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  • 1.
    Borg, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Mechanisms and Inhibition of EF-G-dependent Translocation and Recycling of the Bacterial Ribosome2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The GTPase elongation factor G (EF-G) is an important player in the complex process of protein synthesis by bacterial ribosomes. Although extensively studied much remains to be learned about this fascinating protein. In the elongation phase, after incorporation of each amino acid into the growing peptide chain, EF-G translocates the ribosome along the mRNA template. In the recycling phase, when the synthesis of a protein has been completed, EF-G, together with ribosome recycling factor (RRF), splits the ribosome into its subunits. We developed the first in vitro assay for measuring the average time of a complete translocation step at any position along the mRNA. Inside the open reading frame, at saturating EF-G concentration and low magnesium ion concentration, translocation rates were fast and compatible with elongation rates observed in vivo. We also determined the complete kinetic mechanism for EF-G- and RRF-dependent splitting of the post-termination ribosome. We showed that splitting occurs only when RRF binds before EF-G and that the rate and GTP consumption of the reaction varies greatly with the factor concentrations.

    The antibiotic fusidic acid (FA) inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to EF-G when the factor is ribosome bound, during translocation and ribosome recycling. We developed experimental methods and a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of tight-binding inhibitors like FA on protein synthesis. We found that FA targets three different states during each elongation cycle and that it binds to EF-G on the post-termination ribosome both in the presence and absence of RRF. The stalling time of an FA-inhibited ribosome is about hundred-fold longer than the time of an uninhibited elongation cycle and therefore each binding event has a large impact on the protein synthesis rate and may induce queuing of ribosomes on the mRNA. Although ribosomes in the elongation and the recycling phases are targeted with similar efficiency, we showed that the main effect of FA in vivo is on elongation. Our results may serve as a basis for modelling of EF-G function and FA inhibition inside the living cell and for structure determination of mechanistically important intermediate states in translocation and ribosome recycling.

    List of papers
    1. Determinants of the Rate of mRNA Translocation in Bacterial Protein Synthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of the Rate of mRNA Translocation in Bacterial Protein Synthesis
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 427, no 9, p. 1835-1847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the kinetics of translocation of mRNA and tRNAs on the translating ribosome is technically difficult since the rate-limiting steps involve large conformational changes without covalent bond formation or disruption. Here, we have developed a unique assay system for precise estimation of the full translocation cycle time at any position in any type of open reading frame (ORF). Using a buffer system optimized for high accuracy of tRNA selection together with high concentration of elongation factor G, we obtained in vivo compatible translocation rates. We found that translocation was comparatively slow early in the ORF and faster further downstream of the initiation codon. The maximal translocation rate decreased from the in vivo compatible value of 30 s(-1) at 1 mM free Mg2+ concentration to the detrimentally low value of 1 s(-1) at 6 mM free Mg2+ concentration. Thus, high and in vivo compatible accuracy of codon translation, as well as high and in vivo compatible translocation rate, required a remarkably low Mg2+ concentration. Finally, we found that the rate of translocation deep inside an ORF was not significantly affected upon variation of the standard free energy of interaction between a 6-nt upstream Shine-Dalgarno (SD)-like sequence and the anti-SD sequence of 16S rRNA in a range of 0-6 kcal/mol. Based on these experiments, we discuss the optimal choice of Mg2+ concentration for maximal fitness of the living cell by taking its effects on the accuracy of translation, the peptide bond formation rate and the translocation rate into account. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255072 (URN)10.1016/j.jmb.2014.10.027 (DOI)000353929400005 ()25451025 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Fusidic Acid Targets Elongation Factor G in Several Stages of Translocation on the Bacterial Ribosome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fusidic Acid Targets Elongation Factor G in Several Stages of Translocation on the Bacterial Ribosome
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 290, no 6, p. 3440-3454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The antibiotic fusidic acid (FA) targets elongation factor G (EF-G) and inhibits ribosomal peptide elongation and ribosome recycling, but deeper mechanistic aspects of FA action have remained unknown. Using quench flow and stopped flow experiments in a biochemical system for protein synthesis and taking advantage of separate time scales for inhibited (10 s) and uninhibited (100 ms) elongation cycles, a detailed kinetic model of FA action was obtained. FA targets EF-G at an early stage in the translocation process (I), which proceeds unhindered by the presence of the drug to a later stage (II), where the ribosome stalls. Stalling may also occur at a third stage of translocation(III), just before release of EF-G from the post-translocation ribosome. We show that FA is a strong elongation inhibitor (K-50% approximate to 1 mu M), discuss the identity of the FA targeted states, and place existing cryo-EM and crystal structures in their functional context.

    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247496 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M114.611608 (DOI)000349456000020 ()25451927 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-03-19 Created: 2015-03-19 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Complete kinetic mechanism for recycling of the bacterial ribosome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complete kinetic mechanism for recycling of the bacterial ribosome
    2016 (English)In: RNA: A publication of the RNA Society, ISSN 1355-8382, E-ISSN 1469-9001, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    How EF-G and RRF act together to split a post-termination ribosomal complex into its subunits has remained obscure. Here, using stopped-flow experiments with Rayleigh light scattering detection and quench-flow experiments with radio-detection of GTP hydrolysis, we have clarified the kinetic mechanism of ribosome recycling and obtained precise estimates of its kinetic parameters. Ribosome splitting requires that EF-G binds to an already RRF-containing ribosome. EF-G binding to RRF-free ribosomes induces futile rounds of GTP hydrolysis and inhibits ribosome splitting, implying that while RRF is purely an activator of recycling, EF-G acts as both activator and competitive inhibitor of RRF in recycling of the post-termination ribosome. The ribosome splitting rate and the number of GTPs consumed per splitting event depend strongly on the free concentrations of EF-G and RRF. The maximal recycling rate, here estimated as 25 sec(-1), is approached at very high concentrations of EF-G and RRF with RRF in high excess over EF-G. The present in vitro results, suggesting an in vivo ribosome recycling rate of 5 sec(-1), are discussed in the perspective of rapidly growing bacterial cells.

    Keywords
    bacterial ribosome recycling; elongation factor G; ribosome recycling factor; translation rate optimization; protein synthesis
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258988 (URN)10.1261/rna.053157.115 (DOI)000368967600002 ()26527791 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2015-08-04 Created: 2015-07-23 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Fusidic acid inhibition of EF-G- and RRF-promoted recycling of the bacterial ribosome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fusidic acid inhibition of EF-G- and RRF-promoted recycling of the bacterial ribosome
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258989 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-08-04 Created: 2015-07-23 Last updated: 2015-10-01
  • 2.
    Borg, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Determinants of the Rate of mRNA Translocation in Bacterial Protein Synthesis2015In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 427, no 9, p. 1835-1847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the kinetics of translocation of mRNA and tRNAs on the translating ribosome is technically difficult since the rate-limiting steps involve large conformational changes without covalent bond formation or disruption. Here, we have developed a unique assay system for precise estimation of the full translocation cycle time at any position in any type of open reading frame (ORF). Using a buffer system optimized for high accuracy of tRNA selection together with high concentration of elongation factor G, we obtained in vivo compatible translocation rates. We found that translocation was comparatively slow early in the ORF and faster further downstream of the initiation codon. The maximal translocation rate decreased from the in vivo compatible value of 30 s(-1) at 1 mM free Mg2+ concentration to the detrimentally low value of 1 s(-1) at 6 mM free Mg2+ concentration. Thus, high and in vivo compatible accuracy of codon translation, as well as high and in vivo compatible translocation rate, required a remarkably low Mg2+ concentration. Finally, we found that the rate of translocation deep inside an ORF was not significantly affected upon variation of the standard free energy of interaction between a 6-nt upstream Shine-Dalgarno (SD)-like sequence and the anti-SD sequence of 16S rRNA in a range of 0-6 kcal/mol. Based on these experiments, we discuss the optimal choice of Mg2+ concentration for maximal fitness of the living cell by taking its effects on the accuracy of translation, the peptide bond formation rate and the translocation rate into account. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  • 3.
    Borg, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Holm, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Shiroyama, Ikue
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Pavlov, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Sanyal, Suparna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Fusidic Acid Targets Elongation Factor G in Several Stages of Translocation on the Bacterial Ribosome2015In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 290, no 6, p. 3440-3454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antibiotic fusidic acid (FA) targets elongation factor G (EF-G) and inhibits ribosomal peptide elongation and ribosome recycling, but deeper mechanistic aspects of FA action have remained unknown. Using quench flow and stopped flow experiments in a biochemical system for protein synthesis and taking advantage of separate time scales for inhibited (10 s) and uninhibited (100 ms) elongation cycles, a detailed kinetic model of FA action was obtained. FA targets EF-G at an early stage in the translocation process (I), which proceeds unhindered by the presence of the drug to a later stage (II), where the ribosome stalls. Stalling may also occur at a third stage of translocation(III), just before release of EF-G from the post-translocation ribosome. We show that FA is a strong elongation inhibitor (K-50% approximate to 1 mu M), discuss the identity of the FA targeted states, and place existing cryo-EM and crystal structures in their functional context.

  • 4.
    Borg, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Pavlov, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Complete kinetic mechanism for recycling of the bacterial ribosome2016In: RNA: A publication of the RNA Society, ISSN 1355-8382, E-ISSN 1469-9001, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How EF-G and RRF act together to split a post-termination ribosomal complex into its subunits has remained obscure. Here, using stopped-flow experiments with Rayleigh light scattering detection and quench-flow experiments with radio-detection of GTP hydrolysis, we have clarified the kinetic mechanism of ribosome recycling and obtained precise estimates of its kinetic parameters. Ribosome splitting requires that EF-G binds to an already RRF-containing ribosome. EF-G binding to RRF-free ribosomes induces futile rounds of GTP hydrolysis and inhibits ribosome splitting, implying that while RRF is purely an activator of recycling, EF-G acts as both activator and competitive inhibitor of RRF in recycling of the post-termination ribosome. The ribosome splitting rate and the number of GTPs consumed per splitting event depend strongly on the free concentrations of EF-G and RRF. The maximal recycling rate, here estimated as 25 sec(-1), is approached at very high concentrations of EF-G and RRF with RRF in high excess over EF-G. The present in vitro results, suggesting an in vivo ribosome recycling rate of 5 sec(-1), are discussed in the perspective of rapidly growing bacterial cells.

  • 5.
    Fu, Ziao
    et al.
    Columbia Univ Coll Phys & Surg, Integrated Program Cellular Mol & Biomed Studies, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Kaledhonkar, Sandip
    Columbia Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biophys, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Borg, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Sun, Ming
    Columbia Univ, Dept Biol Sci, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Chen, Bo
    Columbia Univ, Dept Biol Sci, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Grassucci, Robert A.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biophys, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10027 USA.;Columbia Univ, Howard Hughes Med Inst, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Frank, Joachim
    Columbia Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biophys, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10027 USA.;Columbia Univ, Dept Biol Sci, New York, NY 10027 USA.;Columbia Univ, Howard Hughes Med Inst, New York, NY 10032 USA..
    Key Intermediates in Ribosome Recycling Visualized by Time-Resolved Cryoelectron Microscopy2016In: Structure, ISSN 0969-2126, E-ISSN 1878-4186, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 2092-2101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upon encountering a stop codon on mRNA, polypeptide synthesis on the ribosome is terminated by release factors, and the ribosome complex, still bound with mRNA and P-site-bound tRNA (post-termination complex, PostTC), is split into ribosomal subunits, ready for a new round of translational initiation. Separation of post-termination ribosomes into subunits, or "ribosome recycling,'' is promoted by the joint action of ribosome-recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G) in a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis-dependent manner. Here we used a mixing-spraying-based method of time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to visualize the short-lived intermediates of the recycling process. The two complexes that contain (1) both RRF and EF-G bound to the PostTC or (2) deacylated tRNA bound to the 30S subunit are of particular interest. Our observations of the native form of these complexes demonstrate the strong potential of time-resolved cryo-EM for visualizing previously unobservable transient structures.

  • 6.
    Holm, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Borg, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Sanyal, Suparna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Molecular mechanism of viomycin inhibition of peptide elongation in bacteria2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 978-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viomycin is a tuberactinomycin antibiotic essential for treating multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzed translocation of messenger RNA on the ribosome. Here we have clarified the molecular aspects of viomycin inhibition of the elongating ribosome using pre-steady-state kinetics. We found that the probability of ribosome inhibition by viomycin depends on competition between viomycin and EF-G for binding to the pretranslocation ribosome, and that stable viomycin binding requires an A-site bound tRNA. Once bound, viomycin stalls the ribosome in a pretranslocation state for a minimum of similar to 45 s. This stalling time increases linearly with viomycin concentration. Viomycin inhibition also promotes futile cycles of GTP hydrolysis by EF-G. Finally, we have constructed a kinetic model for viomycin inhibition of EF-G catalyzed translocation, allowing for testable predictions of tuberactinomycin action in vivo and facilitating in-depth understanding of resistance development against this important class of antibiotics.

  • 7.
    Örtqvist, Pernilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Gising, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ehrenberg, Angelica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry.
    Vema, Aparna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Borg, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Danielson, U. Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry.
    Sandström, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Discovery of Achiral Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease based on 2(1H)-pyrazinones2010In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 18, no 17, p. 6512-6525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, the design, synthesis and inhibitory potency of a series of novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors are presented. These inhibitors are based on a 2(1H)-pyrazinone P3 scaffold in combination with either a P2 phenylglycine or a glycine, and they were evaluated on the wild type as well as on two resistant variants of the enzyme, A156T and D168V. Molecular modelling suggested that the aromatic side-chain of the P2 phenylglycine occupies the same space as the substituent in position 6 on the pyrazinone core. The versatile synthetic route applied for the pyrazinone synthesis made a switch between the two positions easily feasible, resulting in phenyl- or benzyl substituted pyrazinones and leaving glycine as the P2 residue. Of several P1-P1′ residues evaluated, an aromatic P1-P1′ scaffold was found superior in combination with the new P3-P2 building block. As a result, an entirely new type of achiral and rigidified inhibitors was discovered, with the best of the novel inhibitors having fourfold improved potency compared to the corresponding tripeptide lead. We consider these achiral inhibitors highly suitable as starting points for further optimization.

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