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  • 1.
    Deneke, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lehane, Darren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Kandler, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Menchini, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Obaid, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Using rapid prototyping to explore design implications for a pill-dispensing social agent2017In: Proc. 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York: ACM Press, 2017, 53-59 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Hirsch, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Björsell, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Obaid, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Investigating design implications towards a social robot as a memory trainer2017In: Proc. 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York: ACM Press, 2017, 5-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Tools and methods for security: Stimulating the skill to philosophize2013In: European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference: 2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, 163-165 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding optimal solutions to security issues is verydifficult or impossible. Conflicting interests and values decidewhat has to be done. Every thinkable answer contains both risksand possibilities. I our effort to find solutions we have always tonegotiate and make compromises. A dialectic process is necessaryin security in order to identify significant interests and values,and to formulate principles and policies. Handling security issuesand working for secure IT systems demand continuousadjustment to relevant values as well as the necessary personalskills and suitable group processes. Focusing on the method andmaking sure that the right way of proceeding has been adopted isthe way to get satisfactory answers to the problems of IT security.The philosophical method of deliberative thinking seems to be thebasis of such methods.

  • 4.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computer aided ethical IT systems design2010In: ETHICOMP 2010: The "backwards, forwards, and sideways" changes of ICT / [ed] Arias-Oliva, M., Bynum, T. W., Rogerson, S. and Torres-Coronas, T., Tarragona, Spain: Universitat Rovira i Virgili , 2010, 332-340 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with EthXpert is to help an analyst or decision maker to understand how different design solutions affect the interests of each involved stakeholder. To support this understanding, the analysis is made explicit by iterating a procedure comprising three main steps. The first step is to create an overview by drawing a stakeholder network, i.e. a map over the relations between all stakeholders. Second the impact of each stakeholder’s interests on other stakeholders are analyzed and noted. Finally the considerations for each interest are used as foundation for making assumptions about how the stakeholders are affected by different design solutions. Not only does this process help people to scrutinize, structure and get overview of an ethical problem. The resulting document can also be used as vindication of the choices that are made. Various ethical support systems have targeted the concern of identifying relevant information in different ways. EthXpert has been applied on the design of different IT systems with very positive results. With help from EthXpert the test groups were able to extend previous analyses through identifying additional stakeholders and interests. The procedure also gave insight in how the interests of different stakeholders were interrelated. Some of the test groups especially appreciated the collaboration feature of EthXpert. An ethical analysis often brings up many big and small issues to consider and it is therefore efficient if a group can cooperate in solving the problems. Thus the tool also works as a means to gather several perspectives on a problem. Through the explicit process, the designer acquires both a better overview of the complexity of a problem and a conception of how the involved stakeholders affect and are affected by different solutions. Almost all of the test subjects were of the opinion that the systematic procedure of EthXpert is purposeful for acquiring higher ethical problem-solving and decision-making skills by offering a holistic overview over ethical aspects in the design of IT systems. Although critical remarks about the usability of the interface, many also became aware of shortages in a prior analysis made without the tool. This indicates that a computerized tool that guides the investigation of stakeholders’ interests, and supports structuring and overview over information, is helpful for designing more ethical IT systems.

  • 5.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computer supported ethical decision making2009In: 23rd European Conference on Operational Research, Bonn, 2009, 193-193 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will present in detail the structure and work process of EthXpert - a computer system for supporting ethical decision making. Through examples, we will show how the tool can be used to reach a better-structured and more holistic overview of moral problems. Based on case studies with students, we will also discuss the level of experience in handling ethical problems that is required to make proper use of the system in real-life decision-making. Finally we will suggest how the resulting documentation of ethical implications can serve as justifcation for decision-making.

  • 6.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computerized support of personal and group skills for sustainability2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a collaborative tool to facilitate and structure dialogue about concrete issues in sustainability, We have experienced that the tool is remarkably powerful in stimulating the inquiry in complex issues by constantly forcing the user to shift focus between the particular and the holistic. The design of the tool is theoretically founded in philosophy and knowledge about the psychological mechanisms, like cognitive biases, that are involved in decision making. It is based on the assumption that people are not making judgments in isolation, but rather in social settings. Problems that involve many people, a trait that questions of sustainability share with ethics, can only be solved by answering questions about how these are affecting the problem situation and how these are affected by any proposed solution. The main advantage with such a tool is that it supplies a shared platform in which an analysis can evolve organically, even in collaboration with competing parties. Policy makers can get help to understand how arguments have been applied in concrete situations and how people and values can be affected by different courses of action. The structure of the tool invites to a proactive, concrete, solution-oriented dialogue where premises are made explicit and thus possible to address.

  • 7.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Etik och medicinteknik2015In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2015 / [ed] Fredrik Nikolajeff, Uppsala: Svensk Förening för Medicinsk Teknik och Fysik (MTF), Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet , 2015, 94-94 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De nya metoder för att diagnostisera och behandla sjukdomar och de nya möjligheter som den medicinska teknologin och då inte minst informationsteknologin erbjuder, ställer beslutsfattarna inom vården inför nya typer av etiska beslutssituationer. Förbättrade metoder för diagnosticering ger information som inte alltid har önskvärda konsekvenser, exempelvis abort av barn av oönskat kön. De nya möjligheterna att behandla sjukdomstillstånd som tidigare uppfattats som hopplösa innebär allvarliga och svåra val då liv kan komma att vägas mot samhällskostnad. Ny medicinteknik kan kräva snabbt beslutsfattande där eftertanke inte hinns med vilket ställer frågan om teknikleverantörens ansvar på sin spets. Den nya internetsjukvården, dvs. de nya möjligheter till medicinsk konsultation och information som skapats genom Internet ger upphov till nya relationer mellan vårdgivare och patient och aktualiserar därmed också frågor om ansvar och etik.

    Tekniken ger oss nya möjligheter för diagnos och terapi men även för organiseringen av vården, t ex patientjournaler och distansvård, men tekniken innebär också risker i form av feldiagnoser, skador i vården, intrång på patientintegritet, etc. Dialysolyckan i Linköping och konflikten om elektroniska patientjournaler är talande exempel. Det är viktigt att medicinteknik fungerar så som det är tänkt och att vårdpersonal, patienter och allmänhet litar på och accepterar tekniken. Annars kan vi inte dra nytta av det tekniken har att erbjuda.

    Det är också viktigt att vårdpersonal och alla användare av medicinteknik förstår hur den fungerar och vilka effekter den kan ha, och att de har kompetensen att hantera problem som kan uppstå vid användning, även icke tekniska sådana. Etiken är därför en mycket viktig aspekt i medicinteknikutvecklingen. Det är nödvändigt att integrera etiska bedömningar i utformningen av medicinsk teknik och förbereda vårdpersonal, patienter och alla berörda för en etisk användning.

    Om etiken är viktig för medicinsk teknik blir den intressanta frågan hur ska vi lyckas integrera etiken i forskning, utveckling, design, och användning av medicinteknik. Det vanligaste angreppsättet är att försöka anpassa tekniken till viktiga moraliska principer och regler. Om det fungerar är detta det snabbaste och enklaste sättet att bygga etisk medicinteknik. Det finns dock flera frågor med detta angreppsätt, t ex vilken princip som ska gälla och vilken tolkning som ska tillämpas i designen av medicinteknik. Det kan också upplevas som att etiken fungerar enbart begränsande i utvecklingsarbetet.

    Vi föreslår ett angreppsätt baserat på klassisk etikfilosofi. Vi skiftar fokus från det normativa innehållet till utvecklings- och användningsprocessen. Det viktiga blir att fokusera på hur vi skapar den kunskap vi behöver och hur ansvar kan fördelas när vi designar etisk medicinsk teknik. Detta öppnar upp för skapande av olika metoder och verktyg samt stöd för användares etiska kompetensutveckling.

  • 8.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Training and supporting education in sustainability by the use of an ICT tool2012In: New technologies, education for sustainable development and critical pedagogy / [ed] Vassilios Makrakis and Nelly Kostoulas-Makrakis, Rethymnon, Greece: ICTeESD, University of Crete , 2012, 225-231 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will present ColLab, a collaborative computerized tool to facilitate dialogue about concrete issues in sustainability. The tool is powerful in stimulating the inquiry in complex issues by constantly forcing the user to shift focus between the particular and the holistic. The design of the tool is theoretically founded in philosophy and knowledge about the psychological mechanisms, like cognitive biases, that are involved in decision making. It is based on the assumption that people are not making judgments in isolation, but rather in social settings. The main advantage with such a tool is that it supplies a shared platform in which an analysis can evolve organically, even in collaboration with competing parties. It is suitable for using in learning environments and for educational purposes as well as for formulation of sustainability policies.

  • 9.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Rick, Christian
    Simulation and support in ethical decision making2007In: Globalisation: Bridging the global nature of Information and Communication Technology and the local nature of human beings, 2007, 278-287 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the structure and function of an ethical micro world simulation and of a support system in ethical problem-solving and decision-making. The ethical micro world simulation models realistic scenarios with interacting independent stakeholders. Users of the simulation are triggered to make autonomous decisions in dilemmas arising in the interaction between stakeholders. The goals are to investigate the possible approaches to implement the psychological approach to ethical problem-solving and decision-making, and to stimulate higher ethical competence. The ethical support system is based on the theory of autonomy. By using it thinking is guided away from heteronomy and toward autonomy. Its basic features are: 1) not allow the user to use the system as a moral authority, 2) not present a ready made set of moral principles and values, 3) help the user to be unconstrained by moral fixations and authorities, 4) help the user to organize and analyze the facts, 5) help the user to weight the relevant values and principles against each other, 6) help the user to solve the moral problem at hand systematically, 7) force the user to motivate his/her decisions in regard to the relevant interests and values.

  • 10.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Lennerfors, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Björk, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Etikutbildning för ingenjörer: Övningar, verktyg, metoder2015In: 5:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges Ingenjörsutbildningar / [ed] Stefan Pålsson, Uppsala universitet, 2015, 30-31 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En utbildning i etik som ska träna studenter att själva hantera etiska problem måste utgå ifrån klassisk filosofi och från etikpsykologisk forskning i problemlösning och beslutsfattande. Utbildningen ska koncentrera sig på praktiskt arbete och seminarier med egna verkliga etiska dilemman. Målet är utveckling av förmågan att lösa etiska problem, tolka och tillämpa viktiga principer och regler, och delta aktivt i dialog med andra intressenter. I workshopen kommer vi att visa metoder, verktyg och övningar som vi använder i våra etikkurser för ingenjörer och teknologer.

  • 11.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing for Autonomy2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, two problems are addressed.

    The first problem is how designers of computerized artifacts come to understand what they should design. In order to improve their chances for solving the right problem, it is suggested to adopt a deductive theorizing protocol, based on falsification, as it is expressed in philosophy as well as in psychological research on problem solving and decision making.

    It requires a shift in the role that designers take in communication with users; rather than considering users as objects of study, the designers' understanding is being scrutinized, by users.

    To accomplish this, an explication of the designers' understanding is necessary to formulate: a Theory of Use, which should account for the assumptions that the designers make about the users and the use situation. It should also be focused on what the designers understand to be the qualities of a good solution. These assumptions and qualities should be formulated as statements that are falsifiable by the users. Through this, the designers can, in a systematic way, get feedback on how well they have understood what they are designing for. Furthermore, the Theory of Use becomes the requirements against which subsequent design hypotheses are evaluated.

    The second problem is how to determine if a computerized artifact is appropriate for a given purpose. To guide such an evaluation, it is suggested to focus on the autonomy of the artifact's users. This is based on the philosophical and psychological conclusion that autonomy is necessary for human well-being, which is not explicitly taken into account in current design practice.

    The proposed Theory of Use protocol also gives designers the autonomy they need for developing their understanding and expertise. It is intended to improve and guide communication with users, targeting the most important facet of design: the designers' understanding of what they are designing for. Moreover, the protocol puts users in control over what is developed for them, and lets them have the final say on how their lives are designed.

  • 12.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    In Support of Democratic Dialogue2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many interpretations of what constitutes a democracy. Not all of these recognize that the fundament for a democratic society is the acceptance of dissent. All qualities that we see as constituent of democracy, like separation of powers; equality; elections; freedoms of speech, political expressions and press; etc., are however empty phrases unless society protects those who do not subscribe to the predominant, publicly endorsed ideologies. Nevertheless, it cannot be disregarded that dissent can be destructive and even pose a danger to the democracy that protects it. Recently we have seen all over Europe that populist right-wing parties are gaining increasing influence; influence that could be interpreted as a threat to democratic principles like equality of individuals. How can this be dealt with democratically?

    We believe that the only reasonable way — the only democratically correct way — to handle populist discontent is by careful scrutiny of what is being expressed. To stigmatize and trying to exclude the dissent from public debate has not been successful in suppressing the tendencies. By instead refuting the fundamental premises for the claims, it should be a minor problem to refute these. Complaints should not be denied but instead publicly challenged. This presupposes great trust in democratic principles but also a preparedness to change ones own position.

    To facilitate democratic dialogue about concrete issues, on any level in society, we have constructed a collaborative tool. The principle is very simple, almost banal, and the fact that we propose a simple tool to solve a complex problem in deed seems presumptuous. Yet we have experienced that the tool is remarkably powerful. The reason why we can claim with some confidence that it works, is the theoretical founding of it. It is built on the assumption that people are not making judgments in isolation. Societies are systems of people and thus societal problems can only be solved by addressing values and interests of the involved stakeholders; by answering questions about how these are affecting the problem situation and how these are affected by any proposed solution.

    The advantages with using the tool for this type of analysis are many. First, the tool supplies an open, distributed platform, in which an analysis can evolve organically. It allows different parties to include their points of view and decision makers to follow how arguments have been applied in concrete situations. Second, it counters the power of rhetoric and invites pluralism. Unlike debates, there is no need to limit the number of issues. Structure is instead given by application of arguments in concrete situations. Finally, the tool is designed to counter a number of biases, commonplace in decision making. The form in which arguments are presented makes it difficult to revert to value-laden principled reasoning, and invites to a proactive, concrete, solution-oriented discourse.

    At the conference, we will present the moral philosophical and psychological foundation for the tool and demonstrate how it works. It represents a form of social media that has the purpose of facilitating democratic dialogue.

  • 13.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Let us be philosophers!: Computerized support for ethical decision making2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a computerized tool for ethical decision making. For someone who is unfamiliar with the psychological theory that the tool is based on, it will perhaps first appear as a pointless piece of software. It does not give any guidance to what an ethically correct decision is, it does not suggest relevant ethical principles or guidelines and it does not even make reference to known cases of good moral conduct. In fact, it does not make any moral claims at all. The only two things that the tool does are that it stimulates reflective, analytical and holistic reasoning and blocks automatic, biased and constrained impulses. This approach is chosen to improve the decision maker's ability to consider the relevant circumstances in a situation. By focusing on relevant interests of stakeholders, the scope of consideration in a moral situation can be expanded and the impact of decisions can be evaluated with respect to these. To justify this non-normative approach, the functionality of normative ethics is analyzed. The conclusion stresses the importance of self-conscious deliberation. Further arguments for advocating a systematic, holistic and self-critical handling of moral problems are collected from both philosophy and psychology. The structure and functionality of the tool is founded in psychological theory and especially the problem of cognitive biases in moral decision making is addressed. The tool has been evaluated in two studies, which both indicate that it actually delivers what it was designed to do. Statistically significant results show that the tool helped users to expand the scope of consideration in a moral problem situation compared to using an equivalent paper-and-pen-based method.

  • 14.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Can micro world simulations assess and stimulate ethical competence?2008In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference ETHICOMP 2008: "Living, Working And Learning Beyond Technology", Mantua, Italy: University of Pavia , 2008, 503-510 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro worlds can be constructed to assess and promote the ethical competence of users. However, the theoretical basis has to be on psychological problem solving and decision making processes. In this paper we discuss the conditions necessary for a micro world as a method to measure and train ethical competence. Two things in particular are interesting to investigate: 1) To determine which parameters to measure, that indicate autonomous decision making, and 2) to establish a model for interpreting the proceedings and the subject’s interaction with the simulation as a representation of the psychological problem solving and decision making process.

  • 15.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Democracy, human fallibility and ICT2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, 295-301 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation of citizens in matters of policy is important for a well-functioning democracy. Many scholars have suggested deliberative democracy as a suitable model for this. However, concern for groups with weak interest in participating raise some doubt whether this really will be more democratic in the end. In this essay we outline a theoretical model for designing ICT systems so that they stimulate and train democratic dialogue. The model is based on psychological research on decision making and a definition of democracy as a dialectic process, and can be applied to practically any forum where ideas are exchanged.

  • 16.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Standards or dialogue for social accountability?2011In: New directions for social accountability and computing / [ed] Diane Whitehouse, Namur: IFIP, WG 9.2 , 2011, 4-5 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Tools for ethical decision making2008In: Proc. 3rd International Conference on Human Centered Processes: Part III, 2008, 13-24 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical competence, the ability to handle a moral issue in an optimal way, is necessary to promote in both analysts and decision makers stressing the process of decision making. This presupposes analysts to create a foundation so that decision makers can treat the ethical issues in a self-critical, systematic and holistic manner. Decision makers, on the other hand, should be supported and trained to access this foundation and to successfully make use of it in the decision making. For that purpose we have designed two different tools. One of them, EthXpert, is a support tool for structuring and systematization of the ethical analysis. This tool also makes the acquiring of a holistic view easier. These ethical support tools are intended for both analysts and decision makers. Analysts can use EthXpert to create the foundation and structure the process to different solutions. Decision makers can use EthXpert for a systematic view and review of the ethical issue but also to get a holistic perspective of the issue at hand.

  • 18.
    Lind, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Evaluation of the Uppsala University ROLE Prototype2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an evaluation of a prototype of a personal learning environment, the ROLE prototype testbed at Uppsala University. The foci of the evaluation was the usability of the system and providing feedback to the ROLE project on the users’ impression of how well the system functioned as a personal learning environment. Two HCI researchers conducted the usability evaluation in the spring of 2012. The context of the evaluation was a course in Social Media and Web 2.0 at Uppsala University, and a survey was used for the assessment. The survey consisted of 28 questions and was answered by 16 of approximately 20 students attending the course (~80%). The report contains results from the analysis of data and some interesting results are that the students felt like they were part of a team while working with the system, and that the advanced inter-widget communication introduced in the system did not create conceptual difficulties for them. Furthermore, the best predictor for the value of the system seem to be how well it supports collaboration between peers. This implies that in online education it is important to focus on supporting collaboration.

  • 19.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Challenging the pursuit of Moore's law: ICT sustainability in the cloud computing era2011In: Politeia, ISSN 1128-2401, Vol. 104, 45-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the sustainability of Information andCommunication Technologies (ICT) from an environmental point of view. Inparticular we concentrate on two items, the ICT life cycle (manufacturing, operatingand disposing, also known as e-waste) and on the potential role of an ICTstakeholders’ network. Computers and networks are mainly based on electronicproducts, and the industrial process for producing them is one of the most complex andcostly in terms of “material intensity”. Is this process sustainable? On the other side,the emerging “cloud computing” concentrates central processing and storagecapability in a few gigantic data centres: does this contribute to the decrease orincrease of power consumption (and climate change)? How can we address the issueof e-waste? By computer return and recycling? New design principles? Openhardware? By developing smart software applications? We propose a stakeholders’network for ICT that can be useful to investigate possible strategies for addressingthese challenges.

  • 20.
    Prax, Patrick
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Democracy has arrived!: A model for ethical decision making of players in MMOs2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In digital games and virtual worlds, like in other digital media, the structure of the medium, its code, influences the emerging interaction and culture. A deliberate modification of this code to facilitate democratic decision making might thus lead to more meaningful interaction in games. If we see virtual worlds as learning environments this might even help players to understand and question real-world power structures. A way to modify the code of a virtual world is by extending its interface with an add-on that interacts with the application programming interface of the game. In this paper we present the design vision and theoretical framework of a digital tool for ethical decision making that will be implemented in the virtual world World of Warcraft. Its purpose will be to supply players with means to modify the power structure built into the code of this virtual world and to support more ethical and democratic decision making in the game.

  • 21. Vieritz, Helmut
    et al.
    Ullrich, Carsten
    Isaksson, Erik
    Schmitz, Hans-Christian
    von der Heiden, Bodo
    Borau, Kerstin
    Shen, Ruimin
    Palmér, Matthias
    Lind, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Case Study 1: Using widget bundles for formal learning in higher education2015In: Responsive Open Learning Environments: Outcomes of Research from the ROLE Project, Springer, 2015, 79-113 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 21 of 21
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