states in diamond, expressed as relaxation time. We have found that the stability of the states can be extremely long when we consider the electron-phonon scattering processes allowed by symmetry considerations. We determine electron-phonon coupling constants by Time-of-Flight measurements and Monte Carlo simulations and use these data to map out the relaxation time temperature dependency. The relaxation time for diamond can be microseconds or longer below 100 K and 100 V/cm due to the strong covalent bond, which is highly encouraging for future use in valleytronic applications. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 5.
    Isberg, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hammersberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Twitchen, Daniel J.
    Generation, transport and detection of valley-polarized electrons in diamond2013In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 760-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard electronic devices encode bits of information by controlling the amount of electric charge in the circuits. Alternatively, it is possible to make devices that rely on other properties of electrons than their charge. For example, spintronic devices make use of the electron spin angular momentum as a carrier of information. A new concept is valleytronics in which information is encoded by the valley quantum number of the electron. The analogy between the valley and spin degrees of freedom also implies the possibility of valley-based quantum computing. In this Article, we demonstrate for the first time generation, transport ( across macroscopic distances) and detection of valley-polarized electrons in bulk diamond with a relaxation time of 300 ns at 77 K. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for the development of integrated valleytronic devices.

  • 6.
    Isberg, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Twitchen, Daniel
    Element Six Ltd, Ascot Berkshire, UK.
    On the transition between space-charge-free and space-charge-limited conduction in diamond2011In: Solid State Sciences, ISSN 1293-2558, E-ISSN 1873-3085, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1065-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carrier transport in a high-purity single-crystalline CVD diamond sample was studied using the Time-of-Flight technique with optical UV excitation. By varying the intensity of the optical excitation over four orders of magnitude, the transition between space-charge-free and space-charge-limited hole conduction in diamond is directly observed. Experimentally, we find that even a relatively small injected charge appreciably affects the drift velocity measurements. To achieve a relative error in drift velocity less than 1%, the injected charge has to be less than 0.01 CU, where C is the sample capacitance and U the applied bias.

  • 7.
    Isberg, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Twitchen, D. J.
    Element Six Ltd,Ascot, Berkshire, UK.
    Negative electron mobility in diamond2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 17, p. 172103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By measuring the drift velocity of electrons in diamond as a function of applied electric field, wedemonstrate that ultra-pure diamond exhibits negative differential electron mobility in the [100] directionbelow 140 K. Negative electron mobility is normally associated with III–V or II–VI semiconductors withan energy difference between different conduction band valleys. The observation of negative mobility indiamond, an elemental group IV semiconductor, is explained in terms of repopulation effects betweendifferent equivalent conduction band valleys using a model based on the Boltzmann equation.

  • 8.
    Isberg, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Twitchen, Daniel
    Element Six Ltd.
    Negative differential electron mobility and single valley transport in diamondManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron transport in isolated conduction band valleys across macroscopic distances has been observed in single-crystalline CVD diamond at 70 K by use of the time-of-flight technique. This is possible due to the very low scattering cross section for intervalley scattering in single-crystalline CVD diamond. This effect enables a precise determination of the ratio between longitudinal and transverse conduction band effective masses in diamond. We find ml/mt = 5.2. At  temperatures in the interval 110-140 K, a negative differential mobility (NDM) has been observed for electrons with the electric field parallel to the crystallographic <100> direction.  The NDM can be explained in terms of valley repopulation effects between the equivalent energy conduction band minima.

  • 9.
    Isberg, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Friel, I.
    Balmer, R. S.
    A lateral time-of-flight system for charge transport studies2009In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 1163-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A measurement system for lateral ToF charge carrier transport studies in intrinsic diamond is described. In the lateral ToF geometry, carriers travel close to the sample surface and the system is therefore particularly suited for studies of thin layers as well as the influence of different surface conditions on transport dynamics. A 213nm pulsed UV laser is used to create electron-hole pairs along a line focus between two parallel metal electrodes on one surface. The use of reflective UV-optics with short focal length allows for a narrow focal line and also for imaging the sample in UV or visible light without any dispersion. A clear hole transit was observed in one homoepitaxial single crystalline diamond film for which the substrate was treated by a Ar/Cl plasma etch prior to deposition. The hole transit signal was sufficiently clear to measure the near-surface hole drift mobility of about 860cm2/Vs across a contact spacing of 0.3mm.

  • 10.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    A charge transport study in diamond, surface passivated by high-k dielectric oxides2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 20, p. 202102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent progress in the growth of high-quality single-crystalline diamond films has sparked interest in the realization of efficient diamond power electronic devices. However, finding a suitable passivation is essential to improve the reliability and electrical performance of devices. In the current work, high-k dielectric materials such as aluminum oxide and hafnium oxide were deposited by atomic layer deposition on intrinsic diamond as a surface passivation layer. The hole transport properties in the diamond films were evaluated and compared to unpassivated films using the lateral time-of-flight technique. An enhancement of the near surface hole mobility in diamond films of up to 27% is observed when using aluminum oxide passivation.

  • 11.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Silicon Oxide Passivation of Single-Crystalline CVD Diamond Evaluated by the Time-of-Flight Technique2014In: ECS SOLID STATE LETT, ISSN 2162-8742, Vol. 3, no 5, p. P65-P68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The excellent material properties of diamond make it highly desirable for many extreme electronic applications that are out of reach of conventional electronic materials. For commercial diamond devices to become a reality, it is necessary to have an effective surface passivation since the passivation determines the ability of the device to withstand high surface electric fields. In this paper we present data from lateral Time-of-Flight studies on SiO2-passivated intrinsic single-crystalline CVD diamond. The SiO2 films were deposited using three different techniques. The influence of the passivation on hole transport was studied, which resulted in the increase of hole mobilities. The results from the three different passivations are compared. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    (Invited) Surface Passivation of High-k Dielectric Materials on Diamond Thin Films2015In: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, E-ISSN 1938-6737, Vol. 69, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystalline CVD diamond films have excellent electrical and material properties with potential in high power, high voltage and high frequency applications that are out of reach for conventional semiconductor materials. For realization of efficient devices (e.g. MOSFET), finding a suitable dielectric is essential to improve the reliability and electrical performance of devices. In the current study, we present results from surface passivation studies by high-k dielectric materials such as aluminum oxide and hafnium oxide deposited by ALD on intrinsic and boron doped diamond substrates. The hole transport properties in the intrinsic diamond films were evaluated and compared to unpassivated films using the lateral time-of-flight technique. The MOS capacitor structure, which forms the basic building block of the MOSFET, is discussed.

  • 13.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hammersberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Charge Transport Phenomena Unique to Diamond2014In: MRS Online Proceedings Library, Vol. 1591, p. null-nullArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Diamond is a unique material in many respects. One of the most well-known extreme properties of diamond is its ultrahardness. This property of diamond actually turns out to have interesting consequences for charge transport, in particular at low temperatures. In fact, the strong covalent bonds that give rise to the ultrahardness results in a lack of short wavelength lattice vibrations which has a strong impact on both electron and hole scattering. In some sense diamond behaves more like a vacuum than other semiconductor materials. In this paper we describe some interesting charge transport properties of diamond and discuss possible novel electronic applications.

  • 14.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Inversion in Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Capacitors on Boron-Doped Diamond2015In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 603-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the advancement of diamond-based electronic devices, the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is crucial, as this device finds applications in numerous fields of power electronics and high-frequency systems. The MOS capacitor forms the basic building block of the MOSFET. In this letter, we describe planar MOS capacitor structures fabricated with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as the dielectric on oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond substrates with different doping levels. Using capacitance-voltage measurements, we have, for the first time, observed inversion behavior in MOS structures on boron-doped diamond, with a doping concentration of 4.1 × 1019/cm3.

  • 15.
    Kumar Kovi, Kiran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Friel, Ian
    Element Six Ltd, Ascot Berkshire, UK.
    Balmer, Richard
    Element Six Ltd, Ascot Berkshire, UK.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Time-of-Flight Characterization of Single-crystalline CVD Diamond with Different Surface Passivation Layers2011In: MRS Proceedings, ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1282, no mrsf10-1282-a09-01Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic properties of diamond, e.g. a high band-gap and high carrier mobilities, together with material properties such as a very high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and a high radiation resistance makes diamond a unique material for many extreme electronic applications out of reach for silicon devices. This includes, e.g. microwave power devices, power devices and high temperature electronics. It is important to have an effective passivation of the surface of such devices since the passivation determines the ability of the device to withstand high surface electric fields. In addition, the passivation is used to control the surface charge which can strongly influence the electric field in the bulk of the device. It is possible to measure sample parameters such as electron and hole drift mobilities, charge carrier lifetimes or saturation velocities using Time-of-flight (ToF) method. The ToF technique has also been adapted for probing the electric field distribution and the distribution of trapped charge. In this paper we present new data from lateral ToF studies of high-purity single crystalline diamond with different surface passivations. Silicon oxide and silicon nitride are used as passivation layers in the current study. The effect of the passivation on charge transport is studied, and the results of different passivation materials are compared experimentally.

  • 16.
    Majdi, S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kovi, K. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hammersberg, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Low Temperature Hole Transport in Single Crystal Synthetic Diamond2012In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hole transport properties of boron-doped single-crystalline (SC) CVD diamond, growth in the<100> crystallographic direction, has been investigated. The measurement was carried out in thetemperature range 10  T  80 K. A Time-of-Flight (ToF) measurement, using a 213 nm, pulsedultraviolet laser for excitation was performed on high-purity SC diamonds to study hole driftmobility in the low-injection regime and the scattering mechanisms involved in the process. Asaturation of the hole mobility was observed. This indicates that impurity scattering is thedominating scattering process at these low temperatures.

  • 17.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Experimental Studies of Charge Transport in Single Crystal Diamond Devices2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond is a promising material for high-power, high-frequency and high- temperature electronics applications, where its outstanding physical properties can be fully exploited. It exhibits an extremely high bandgap, very high carrier mobilities, high breakdown field strength, and the highest thermal conductivity of any wide bandgap material. It is therefore an outstanding candidate for the fastest switching, the highest power density, and the most efficient electronic devices obtainable, with applications in the RF power, automotive and aerospace industries. Lightweight diamond devices, capable of high temperature operation in harsh environments, could also be used in radiation detectors and particle physics applications where no other semiconductor devices would survive.

    The high defect and impurity concentration in natural diamond or high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) diamond substrates has made it difficult to obtain reliable results when studying the electronic properties of diamond. However, progress in the growth of high purity Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposited (SC-CVD) diamond has opened the perspective of applications under such extreme conditions based on this type of synthetic diamond.

    Despite the improvements, there are still many open questions. This work will focus on the electrical characterization of SC-CVD diamond by different measurement techniques such as internal photo-emission, I-V, C-V, Hall measurements and in particular, Time-of-Flight (ToF) carrier drift velocity measurements. With these mentioned techniques, some important properties of diamond such as drift mobilities, lateral carrier transit velocities, compensation ratio and Schottky barrier heights have been investigated. Low compensation ratios (ND/NA) < 10-4 have been achieved in boron-doped diamond and a drift mobility of about 860 cm2/Vs for the hole transit near the surface in a lateral ToF configuration could be measured. The carrier drift velocity was studied for electrons and holes at the temperature interval of 80-460 K. The study is performed in the low-injection regime and includes low-field drift mobilities. The hole mobility was further investigated at low temperatures (10-80 K) and as expected a very high mobility was observed.

    In the case of electrons, a negative differential mobility was seen in the temperature interval of 100-150K. An explanation for this phenomenon is given by the intervally scattering and the relation between hot and cold conduction band valleys. This was observed in direct bandgap semiconductors with non-equivalent valleys such as GaAs but has not been seen in diamond before.

    Furthermore, first steps have been taken to utilize diamond for infrared (IR) radiation detection. To understand the fundamentals of the thermal response of diamond, Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) measurements were performed on diamond Schottky diodes which are a candidate for high temperature sensors. As a result, very high TCR values in combination with a low noise constant (K1/f) was observed.

    List of papers
    1. Compensation in boron-doped CVD diamond
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compensation in boron-doped CVD diamond
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Physica status solidi. A, Applications and Materials Science, ISSN 1862-6300, Vol. 205, no 9, p. 2190-2194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hall-effect measurements on single crystal boron-doped CVD diamond in the temperature interval 80-450 K are presented together with SIMS measurements of the dopant concentration. Capacitance-voltage measurements on rectifying Schottky junctions manufactured on the boron-doped structures are also presented in this context. Evaluation of the compensating donor (N-D) and acceptor concentrations (N-A) show that in certain samples very low compensation ratios (N-D/N-A below 10(-4)) have been achieved. The influence of compensating donors on majority carrier transport and the significance for diamond device performance are briefly discussed.

    National Category
    Materials Engineering Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107876 (URN)10.1002/pssa.200879711 (DOI)000259653700017 ()
    Available from: 2009-08-31 Created: 2009-08-31 Last updated: 2017-01-25
    2. Characterization by Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Single-Crystal CVD Diamond Schottky Barrier Diodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization by Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Single-Crystal CVD Diamond Schottky Barrier Diodes
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1203-1208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Internal photoemission spectroscopy measurements have been performed to study the electrical characteristics of Schottky diodes on boron-doped single-crystalline chemical vapor deposited (SC-CVD) diamond. These measurements were compared with current-voltage (I-V) and current-temperature (I-T) measurements. Schottky contact barrier heights and ideality factors have been measured on Schottky contacts formed on four samples with Au, Ni, and Al contact metallizations. I-V and I-T measurements were performed in the temperature range from 300 K to 500 K. The internal photoemission method, which is less influenced by local variations in the Schottky barrier height than the other two methods, yielded the highest values of Schottky barrier heights to p-type material: I broken vertical bar(B) = 1.78 eV to 2.10 eV, depending on the choice of contact metal and sample boron concentration.

    Keywords
    CVD diamond, Schottky barrier diodes, internal photoemission spectroscopy, Schottky barrier heights
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-135814 (URN)10.1007/s11664-010-1255-8 (DOI)000279504900012 ()
    Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. A lateral time-of-flight system for charge transport studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A lateral time-of-flight system for charge transport studies
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 1163-1166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A measurement system for lateral ToF charge carrier transport studies in intrinsic diamond is described. In the lateral ToF geometry, carriers travel close to the sample surface and the system is therefore particularly suited for studies of thin layers as well as the influence of different surface conditions on transport dynamics. A 213nm pulsed UV laser is used to create electron-hole pairs along a line focus between two parallel metal electrodes on one surface. The use of reflective UV-optics with short focal length allows for a narrow focal line and also for imaging the sample in UV or visible light without any dispersion. A clear hole transit was observed in one homoepitaxial single crystalline diamond film for which the substrate was treated by a Ar/Cl plasma etch prior to deposition. The hole transit signal was sufficiently clear to measure the near-surface hole drift mobility of about 860cm2/Vs across a contact spacing of 0.3mm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, United Kingdom: Elsevier Ltd, 2009
    Keywords
    Mobility, Time-of-Flight, CVD diamond, Single crystal diamond
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-113146 (URN)10.1016/j.diamond.2009.03.002 (DOI)000268610700020 ()09259635 (ISBN)
    Note

    Compilation and indexing terms, Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. 20092812180300 Charge transport CVD diamond Electron hole pairs Focal lengths Homoepitaxial Line-focus Measurement system Metal electrodes Mobility Near-surface Plasma etch Pulsed UV-lasers Sample surface Single crystal diamond Single-crystalline diamond Surface conditions Thin layers Time-of-Flight Time-of-flight system Transport dynamics Visible light

    Available from: 2010-01-25 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Electron and hole drift velocity in chemical vapor deposition diamond
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electron and hole drift velocity in chemical vapor deposition diamond
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 063719-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The time-of-flight technique has been used to measure the drift velocities for electrons and holes in high-purity single-crystalline CVD diamond. Measurements were made in the temperature interval 83 ≤ T ≤ 460 K and for electric fields between 90 and 4 × 103 V/cm, applied in the <100> crystallographic direction. The study includes low-field drift mobilities and is performed in the low-injection regime to perturb the applied electric field only minimally.

    Keywords
    velocity, time-of-flight, carrier drift mobility, single crystal diamond
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Physics with spec. in Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics; Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122792 (URN)10.1063/1.3554721 (DOI)000289149900072 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2011-04-09 Created: 2010-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Negative electron mobility in diamond
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative electron mobility in diamond
    2012 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 17, p. 172103-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    By measuring the drift velocity of electrons in diamond as a function of applied electric field, wedemonstrate that ultra-pure diamond exhibits negative differential electron mobility in the [100] directionbelow 140 K. Negative electron mobility is normally associated with III–V or II–VI semiconductors withan energy difference between different conduction band valleys. The observation of negative mobility indiamond, an elemental group IV semiconductor, is explained in terms of repopulation effects betweendifferent equivalent conduction band valleys using a model based on the Boltzmann equation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2012
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173582 (URN)10.1063/1.4705434 (DOI)000303340300034 ()
    Available from: 2012-05-02 Created: 2012-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    6. Low Temperature Hole Transport in Single Crystal Synthetic Diamond
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Temperature Hole Transport in Single Crystal Synthetic Diamond
    2012 (English)In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hole transport properties of boron-doped single-crystalline (SC) CVD diamond, growth in the<100> crystallographic direction, has been investigated. The measurement was carried out in thetemperature range 10  T  80 K. A Time-of-Flight (ToF) measurement, using a 213 nm, pulsedultraviolet laser for excitation was performed on high-purity SC diamonds to study hole driftmobility in the low-injection regime and the scattering mechanisms involved in the process. Asaturation of the hole mobility was observed. This indicates that impurity scattering is thedominating scattering process at these low temperatures.

    Keywords
    ToF, time-of-flight, scattering, drift velocity, CVD diamond, single crystal diamond
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173598 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-05-02 Created: 2012-05-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    7. High Performance Temperature Sensors using SC-CVD Diamond Schottky Diodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Performance Temperature Sensors using SC-CVD Diamond Schottky Diodes
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal IR detection has been an intensive research area during the recent years. Among the new materials, diamond has the ability to function under high temperature, high power, and high radiation conditions, which enables large performance enhancements to a wide variety of systems and applications, e.g. electric vehicles, space exploration and nuclear energy reactors. In this study, diamond Schottky diodes (with boron concentrations in the range 1×1015 - 3×1016 cm-3) are presented as candidates for IR sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (-16 %/K) and noise levels around 1.8×10-14 (V2/Hz).

    Keywords
    CVD diamond, TCR, Schottky diodes, IR detector
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173597 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-05-02 Created: 2012-05-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Majdi, Saman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Balmer, Richard
    Twitchen, Daniel
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Characterization by Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Single-Crystal CVD Diamond Schottky Barrier Diodes2010In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1203-1208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal photoemission spectroscopy measurements have been performed to study the electrical characteristics of Schottky diodes on boron-doped single-crystalline chemical vapor deposited (SC-CVD) diamond. These measurements were compared with current-voltage (I-V) and current-temperature (I-T) measurements. Schottky contact barrier heights and ideality factors have been measured on Schottky contacts formed on four samples with Au, Ni, and Al contact metallizations. I-V and I-T measurements were performed in the temperature range from 300 K to 500 K. The internal photoemission method, which is less influenced by local variations in the Schottky barrier height than the other two methods, yielded the highest values of Schottky barrier heights to p-type material: I broken vertical bar(B) = 1.78 eV to 2.10 eV, depending on the choice of contact metal and sample boron concentration.

  • 19.
    Majdi, Saman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kumar Kovi, Kiran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Argonne Natl Lab, Ctr Nanoscale Mat, Argonne, IL 60439 USA..
    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Friel, I.
    Element Six Innovat, Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England..
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Low temperature conduction-band transport in diamond2016In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 109, no 16, article id 162106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By performing Time-of-Flight measurements on high-purity single-crystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond, we are able to extract the electron drift velocity of valley-polarized electrons in the low-injection regime. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the conduction-band transport of valley-polarized electrons. The measurements were carried out within the temperature range of 10-80 K, and the experimental results are systematically compared with Monte Carlo charge transport simulations. We observe a rapid enhancement of the electron mobility with decreasing temperature, which reveals that inelastic effects in electron-phonon scattering become important below similar to 40 K. In addition, we obtain the momentum relaxation rate for electrons with different valley polarizations.

  • 20.
    Majdi, Saman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kolahdouz, M.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Moeen, M.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jamshidi, A.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balmer, R.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Radamson, H.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    High Performance Temperature Sensors using SC-CVD Diamond Schottky Diodes2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal IR detection has been an intensive research area during the recent years. Among the new materials, diamond has the ability to function under high temperature, high power, and high radiation conditions, which enables large performance enhancements to a wide variety of systems and applications, e.g. electric vehicles, space exploration and nuclear energy reactors. In this study, diamond Schottky diodes (with boron concentrations in the range 1×1015 - 3×1016 cm-3) are presented as candidates for IR sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (-16 %/K) and noise levels around 1.8×10-14 (V2/Hz).

  • 21.
    Majdi, Saman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kolahdouz, M.
    Moeen, M.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Balmer, R. S.
    Radamson, H. H.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Single crystal diamond for infrared sensing applications2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 16, p. 163510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal infrared (IR) detection has been an intensive research area in recent years. Among new semiconductor materials, synthetic diamond has the ability to function even under very high temperature and high radiation conditions. In the present work, diamond Schottky diodes with boron concentrations in the range of 1014 < B < 1017 cm−3 are presented as candidates for IR thermal sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (−8.42%/K) and very low noise levels around 6.6 × 10−15 V2/Hz. This enables huge performance enhancements for a wide variety of systems, e.g., automotive and space applications.

  • 22.
    Majdi, Saman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kovi, Kiran Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hammersberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hole transport in single crystal synthetic diamond at low temperatures2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 15, p. 152113-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating the effects of local scattering mechanisms is of great importance to understand charge transport in semiconductors. This article reports measurements of the hole transport properties of boron-doped (100) single-crystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond. A Time-of-Flight measurement using a 213 nm, pulsed UV laser for excitation, was performed on high-purity single-crystalline diamonds to measure the hole drift velocity in the low-injection regime. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range 10-80 K. The results obtained are directly applicable to low-temperature detector applications. By comparing our data to Monte-Carlo simulations, a detailed understanding of the dominating hole scattering mechanisms is obtained.

  • 23.
    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Twitchen, Daniel J.
    Harwell Oxford, Element Innovat 6, Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England..
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Magnetotransport study of valley-polarized electrons in synthetic diamond2016In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 94, no 3, article id 035408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that the highly stable valley-polarized electron states in ultrapure single-crystalline diamond allow for investigation of charge transport, magnetoresistivity, and determination of the dominant scattering mechanism. The Hall effect gives rise to nonisotropic contributions in the mobility tensor that were measured at a temperature of 70 K in a time-of-flight setup with an added magnetic field. The observations of the magnetotransport of valley-polarized electrons in diamond are compared with both Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation. We establish that acoustic phonon scattering is the dominant electron scattering mechanism at 70 K for each of the valley polarizations in the investigated samples.

  • 24.
    Suntornwipat, Nattakarn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Investigation of transferred-electron oscillations in diamond2016In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 108, no 21, article id 212104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent discovery of Negative Differential Mobility (NDM) in intrinsic single-crystalline diamond enables the development of devices for high frequency applications. The Transferred-Electron Oscillator (TEO) is one example of such devices that uses the benefit of NDM to generate continuous oscillations. This paper presents theoretical investigations of a diamond TEO in the temperature range of 110 to 140K where NDM has been observed. Our simulations map out the parameter space in which transferred-electron oscillations are expected to occur for a specific device geometry. The results are promising and indicate that it is possible to fabricate diamond based TEO devices.

  • 25. Ullah, M.
    et al.
    Ahmed, E.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Majdi, Saman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Khalid, N. R.
    Ahmad, M.
    Growth of Nitrogen-Incorporated Diamond Films Using Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique2013In: Advanced Science Letters, ISSN 1936-6612, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 291-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro- and nanocrystalline diamond (MNCD) films were deposited on silicon substrates by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) at chamber pressure of 22.5 torr for 20 hours. The total mass flow rate was 300 sccm (3 Vol.% CH4), while the nitrogen gas flow rate was varied from 0.04 to 0.64 sccm corresponding to 0.8 to 12.8% of H2+CH4 mixture. The resulting films were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectra, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and four point probe van der Pauw method to analyze and measure the structure, quality, morphology and resistivity of the deposited films, respectively. Results show that the grain size increases at low concentration of nitrogen, while it decreases for high concentration of nitrogen and the fact is probably the formation of atomic nitrogen N° near filament surface and its inward diffusion on the surface of growing film. Resistivity decreases continuously due to formation of C—H bonds in a trans-polyacetylene structure along with diamond film, which leads to change surface morphology. By increasing nitrogen content enhance distortion along [111] direction of the resulting films.

1 - 25 of 25
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