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  • 1.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    A Comparative Study Between Developmental Leadership and Lean Leadership – Similarities and Differencies2012In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 54-68Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to compare Developmental leadership with Lean leadership; document the differences and similarities and examine if you can combine these theories to achieve better results in the organization. A literature review is used. The result indicates more similarities than differences between Developmental leadership and Lean leadership behavior. The major difference is that Developmental leadership focuses on making the leader conscious of their own behavior and develop (possibly change) their behavior. Through new behaviors their co-workers and organization also gain developmental advantages. There is no further purpose described in Development leadership theory. Lean leadership also concentrates on behaviors, but clearly declares an override purpose; continuous improvement with focus on eliminating waste in the value stream. Lean leadership behaviors share a similar purpose, and focus on making leaders aware of what incorrect behaviors can cost or cause the organization. Even if Lean leadership does not have this clear and distinct relationship it is an underlying element in one of the two key principles - respect for people, which permeates both models. The two studied models seem to be quite similar and both focus on role models and frequency of developmental/value creating behaviors. The proposed comparative study should be oriented towards practical application in management positions.

  • 2.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Business Excellence with Customer Service in World Class: A Swedish Case Study of Lean in Supermarket2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is nowadays a well-known concept which has been applied in different types of organizations, who strive to improve in order to be more efficient and successful - reduce costs but still maintain and improve quality. The Lean mind-set is based on the use of the human and material resources, matching and getting the associated processes more efficient, by working with continuous improvements. Even if Lean origins from the manufacturing and production sector, research indicate that Lean is transferable into other sectors. Lean is used to develop more seamless processes, improve flow, reduce waste and develop an understanding of customer value.In this case study, the first part of Lean implementation in the Swedish retail sector, in particular a supermarket is outlined and further progression of the research is suggested.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and outline the experiences from the implementation of Lean in the Swedish retail sector.

    In order to fulfil the goal in this paper the data collecting was made by interviews and participating observations during the period February to June 2016. The particular parts followed were the lean implementation process in the education part, different workshops and improvements startups in the chosen store. Analyzing the data was made by pattern-matching when the results were interpreted through the principles of Liker (2009).

    Though, the research is still ongoing some findings have been done. The result so far shows; Standardized routines and clearer information, eliminated waste and better structure, tidiness and orderliness when everything is in the right place. The co-workers in the supermarket find it more smooth and easy to work and they can see a clear target with better engagement in the store. Barriers and success factors while implementing Lean, picked out from earlier research, can be recognized in this study as well. Still the most important cause in Lean implementation is to avoid organizations built and structures their Lean work on hard core, such as quality methodologies and tools, rather than focus on soft core, i.e., the human perspective with values and human resources.

  • 3.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Educational value in distance and in campus education seen from a stakeholder perspective: the case of Sweden2011In: 14th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service, 1-3 September, 2011, Alicante, Spain / [ed] Jaques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, Univesity of Alicante and University of Oviedo, Spain , 2011, p. 571-584Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of distance education is on the rise in many countries, but distance education is also subjected to severe criticism. In Sweden, distance education has grown considerably during the last decade and about a fifth of all students are now studying on distance. In Sweden distance courses have been criticized for a lower throughput compared to campus courses and for lower productivity, which could be seen both as inferior quality and ineffective use of funds. In Quality Management what constitutes quality is decided by the customers. It could be discussed who the customers in the educational systems are – students, employers, state and others? Only when we have identified the customers and their needs can we compare how these are satisfied with campus education and distance education and form an opinion of the quality levels. With a broad customer definition we approach the idea of value for stakeholders, which would additionally include at least the management, the lecturers, the local community and the environment. Results indicate that what constitutes quality in education is not well defined. There is no indication of distance education having a lower quality, but rather the contrary, when using common quality definitions. An apparent area of improving the educational system in Sweden is defining and measuring quality better.

  • 4.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ethics and Lean Management – a paradox?2014In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Vol. 6, no 2/3, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the practice of ethics in Swedish health care

    organizations using Lean Management.

    Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative study was conducted.

    Findings – Findings indicate that ethics is not a consideration when hospitals are implementing Lean

    Management.

    Social implications – Organizations generally have diverse value systems when building their

    codes of professional ethics for examining ethical principles, whereas Lean Management has

    established base principles with different codes of professional ethics differing from the intrinsic values

    humans create according to moral philosophy. It could be said that Lean Management relies on

    minimalistic ethic. While hospitals implement Lean Management, there are still many barriers to

    resolve to achieve useful implementation. Managing change while emphasizing ethical values could be

    a success factor for those organizations and their customers.

    Originality/value – Studying ethical values in Lean Management implementation.

    Keywords Ethics, Quality management, Health care, Lean health care, Lean Management, Nursing

    and doctoral codes

    Paper type Research paper

  • 5.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    How does Lean connect to ethics and leadership – a literature study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    To be more efficient, reduce costs but still maintain or actually raise the quality, is the content of an ordinary workday in organizations nowadays – also in the public sector and service industry. To deal with those demands and needs, organizations often implement different improvement systems, like Lean. Lean with its origins in car manufacturing is today used widely for improvement, also in public sector and service industry. Womack and Jones states that Lean is built by five principles: value, the value stream, flow, pull and perfection. Could some of the principles be more difficult to relate and apply in e.g. healthcare organizations? Could the principle pull be a problem in hospitals when it comes into action? If pull is about changing diapers according to weight, there could be an ethical problem. 

    So, what happens when Lean is implemented in in the public sector and service industry?  What happens with leadership, values and ethical issues that are important in the care of humans? Are there some needs of accommodation and if there are some – what kind of? Do the implementation influence management and values in the organization?In my opinion, those questions are valid and interesting, and I would like to know more. In earlier studies, to find connections between Lean and ethic in health care organizations, where negative; no relations between Lean in health care organizations and ethics where found. Earlier research mostly deals with implementation and important issues to have in mind, when considering implementing Lean to reach success or avoid barriers.Purpose

    This paper seeks to explore how Lean management connects to the concepts ethics and leadership.

     

    Design/methodology/approach

    The purpose will be addressed by a literature review synthesizing and analyzing previous research in the field using the three concepts “Lean”, “Leadership” and “Ethics” in six, databases.

    Findings

    Some connections found between the three keywords, but there seems to be a gap between “Lean” and “Ethics”.

    Originality/Value

    The paper seek to find connections between Lean Management, Leadership and Ethics

    Paper type

    Research paper

  • 6.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Knowledge management challenges2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management could be seen as identifying knowledge that needs to be managed, followed by the process of acquiring, refining, storing and using the identified knowledge. Good knowledge management could be seen as the foundation of a learning organisation. With increasing competition and a quicker pace of change it becomes more and more important to be a quick learner. In this challenge universities are no exception. A good knowledge management system assures that all relevant knowledge is being used in all important activities. This is particularly important in large change projects. A process based system view could be used to describe how knowledge management is visualised. Especially visualising knowledge management on organisational change competence could be a challenge.

    In this case study we analyse the implementation of a new approach in education – Liberal Education, and to what extent existing change knowledge was used. The findings are categorised and related to drivers for good change management and to organisational learning disabilities in a quality management context.

    The purpose of the study is to understand learning disabilities and how to describe them. The results should constitute a starting point for later work to overcome these disabilities.

  • 7.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Quality management: integrating leadership and quality methodologies2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a research paper Ljungblom & Isaksson (2009) state that quality management literature in Sweden still seems to be relying heavily on quality methodologies and tools, rather than focusing on leadership and the human perspective. Ideally how to change behaviour and how to change structure would be integrated. It could be that the lack of leadership theory is overcome in quality courses by using other types of literature than the quality management literature previously studied. 

    The main purpose of this research is to describe to what extent leadership and quality methodologies are integrated in Swedish university based quality education. Another purpose is to propose how integration could be done.

    Course plans for main quality courses offered in Sweden have been reviewed to assess to what extent leadership is included and how it has been integrated with quality methodologies.  Focus has been on courses offered as separate courses; however a few programs have also been studied.

    Preliminary findings indicate that quality management is seldom integrated with leadership and that focus is on quality methodologies and tools. A model based on values, methodologies and tools together with a change model are used to describe proposed quality management content for integrating leadership and quality methodologies.

    The study is limited to quality management education in Swedish universities.

    The paper highlights how the integration of leadership in quality management education is currently handled in Swedish universities.

  • 8.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Quality Technology.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, Department of Quality Technology.
    Teaching leadership for improvement: a case study in distance learning effectiveness2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Leadership is the process of directing the behaviour of others toward the accomplishment of some common objectives. Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm - and doing it willingly. Leading others is not simply a matter of style, or following some how-to guides or recipes. Ineffectiveness of leaders seldom results from a lack of know-how or how-to, nor is it typically due to inadequate managerial skills. Leadership is even not about creating a great vision. It is about creating conditions under which all your followers can perform independently and effectively toward a common objective. Leadership is also a never ending process of self-studies with the purpose to know yourself and your behaviour as individual and in a group better. Understanding group dynamics is essential in order to inspire employees into higher levels of teamwork. It could be argued that for any improvement, leadership forms the main resource basis on which success of change relies.

    Gotland University has during several years carried out well frequented distance courses in leadership. The typical student is a person with a degree working in some organisation, often in a managerial position. Course assessments have indicated appreciation and a high level of student satisfaction.

    Purpose

    The question is if leadership theories and methodologies learnt really are put into use when the course is finished. The main purpose of this research is to explore how current leadership teaching is transferred into practical use in organisations. Another purpose is to see how current management attitudes correspond with the main theories. The results will help to improve the understanding of the practical relevance of different parts of leadership theory. Additionally the role of pedagogy and contextual factors when putting leadership theory into practise are highlighted.

    Methodology/Approach

    An alumni database for former students is used for sending a questionnaire asking for the relevance of different topics. Focus is on seeing what parts of theory have been used and to what extent. Based on the first results from the questionnaire a number of interviews are carried out to find out more detailed areas of improvement relating both to what theory to focus on and how to learn. Additionally randomly chosen written reports from courses are used to identify current managerial behaviour.

    Findings

    Preliminary findings indicate that theories are being used, but that there is improvement potential (study is still in progress).

    Limitations

    The study is limited to the theories used in the current courses. Students are practically all mature students already working.

    Value

    Leadership is a practical issue and it is important to know that what is taught is relevant and that it is being used. This paper gives a good indication of the practical relevance of important parts of current leadership theory.

  • 9.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Utbildningskvalitet: vad är det och hur ser den ut i campus- respektive distansutbildning?2011In: Gotlandsakademiker tycker om ...: 2011, Visby: Gotland University Press, 2011, p. 111-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Gotland University.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    University Services for Regional Development: The case of Knowledge Management of Change Competence in Gotland2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One key element in organizational success should be the organization’s capacity to change and to develop new knowledge – to be a learning organization. A good knowledge management system assures that all relevant knowledge is being acquired and used in all activities. The practical aspects of change management should form an important part of the knowledge that needs to be managed in any organization and Universities could be seen as centres for knowledge management within different areas of competence. Universities might also be able to support regional change with competence within change management.

     The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. The specific research questions in this study are: 

    • How could knowledge management be described on the regional level?
    • How could a university contribute to regional knowledge management?
    • How could knowledge management of regional change management be described?

     

    Knowledge management theory is reviewed with focus on knowledge management of change management. The process view can generally be used to describe organizations and it should therefore also be possible to view regions as process based systems. To do this, generic process models are used. A process model integrating knowledge management is presented and discussed. Based on the regional vision, change challenges are identified and these are translated into competence needs. These needs are compared with university competences

     

    Results show that the process view can be used to describe regional knowledge management. Based on descriptions from ongoing processes it is possible to show how and to what extent universities contribute to regional needs. There are considerable improvement opportunities in improving the support of knowledge management of regional change management. The results indicate that universities should be able to contribute with important knowledge management components for regional development.

  • 11.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Implement Management Partner.
    University Services for Regional Development: The case of Knowledge Management of Change Competence in Gotland2011In: Proceedings: QMOD Conference on Qualityand Service Sciences 2011: From LearnAbility & InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo, Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 1102-1115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key element in organizational success should be the organization’s capacity to change and to develop new knowledge – to be a learning organization. A good knowledge management system assures that all relevant knowledge is being acquired and used in all activities. The practical aspects of change management should form an important part of the knowledge that needs to be managed in any organization and Universities could be seen as centres for knowledge management within different areas of competence. Universities might also be able to support regional change with competence within change management.

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. The specific research questions in this study are:

    How could knowledge management be described on the regional level?

    How could a university contribute to regional knowledge management?

    How could knowledge management of regional change management be described?

    Knowledge management theory is reviewed with focus on knowledge management of change management. The process view can generally be used to describe organizations and it should therefore also be possible to view regions as process based systems. To do this, generic process models are used. A process model integrating knowledge management is presented and discussed. Based on the regional vision, change challenges are identified and these are translated into competence needs. These needs are compared with university competences

    Results show that the process view can be used to describe regional knowledge management. Based on descriptions from ongoing processes it is possible to show how and to what extent universities contribute to regional needs. There are considerable improvement opportunities in improving the support of knowledge management of regional change management. The results indicate that universities should be able to contribute with important knowledge management components for regional development.

  • 12.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Quality is to a product what character is to a man: is virtue ethics the missing piece in quality management?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a growing trend within the field of management studies to argue that virtue ethics is necessary for good management. This quite recent trend goes against the common view of ethics in business as fundamentally deontological or consequentialist, rather than a focus on character. Business ethics in general, including project management, is often reactive rather than affirmative. In other words, to avoid problems and scandals, managers and employees use rule-based ethics that prohibits infraction and wrongdoing instead of becoming role models that strive for the good. Quality is seldom discussed in relation to virtue ethics. In this paper, we argue that virtue ethics should also be a fundamental part in quality management by bringing quality down to the personal level which has a processual focus (continuous improvements, and commitment), and thereby fits well into for example Total Quality Management. We stay true to the Heinzian statement that character is to a man, or woman, what quality is to a product, or process.

    The purpose is to argue for the use virtue ethics in quality management.

    We have emulated the methods employed by Loo using a general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. Responses on three ethical dilemmas were collected between 2011 and 2015. These include 88 responses from Project management students and 31 responses from well-established PMs. The respondents were asked to give their solution to the dilemmas, and also give their solution if they had the dilemma themselves as a PM. All the response will serve as the basis for the analysis in this paper.

    TQM and ethics have in common that an integral perspective is needed in order to achieve the intended goals and quality management can benefit from a more direct engagement with theories of virtue ethics. Organizations have to find out what kind of behaviors (virtues) is necessary for quality improvements and what kind of character is best for co-worker working with quality issues. Virtue ethics, as maximalistic ethics, is not enough, but must be complemented with a minimalistic ethics to promote quality.

  • 13.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Virtues and Vices in Project Management Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of Project Managers and Project Management Students2018In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management is omnipresent, yet the research on project management ethics is still lacking. Recent research stresses the importance of developing virtue ethics for project managers. This study contributes to this research by offering an empirical exploration as to whether virtue ethics is used by project managers and project management students, and whether the use of it is fundamentally maximalistic or minimalistic. The study shows that virtue ethics is used by respondentsparticularly virtues of courage, fortitude, truthfulness, and moderation, and the avoidance of vices, such as weakness of will and cowardice. It also shows that virtue ethics is invoked both maximalistically and minimalistically.

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