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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    University Services for regional Development: Ideas on Stakeholder Based Quality Management in a Region2011In: Proceedings : 14th QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca,Ricardo Mateo,Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 36-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Regional Development is a permanent activity of change including long range visions and goals. This work includes both continuous and breakthrough change. Quality management practises are used for organisational improvement and could be seen as one way of supporting effective change management. Provided we can view a region as an organisation we could also view it as a process. Dealing with the region as a system of processes might make it possible to use quality management practices to support more effective regional development. Based on an analysis of the presentation of the current state and the visionary state it should be possible to analyse proposed change strategies from a process perspective.

    Purpose

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. Specific research questions in this study are:

    For a region how can the present state, the visionary state and the chosen change strategies, be described with Quality Management values and methodologies with focus on the process view

    How do the regional university mission, vision and goals align with defined regional objectives?

    Methodology

    A literature survey for how Quality Management has been used for regional development is carried out to create a structure for the data collection. The region of Gotland is chosen as an example for a region. The reason for this is that Gotland is a small region consisting of an island providing clear boundaries. There is only one university, which makes it easier to study the links between university and region. Available regional visions are studied as well as main presentation of regional performance with focus on the region of Gotland. The main organizational stakeholders are identified and studied. Data is gathered from web sites and from interviews. The categorisation of information is based on a process perspective using process based system models adapted to the initial literature survey. The current change process is also portrayed. In order to see how the local university performance and plans align with the regional plans the Gotland University web-site is studied for relevant documents.

    Main results

    Regional performance can seemingly be described using process based system models. The stakeholder approach can in a meaningful way be used to describe main regional requirements.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Högskolan Väst.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Integrated Management Systems: testing a model for integration2011In: 14th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service, 1-3 September, 2011, Alicante, Spain / [ed] Jacques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, University of Alicante and University of Oviedo, Spain , 2011, p. 22-35Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management systems are widely used for creating order, minimising risks and for assuring performance. Management systems are in many occasions integrated since this has been found to be beneficial. In this paper a model for a fully integrated management system (IMS) based on the three axes of level, extent and scope of integration is tested for relevance. The studied system permits the integration of all relevant process dimensions. The research is only in a pilot stage, but the initial results are promising and indicate that there are advantages in using the process view as a base for identifying critical aspects to be managed. A review of the current situation for system integration is studied and the model is subjected to some tests using Sweden as a case. The background study shows that system integration still is limited, especially when comparing with a fully integrated IMS. The feedback from the organisations interviewed is positive and supports continued work with development of the model.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Adding requirements on customers to current quality models toimprove quality: development of a customer ‐ vendor interaction2010In: 13th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2010 / [ed] Jens J. Dahlgaard, Linköping University, Sweden, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most descriptions of business development and models for Corporate Governance, contacts between supplier and customer are for the most part focused on the supplier’s responsibility to identify and document customer requirements in order to enable the organization to meet customer requirements (stated and unstated). In the actual contact between customer and supplier it has been observed in several cases that there are aspects of the interaction not described in traditional theoretical quality models. What seems to be missing is a more explicit requirement for customers and for customers' actions. The logic is that a qualified customer performing based on supplier instructions will result in a better performing product. The apparent lack of theoretical models describing this aspect indicates that this is an interesting area for research and development.

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight a seemingly "forgotten" area within quality management, which is the lack of requirements put on customers in quality models.  The first objective is to review existing quality models to explore the extent of requirement on customers included. The second objective is to propose additions to current models that include requirements placed on customers.

    A limited review of the award criteria and the most common models for quality and improvement techniques shows that there is no explicit and documented way to set requirements for customers. Our interpretation is that EFQM is the model closest to our description of “demands on customer” due to their clauses connected to “partnership”.

    The ISO/DIS 26000 is moving the requirements further against the customer for the social responsibility than the quality standards are doing.

    Further research could focus on how requirements on customer will affect the performance of the entire supply chain both from a quality and social point of view.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Implementing Lean: Discussing Standardization Versus Customization with Focus on National Cultural Dimensions2012In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean or Toyota Production System (TPS) has more or less successfully been implemented in the Western world’s businesses and organizations for the past 20 years. Several authors have discussed what it is that creates a successful implementation, and several studies have been presented where strategies for implementations have been studied. Culture’s impact and possible mitigation for Western companies have been studied and described by for example Womak & Jones. Proponents of the concept of Lean argue that culture is not a constraint for implementation of Lean. Lean Management is called a philosophy but it is often used as a change strategy in the sense that it is implemented with the view of improving performance. A change strategy could be seen as a product that might have to be customized with the view of improving the effectiveness of the implementation. On the other hand abandoning a standardized approach comes with the risk of severely altering the change strategy, possibly to its detriment. Implementing Lean will have an effect on the company culture. Does it make any sense customizing the implementation to culture if the issue is changing the culture? The purpose of this paper is to highlight and discuss the balance between a customized implementation and a standardized implementation. Which are the main arguments for standardization and customization and how could these be reconciled? A literature study of Lean implementation has been carried out and compared with Lean principles and theories from change management with focus on change drivers and change barriers. Main drivers of Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions are compared with Lean principles to identify possible drivers and barriers in different cultures. The theory synthesis on drivers and barriers is subjected to a first test in a case study on Lean implementation according to a standardized approach. The implementation is made in a small Swedish factory belonging to a worldwide industrial company. Results from the literature review and the case study indicate that both customization and standardization are needed.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West.
    Integrated Management Systems: advantages, problems and possibilities2010In: 13th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service / [ed] Jacques Martin, Toulon University, 2010, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective management in the globalized world requires an effective, efficient and flexible management system. Effective could be interpreted as addressing all relevant stakeholder concerns in a context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Efficient would mean that it does the job with low resource use. Flexibility requires that changed conditions and new requirements easily can be included. Many organizations are already working with Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Interesting questions are to what extent current integration covers the above mentioned needs and if not what changes are needed. This conceptual paper looks at the advantages and problems of integration. Possibilities for development of fully integrated management systems are studied from the perspective of managing stakeholder needs, with the forthcoming ISO 26000 – “Guidance on social responsibility”, as inspiration. Results show that there are advantages in integration, but that the scope and level of integration often is limited. A conceptual model for integrating all stakeholder needs in value networks is presented.

  • 6.
    Dahlin, Gunnar
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Business Administration and Leadership for Sustainable Development: a case study of a cross functional candidate program2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses critically a three year candidate program for educating change leaders for Sustainable Development. The program was started in 2007 in co-operation between the departments of Quality Management and Business Administration in Gotland University. The analysis of the program is based on a review of learning outcomes, courses created, pedagogy applied, interviews of students, interviews of teachers and reflection on challenges in cross departmental co-operation.

    The program was created in consultation with companies and organizations being potential employers of the students after their education. The overall idea of the program embodies thoughts from Liberal Education and System Thinking [1], [2]. The pedagogy used could be summarized in the continuous cycle of theory-practice-understanding. Sustainable Development has been dealt with in theory and practice using the Triple Bottom Line in combination with companywide process management.

    Focus has been on describing components of change and change management. The theoretical foundations are found in structured methodologies for improvement such as Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Lean Management, Project Management and in leadership theory with focus on group dynamics. Successful change seems to require, apart from a good solution, the willingness to implement the solution and the ability to manage change.

    Working across departments is not easy in spite of the closeness typical for the small Gotland University with some 200 employees. Academia and universities could be seen as strong advocates of the old functional order where cross functional process thinking is not easy. Changing a curriculum fixed for many years and changing educational culture are formidable challenges. Not everything went according to plans which have provided some valuable learning experiences. The overall results are positive and many of the ideas of integrating theory and practice by using organizations including the campus as a study object have been successful.

  • 7.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Making sense of quality philosophies2018In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, no 11-12, p. 1452-1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to improve sense-making of different quality philosophies using a quality system model. We have chosen Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Lean Management and ISO 9000 as typical quality philosophies. The chosen model is based on describing a system as consisting of purpose, principles, methodologies and tools. This model is extended to include a roll-out process and a management process for each philosophy. The main results indicate that the proposed model presents a way of describing, comparing and interpreting quality philosophies. The major implication of the study is that it provides a way to describe and define quality philosophies. The study makes a contribution to Quality Management in proposing a model for describing a quality philosophy.

  • 8.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Slutrapport för projektet ”Flipped Classroom med stöd av Scalable Learning2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning av projektet, inklusive den pedagogiska förnyelsen

    Flipped Classroom, med hjälp av lärplattformen Scalable Learning som stöd för studentaktiverande undervisningsform, är ett bra sätt för studenten att aktivt ta del i sin egen lärandeprocess. Det som är viktigt är att undervisningen läggs upp på ett annat sätt än den traditionella, vilket kräver en övergångsperiod för lärare och studenter. Som lärare behöver vi tänka lite extra på hur vi ska lägga upp övningar, lektioner och seminarier så att studenten verkligen kan ta aktiv del i sin lärandeprocess. Det är lätt att göra övningar som studenten klarar på någon minut men där läraren lagt ner förhållandevis mycket tid i förberedande arbete.

    Tidigare testades lärplattformen Scalable Learning försiktigt i ett par av ämnet Kvalitetstekniks kurser med positiv utvärdering från studenterna. Nu har vi gjort ett stort antal inspelningar och det resultat och moduler som läggs upp av material, quizzer, inspelningar etc. planerar vi att använda i andra kurser på programmen.

     

    Slutsatser

    Flipped Classroom är ett nytt sätt att tänka och arbeta på för både studenter och lärare. Vi vill gärna fortsätta med den typen av studentaktivt lärande. Av erfarenhet vet vi att det tar lång tid att förändra inställning och tänkande, vilket behövs för den här typen av förändring. Vi arbetar på att förbättra de inspelade lektionerna samtidigt som vi vill tänka nytt när det gäller sammankomsterna mellan student och lärare.

  • 9.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    A proposed preliminary maturity grid for assessing sustainability reporting based on quality management principles2019In: Total quality management (Print), ISSN 0954-4127, E-ISSN 1360-0613, ISSN 0954-4127, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 451-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Sustainability reports (SRs) could be viewed as organisational measurements of sustainability

    performance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how well SRs are measuring and communicating

    sustainability and how reporting could be assessed and improved by presenting a maturity grid based on

    quality management principles.

    Design/methodology/approach – Quality management students have assessed publicly available SRs.

    A total of 55 student assessments have been analysed by the author and used to indicate how understandable

    reports are. Quality management principles and input from the student assessments have been used to

    propose a maturity grid for sustainability reporting quality.

    Findings – The indication is that SRs are not easy to interpret. The word sustainability aspect used should

    be replaced with impact on vital stakeholder needs. Guidelines for analysing reports could be improved by

    using process focus to clearly describe scope of reporting as the entire value chain.

    Research limitations/implications – Results are limited to assessing how sustainability is measured.

    How sustainable the organisations are is not assessed. The research is ongoing, and the proposed matrix is

    preliminary needing validation and further modification.

    Practical implications – The proposed maturity grid for sustainability reporting forms a good basis for

    further development of SRs and the critical review of them.

    Social implications – Results indicate a need to report sustainability in the entire value chain and to focus

    more on vital stakeholder needs such as poverty and climate change.

    Originality/value – The paper discusses a field of synergies between quality and sustainability

    management, which is important but still sparingly researched.

  • 10.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden.
    Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of good coverage of sustainability and sustainable development both in scientific journals and other publications, humanity is on a steady unsustainable track consuming more than is produced. Understanding of change needs, does not seem to convert into sufficient change action. Sustainability issues are often complex, interdependent and hard to comprehend, indicating that sustainable development, in addition to change willingness, requires a holistic perspective. Seeing and understanding systems - systems thinking - is important. This implies that sense-making of systems and of sustainable development is important as a prerequisite for change. Possibilities of realising synergies between quality management and sustainable development are often discussed but do often not seem to be fully realised. This paper tests two system models from Quality Management in the context of sustainability in cement manufacturing and building material production. The indicative results suggest that the proposed system models are able to describe and identify improvement opportunities that could be used to create interest for change.

  • 11.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Defining Quality and Sustainability – Looking for Synergies2013In: 16th QMOD−ICQSS Proceedings Quality Management and Organizational Development Conference 4th—6th September 2013 Portorož, Slovenia / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park Jens J. Dahlgaard Boštjan Gomišček, 2013, p. 833-843Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Both quality and sustainability are frequently used and positively loaded words. On the overall level most people agree that we should both have quality and sustainability in the processes we are working with. Logically there should be synergies in improving quality and sustainability but there could also be conflicts. When assessing how well our processes are performing, it becomes more complicated to find a consensus since there are many and partly conflicting views and definitions on what quality and sustainability mean. What we cannot measure, we cannot improve and what we cannot define we cannot measure. 

    Purpose

    This paper reviews definitions for quality, sustainability and sustainable development with the purpose of highlighting synergies. Definitions and measurement principles combing quality and sustainability are proposed.

    Methodology/Approach

    Quality and sustainability are discussed and some working definitions are proposed. Garvin’s (1984) five approaches to define quality are applied on the working definitions for quality and sustainability. The approaches are reviewed and exemplified with some products to test the feasibility of the approach. The development of quality and sustainability is studied based on a chosen change process. The resulting categorisation of quality, sustainability, quality development, sustainability development and sustainability development are reviewed for identifying synergies. 

    Findings

    Findings indicate that there are more of synergies than differences and that it is possible to define an operational definition combining quality and sustainability that can be used for assessing and improving performance.

    Implications

    The results provide help for an operationalization of combined quality and sustainability performance.

    Originality/Value of paper

    The paper proposes a practical interpretation of how to work with quality and sustainability development.

  • 12.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Excellence for sustainability – maintaining the license to operate2019In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies increasingly work in a global context and need to be relevant in it. In addition to focus on customers, companies need to identify and attend to the needs of various stakeholders. The quality principle of customer focus has been used for identifying stakeholders, their needs and how to manage them. The Planetary Boundaries, the UN Sustainable Development Goals and The Natural Step have been used to identify performance targets for stakeholder needs. Results indicate that People and Planet could be defined as the main stakeholders and that these stakeholders could be further detailed in order to more easily link them with company business. Critical Planet stakeholders could be such as the Atmosphere and Biosphere. Based on the Pareto principle, People needs focus should be on alleviating poverty with a highest priority given to those living in extreme poverty. Absolute and relative indicators for sustainability performance with focus on core stakeholders have been proposed. The indication is that a paradigm shift from Profit to Planet and People focus is needed. The proposed strategy is to combine customer wants focus with a focus on defined critical stakeholder needs.

  • 13.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Making sense of opportunities in building material production2015In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 781-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Breakthrough improvement requires management decisions, which indicates that making sense of existing opportunities is important. This is a particular challenge when the improvement is a possibility and not a problem. The purpose of this paper is to propose the practice of doing an Opportunity Study as the way to create a sense of management urgency for realising dormant possibilities.

    Design/methodology/approach – A process-based Opportunity Study is presented consisting of a Diagnosing-Analysing-Solving (DAS) approach. Benchmarks are defined and compared with the actual performance resulting in a quantifiable improvement potential (D). Main causes are analysed (A), which leads to proposed solutions (S). The Opportunity Study practice is applied to a cement milling process, a cement plant and a supply network for cement-based building products.

    Findings – Results indicate that applying DAS methodology highlights realisable opportunities in all of the studied cases. This seems to be a necessary, but not sufficient criterion to create a sense of urgency for facts based change.

    Research limitations/implications – The results indicate that there is need for further research for looking at the process of sense making and to what extent facts alone can drive change initiatives.

    Practical implications – Results indicate that by a simple review, focusing on what a system can do instead of which the problems are, valuable opportunities for improvement could be detected.

    Originality/value – The paper highlights the value of focusing on opportunities.

  • 14.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Process based system models for detecting opportunities and threats: the case of World Cement Production2016In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 246-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Visualising change needs could be complex. One way of sense - making is to use process based system models. G lobal warming require s major changes in many fields and especially for cement manufacturing, which represents a growing portion of manmade carbon emissions . The industry has proposed measures for change , but it is diff icult to assess how good these are and more sense - making is needed to clarify the situation. Purpose The purpose is to visualise opportunities and threats for global cement manufacturing in the context of global warming, using a process based system mode l . Methodology Available data for cement manufacturing and for carbon emissions are combined both historically and as predictions based on chosen Key Performance Indicators. These indicators are related to a chosen process based system model. Findings The results indicate that the global cement industry doe s not have a viable plan for how to reduce carbon emissions sufficiently to comply with the objectives of maintaining global warming below 2°C . The application of the process based system model indica tes that it has the ability to visualise important opportunities and threats at the level of global processes. Practical implications The challenges of the world cement industry with reducing ca rbon emissions are highlighted. This information could be use ful as a driver for change. Originality/value Th e paper provides insights into process based improvement work related to cement industry carbon emissions.

  • 15.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Synergies of quality and sustainability - shared value in the building supply network2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The field of CSR has developed from charity into an integration of shared value into the business model. In developing countries there are enormous needs for better housing. This therefore could be an area where companies might be able to create shared value. It is however unclear how shared value would look like in the building supply network and to what extent this already exists.

    Purpose: The purpose is to detect future areas of research by identifying opportunities for shared value in the building material supply chain. Shared value is viewed as a possible example of synergy for quality and sustainability research and development.

    Methodology: A literature review is carried out searching for “shared value” and “Porter”. The findings are combined with stakeholder theory, the process view and customer focus. Additionally the sustainability reports of the 15 largest cement and building material companies in the world were studied with the purpose of identifying examples of the shared value concept. Working with shared value is visualised with an example using the process of building material supply in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Findings: Findings indicate that the concept of shared value is widely spread, but that its application in the cement and building material supply industry still is limited. The concept seems to have a good potential in identifying and creating value for both business and other stakeholders. Shared value can be seen as enlarged business focus from shareholders to stakeholders.

    Practical implications: The results provide both ideas for further research and indicate how companies within the building material network could work with shared value.

    Originality/value: The paper more clearly links shared value to stakeholder focus.

  • 16.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    University Support to Regional Development: Process Based Stakeholder Management in Gotland2011In: Toulon-Verona Conference - 14th International Conference on Quality and Service Sciences – ICQSS - «Excellence in Services» / [ed] Jacques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, 2011, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities could be seen to have many customers such as students, future employers, the state, parents etc. Universities normally have two main missions, which are education and research. In Sweden there is an additional requirement of societal co-operation both in education and research. Universities are traditionally not very customer focused, but rather organizations that define what is being done based on an internal focus. One question is to what extent stakeholders and their change needs have been identified and also how these needs are being addressed and used as input. This could be studied applying a process view where the main processes are defined by the university mission. This could be studied from a regional context looking at regional needs and relating them to university support. Gotland is the smallest region in Sweden and it hosts the smallest university. This forms a good base for a study on how the university supports and could support regional development. Regional performance is viewed from a process perspective. Results show that customer focus has not been a core value. Consequently it is not well defined what constitutes quality, neither by the studied university nor by the Swedish authorities. This means that customer and stakeholder needs have not been looked into systematically. It also seems that regional Sustainable Development is not getting the attentions it should. Applying customer focus on the regional level indicates several new interesting opportunities for both universities and the region. A condition for these opportunities to be realised is that there is a thorough discussion of what quality and Sustainable Development mean for universities.

  • 17.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Visualising improvement and innovation potential: the case of sustainable building in Dar es Salaam2012In: How may organizations use learning, creativity and innovation in realizing their dreams of excellence and recover from the economic crisis?: proceedings / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard & Adam Hamrol, Poznan: Comprint , 2012, p. 741-754Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Babatunde, Oluwayomi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Opportunities for improved sustainability in house building: The case of Dar es Salaam2019In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 457-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of a growing population and economic development in Africa will form strong drivers for building growth. Buildings drive energy consumption and carbon emissions. On the material side, cement is the driver for cost and carbon emissions. A cement productivity index is proposed. Results from a case study in Dar es Salaam show that cement is poorly used in the main application of sandcrete blocks. The relative cement productivity is < 30% compared to ordinary concrete. The main problem is the design of the blocks. Mostly, only some 5% of cement by weight is used. However, the sand matrix often needs up to 10% of water for good compaction. This means that the w/c ratio is always high in the mixes, which leads to low cement productivity. One first step could be going from solid to hollow blocks, which would enable increasing the cement content and improving cement productivity up to 50% of the defined benchmark. However, there is resistance to hollow blocks in the market. Alternative solutions, such as soil-stabilized earth, should also be looked into. For realizing the full cement strength potential, other affordable concrete solutions need to be developed for the market.

  • 19.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Buregyeya, Apollo
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Describing building sustainability innovation potential: Block making in Tanzania and Uganda2019In: Proceedings of 22nd Excellence in Services International Conference, Thessaloniki (Greece) | 29-30 August 2019 / [ed] Jacques Martin, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This paper describes opportunities for sustainable building in East Africa. Previous research indicates that cement is often poorly used in the commonly used concrete blocks.  Better use of cement and thereby lower costs and a lower carbon footprint might be achieved by substituting solid blocks with hollow ones while sustaining functional requirements. This work could further be advanced by a business model that promotes affordability and a lowered carbon footprint of blocks produced at building site. 

    Methodology. Block manufacturing processes in Tanzania and Uganda are described.  Sustainability performance as price and carbon footprint per wall m2 are assessed and compared for solid and hollow concrete/sandcrete blocks. 

    Findings. The results from Uganda indicate that there is a clear economic and environmental advantage in using hollow blocks compared to solid blocks. There seems to be innovation potential to be realised both in choice of product and improvement of manufacturing processes. The preliminary findings indicate that costs per m2 of wall could for 6 inch blocks of the same functional quality be reduced with some 20% and the carbon footprint with 40% when using hollow blocks instead of solid ones. In Tanzania only a carbon footprint saving potential of about 30% has been inferred. 

    Practical implications. The results indicate that in order to assess overall global improvement potential, sustainability needs to be understood on the operational level. 

    Originality/value. The results contribute to the development of more sustainable building blocks in the context of East Africa.

  • 20.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Improving Supply Networks: Identifying drivers for sustainable change using process models2010In: Proceedings of the 13TH TOULON-VERONA CONFERENCE: Organizational Excellence in Service / [ed] Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra, 2010, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both within the private and public sector Change Management is a frequently discussed topic. How to lead change for increased sustainability is of interest for all organisations, but also for supply chains and supply networks. For any structured change process there are a few prerequisites, such as understanding the actual position and being able to assess it and to compare it with a goal. With an identified improvement potential it should become possible to devise a strategy for change. One way of describing supply networks is to use process based system models including performance indicators. The research question is if system models can be used to clarify improvement opportunities and in that way become drivers for change.

    In this conceptual paper we apply the value per harm measurement concept for three different systems and compare the results with what is commonly known and understood.

  • 21.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Testing a Maturity Grid for Assessing Sustainability Reports2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability reporting could be seen as output of sustainability performance management. This paper tests a maturity grid assessing the reporting structure quality of 39 sustainability reports - Are the right sustainability impacts reported and is the performance reported in the right way for easy interpretation? Students and one of the authors carry out the assessment. Results indicate a low level of maturity and that it is difficult to make sense of sustainability reports. Results from carbon emission reporting indicate that only some 10% of the reports provide usable results. A new version of the maturity grid has been proposed.

  • 22.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    The crippled bottom line – measuring and managing sustainability2015In: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 334-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet.
    Kuttainen, Christer
    Norrbottens läns landsting.
    Paregis, Jörg
    Karlstads universitet.
    Sustaining Sweden’s competitive position: lean lifelong learning2015In: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore what options the adult learner has for continued learning and what role universities are playing in providing net-based education. Current options for lifelong learning and improvement opportunities in the educational process are described based on an assessment inspired by principles of lean management.

    Design/methodology/approach – Sweden is chosen as an example. The current level of net-based university education and the demand for it is assessed using official Swedish data. Lean management principles are used as a starting point to define parameters for interest for the adult learner. These parameters are then converted into a five-level scale for assessing current performance with focus on university courses. The authors also study how Swedish County Councils manage their employee education and carry out a check of courses offered by massive open online course providers.

    Findings – Lean management principles in combination with customer focus seem to present relevant parameters for assessing distance education. Preliminary results indicate that lean lifelong learning has a considerable improvement potential. The main reasons for this potential seem to be more of a bureaucratic and political nature, whereas technology and resources appear to be less of an issue.

    Practical implications – The results have implications for both universities and organisations. The pressure on universities to become more customer-focussed, while at the same time, cost-effectiveness is likely to increase.

    Originality/value – Using the customer perspective for educational services and applying lean principles to education.

  • 24.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    LTU - Quality and Environmental Management.
    Taylor, Neil
    Barriers to and drivers for change: analysing causes for improvement potential in the building supply system in Dar es Salaam2010In: Proceedings of the 13th QMOD Conference, 30 August - 01 September 2010, Cottbus, Germany: LearnAbility, InnovAbility and SustainAbility / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park & Jens J. Dahlgaard, 2010, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business excellence needs constant reinvention with current challenges being such as how to integrate Learnability, Innovability and Sustainability. This paper looks at learning based on Innovation Action Research with focus on process innovation with the purpose of highlighting sustainability challenges in business core processes. A system based process model in combination with sustainability indicators is used to describe a value network and the existing potential for improved sustainability. A qualitative method for specifying generic causes for the existing improvement potential is used to discuss barriers and drivers for change. Results indicate that quality methodologies can be used as a powerful support for sustainable development.

  • 25.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Turner, Dawn-Marie
    Turner Change Management, Canada.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Change Management from a Stakeholder Perspective2011In: Proceedings : QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences 2011: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo, Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 886-901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ever increasing rate of change the pressure continues to rise on all types of organisations for quicker and more effective change. Companies of today face multiple requirements which have caused a shift from shareholder focus to a more balanced stakeholder focus. In the 80s and 90s the Japan originated quality movement with its focus on customers was by many seen as the solution for effective change. Change program focus has since shifted from Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Excellence models to 6Sigma improvement and Lean Management in parallel with behaviourally oriented change approaches with their focus on leadership. There does not seem to be any clear typology that relates different improvement approaches within the larger context of Change Management. The main purpose of this paper is to review how change management is defined and presented and to propose a stakeholder based taxonomy for organisational change management and to also portray if and how quality management could be seen as part of this. This is done with the view of increasing the understanding of what constitutes effective change. The results here form only a first iteration of a more extensive work to come. The purpose is to identify critical elements for change. Change Management has been described as a process. Elements identified have then been placed into a process based system. The first results indicate that Quality Management could be seen as part of Change Management and that the chosen approach using the process view is promising, but also that the process of change is complex and that considerable further research is required.

  • 26.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Fischer, Klaus
    University of Kaiserslauten.
    Detecting Supply Chain Innovation Potential for Sustainable Development2010In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, Vol. 3, no 97, p. 425-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of limited resources it could be argued that companies that aspire to be good corporate citizens need to focus on making best use of resources. User value and environmental harm is created in supply chains and it could therefore be argued that company business ethics should be extended from the company to the entire value chain from the first supplier to the last customer. Starting with a delineation of the linkages between business ethics, corporate sustainability and the stakeholder concept, this paper argues that supply chains generally have a great innovation potential for sustainable development. This potential could be highlighted with system thinking and the use of change management knowledge, promoting not only innovations within technology but also within organizational improvement. We propose process models and performance indicators as means of highlighting improvement potential and thus breaking down normative business ethics’ requirements to an operationalizable corporate level: Good business ethics should focus on maximizing stakeholder value in relation to harm done. Our results indicate that focusing on supply chains reveals previously unknown innovation potential that seems to be related to limited system understanding. The assumption is that increased visibility of opportunities will act as a driver for change. Results also highlight the importance of focusing on sustainability effects of the core business and clearly relating value created to harm done.

  • 27.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    A Preliminary Model for Assessing University Sustainability from the Student Perspective2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 3690-3701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses university sustainability from the perspective of the interested student. A set of questions for a university website analysis is proposed and preliminary results for Swedish universities are presented. The university website analysis intends to emulate a student looking for a university working with sustainable development. University ranking is compared with the results from the sustainability assessment. Results from the study are based on university website analysis of 18 Swedish universities out of a total of 30. Universities are grouped in high ranked, low ranked and benchmark universities. For the majority of the studied universities it was possible to extract the information needed for a sustainability assessment from the website, which indicates that further development of the method is of interest. The average level of performance in the assessment was found to be less than 50% of the maximum of the proposed scale. With Sweden generally being a leading nation in sustainable development the results are below of what could be expected. Ranking, based on the Swedish ranking system does not seem to predict university sustainability performance. The indication is that Gothenburg University, while having further improvement potential, could be considered a benchmark in the Swedish context.

  • 28.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University.
    Sustainable Development in Universities: the power and role of visions and goals2011In: Proceedings : QMOD Conference on Qualityand Service Sciences 2011: From LearnAbility & InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo, Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 902-914Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Universities in Sweden are since 2006 based on a government decree instructed to work with sustainable development. Recent studies on progress for Sustainable Development indicate that change is relatively slow and that most of the activities could be labelled: Business as usual. One apparent challenge is to understand what Sustainable Development means and consequently what needs to be changed compared to current performance. Visions and long range goals are important in any change work and should consequently also be important in the work for sustainable universities. Interesting questions are how visions and long range goals are defined in universities and to what extent they support work for Sustainable Development.

    Purpose

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could work for Sustainable Development and to find out areas of further improvement. The specific research questions in this study are:

    How could university work with sustainable development be characterized in education and research?

    How are visions and goals for Sustainable Development described by universities?

    How could visions and goals be improved in order to better support change towards Sustainable Development?

    Methodology

    Swedish universities are chosen for the study. The reason for this is that Swedish law since 2006 explicitly requires universities to work with Sustainable Development. This means that we can choose a random sample from the total Swedish university population and look at the interpretation of work for Sustainable Development. We use common definitions for Sustainable Development and compare them with university missions and directives from the Swedish state to answer the question how university work for Sustainable Development could be characterised. We identify typical definitions for what is required for a vision and for goals. These definitions are compared with the university interpretations as per web-sites and from individual views.

    Main results

    A review of how Sustainable Development is presented in the Swedish University world.

  • 29.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Towards a Model for Measuring University Sustainability2013In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Intellectual Capital 2013 / [ed] Edited by Lidia Garcia, Arturo Rodriguez-Castellanos and Jon Barrutia-Guenaga University of the Basque Country Bilbao, Spain, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2013, p. 213-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multitude of challenges related to sustainable development require, not only a shift in mind-set but also high competence in most sectors of employment. But how could we know if a university education is going to provide necessary competence in sustainable development? A model being developed to measure university sustainability is the Assessment Instrument of Sustainability in Higher Education (AISHE). Using the logic of self-assessment and based on the Triple Bottom Line this model deals with operations, education, research, interaction with society and core values with a so called identity module. The model makes an operationalization of sustainable development and its structure should be usable for constructing a quick assessment system similar to those of many business excellence models. Finding out the level of university sustainability is clearly not very easy for presumptive students. Furthermore, we can assume that since being sustainable is politically correct there is a risk of “sustainability washing” of information provided. Current university ranking systems do not seem to correspond well with how universities are working with sustainable development. The research question is if the AISHE-model could be converted into a credible quick assessment tool by relying on information provided by the university web-site. For this to work the university needs to have a culture that promotes transparency. With the rapid development of information technology it could be expected that more and more countries will have the conditions for using web-sites for providing the necessary information. Swedish university web-sites are used for testing the model. Sweden has a high level of transparency and is therefore thought to form a suitable example. This paper deals with conceptual development of the assessment model. Further studies will be carried out to validate the model. Results indicate that a structured web-site analysis can be used to quantify information that is organised according to chosen parts of the AISHE-model. The first results indicate that Swedish universities still have a long way to go in becoming sustainable. 

  • 30.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Kinabo, Leandri
    Open University of Tanzania.
    Modelling and Measuring Excellence for Sustainability: Examples from building in Tanzania2018In: Conference proceedings of Le Cnam 21th Excellence in Services International Conference Paris (France) , 30 and 31 August 2018 / [ed] Jacques Marting, 2018, p. 395-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. In a resource-limited world it is logical that business excellence should focus on sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to exemplify areas of synergy between Quality and Sustainability.

    Methodology. The starting point has been in identified vital few stakeholders and their needs on the global level. These needs have then been exemplified in building processes in Dar es Salaam Tanzania using quality principles, practices and tools.

    Findings. By transforming the quality principle of customer focus into stakeholder needs focus and by redefining main stakeholders as Planet and People, conditions are created to operationalize sustainable development. Sustainability in the studied system has been defined as affordable building materials with a low carbon footprint. Cement drives both building costs and the carbon footprint. This means that cement productivity compared to price and to the carbon footprint can be used as indicators for sustainability excellence. Cement productivity in concrete is defined as compressive strength divided by cement percentage and expressed as Mega Pascal*tons. Based on a defined benchmark, cement productivity can be expressed relatively. The cement productivity in the studied system is only at 20%. Using well grounded vital few performance indicators in absolute and relative terms enables using principles, practices and tools from quality management to support sustainable development.

    Practical implications. Focus on needs satisfaction compared to only footprints could in the cement industry reduce the need for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Originality/value. The results present a radically different view of sustainability based on focus on critical stakeholder needs.

  • 31.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Kuttainen, Christer
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lean Higher Education And Lean Research2013In: 16th Toulon – Verona Conference, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to review possibilities for how Lean principles could be applied for university education and research – Lean Higher Learning and Lean Research. The Lean movement originating from Toyota Production Systems has inspired many different types of businesses and organisations including service and public organisations. Until now the Lean concept has not yet become widely used in university education. Universities could be facing strong competition from novel ways of teaching and learning – if the web offers lectures from Nobel Prize winners for free, why pay money to the local university to listen to a mediocre lecturer? If research proposals can be assessed and validated via a web site linking to acknowledged scholars, why wait for slow research journals? Possibly, Lean principles such as just-in time could be applied for better learning and research quality. This paper studies how traditional university education and research are performing compared to Lean principles with focus on value flow analysis. 

  • 32.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Taylor, Neil
    Intec Services Pty Ltd.
    Drivers for sustainability: Making better use of cement in Dar es Salaam2009In: International Conference - Quality and Service Sciences 2009, Verona Italy, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Stern Review asserts that “Policy to reduce emissions should be based on three essential elements: carbon pricing, technology policy, and removal of barriers to behavioural change”. The most demanding challenge could be the issue of behavioural change which requires the mobilization of drivers for change towards more sustainable performance. According to reports from the WBCSD, the building supply chain in many countries could account for as much as 40% of man made carbon emissions. Most building growth is taking place in Third World countries with concrete and especially concrete blocks as the most widely used building material. Cement is the most expensive component of these materials and also has the highest carbon footprint. This means that it is of both economic and environmental interest to see that cement is used in the best way in order to make best use of resources.

    Purpose: To diagnose the improvement potential of a typical building supply network. To identify governance, technology and behavioural barriers to change and to propose how drivers for sustainable change could be strengthened.

    Methodology: A process based system model has been used to identify the main elements in the building supply network used for making concrete blocks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The blockmaking process has been studied in some detail, using process walks at five different blockmaking sites. Additionally interviews with block makers, cement manufacturers and control laboratories for brick measurement have also been used to collect data. The resulting material has been summarised in a single unit multiple case study. The collected material has then been subjected to an opportunity study that covers diagnosis, analysis, and to some extent, proposed actions for improvement. The diagnosis provides the theoretical improvement potential in terms of user value per price and user value per carbon footprint. The analysis of the causes for the improvement potential has been carried out using a checklist for resources with focus on Material, Machine, Method, Measurement, Manpower and Management factors. Proposed actions focus on ideas of how to reinforce drivers that will help to overcome the main identified barriers, which are mainly expressed as resource problems.

    Research limitations: Block-making has been used to exemplify the main building supply network in Dar es Salaam. The justification for this choice is that approximately 60% of cement sales in Dar es Salaam go into block-making. In a typical Western context only 15% of the entire carbon footprint over the lifetime of a building comes from building materials with the rest coming mainly from heating and cooling. The situation in an African city like Dar es Salaam is very different with relatively few buildings having cooling and none having heating. Consequently  the role of the building materials, and especially cement use, becomes more important both in terms of initial cost and for the resulting carbon footprint.  

  • 33.
    Johnson, Mikael
    et al.
    KAU - CTF.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    How to describe, define and work with sustainable development and how it relates to quality management: a study of Swedish Universities2010In: Proceedings of the 13th QMOD Conference, 30 August - 01 September 2010, Cottbus, Germany: LearnAbility, InnovAbility and SustainAbility / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park & Jens J. Dahlgaard, 2010, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable Development (SD) has been on the agenda for some time. SD is an overall objective of Swedish Government policies. In an official document, Strategic Challenges - a Further Elaboration of the Swedish Strategy for Sustainable Development (Comm. 2005/06:126), issued in 2005 by the Swedish Government the national strategy from 2004 is further elaborated. It is stated that the strategy covers the following three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. It stems from a long-term vision of sustainable development and is related to international sustainable development efforts, including UN initiatives and the EU's strategy in the area.

    Already 2004 it became obligatory for Swedish schools and universities to include sustainable development in the curriculum. Thus, Universities should be in a good position to interpret what sustainable development is and transferring it to actions. It is after all universities who will provide the people to live and lead the change needed. Universities in Sweden have now had 6 years to work with sustainable development and there should be good examples of how this can be done. Interesting questions are how universities have interpreted sustainable development and how they are working with it. This paper presents an explorative study on to which extent the Governments sustainability strategy has been absorbed and become part of the strategy of the Swedish universities. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss how sustainable development is being interpreted. We also look at how the value per harm concept could contribute to the understanding of sustainable development. It is an exploratory case study on how 17 Swedish universities integrate SD in its mission.

    It is obvious that all of the studied universities have broken down the university decree into its lowest common denominators and managed to mark some of its educations by placing a sustainability sticker here and there in their course catalogues and policy documents but we are sorry to say it but beneath this superficial surface the is not much, from a sustainability point of view, integrated, wise, insightful and sound teaching going on.

    The question then is, how did all this happen? The collected data show that all universities are aware of the university decree. A problem with the decree is that it is vague while it clearly calls for action. This is perhaps a possible approach if the attitude is that anything goes. But as the aim is to accomplish directed action on a sustainable development that through their activities shall promote sustainable development that ensure that both the present and coming generations are guaranteed  a sound environment, economic as well as social well-being and justice, this is a not so efficient approach. This mission is too vague and there are not enough guidelines on how to interpret it, create a meaningful strategy, implement, manage, measure, or report on it.

  • 34.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Knowledge management challenges2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management could be seen as identifying knowledge that needs to be managed, followed by the process of acquiring, refining, storing and using the identified knowledge. Good knowledge management could be seen as the foundation of a learning organisation. With increasing competition and a quicker pace of change it becomes more and more important to be a quick learner. In this challenge universities are no exception. A good knowledge management system assures that all relevant knowledge is being used in all important activities. This is particularly important in large change projects. A process based system view could be used to describe how knowledge management is visualised. Especially visualising knowledge management on organisational change competence could be a challenge.

    In this case study we analyse the implementation of a new approach in education – Liberal Education, and to what extent existing change knowledge was used. The findings are categorised and related to drivers for good change management and to organisational learning disabilities in a quality management context.

    The purpose of the study is to understand learning disabilities and how to describe them. The results should constitute a starting point for later work to overcome these disabilities.

  • 35.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Quality management: integrating leadership and quality methodologies2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a research paper Ljungblom & Isaksson (2009) state that quality management literature in Sweden still seems to be relying heavily on quality methodologies and tools, rather than focusing on leadership and the human perspective. Ideally how to change behaviour and how to change structure would be integrated. It could be that the lack of leadership theory is overcome in quality courses by using other types of literature than the quality management literature previously studied. 

    The main purpose of this research is to describe to what extent leadership and quality methodologies are integrated in Swedish university based quality education. Another purpose is to propose how integration could be done.

    Course plans for main quality courses offered in Sweden have been reviewed to assess to what extent leadership is included and how it has been integrated with quality methodologies.  Focus has been on courses offered as separate courses; however a few programs have also been studied.

    Preliminary findings indicate that quality management is seldom integrated with leadership and that focus is on quality methodologies and tools. A model based on values, methodologies and tools together with a change model are used to describe proposed quality management content for integrating leadership and quality methodologies.

    The study is limited to quality management education in Swedish universities.

    The paper highlights how the integration of leadership in quality management education is currently handled in Swedish universities.

  • 36.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Quality Technology.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, Department of Quality Technology.
    Teaching leadership for improvement: a case study in distance learning effectiveness2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Leadership is the process of directing the behaviour of others toward the accomplishment of some common objectives. Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm - and doing it willingly. Leading others is not simply a matter of style, or following some how-to guides or recipes. Ineffectiveness of leaders seldom results from a lack of know-how or how-to, nor is it typically due to inadequate managerial skills. Leadership is even not about creating a great vision. It is about creating conditions under which all your followers can perform independently and effectively toward a common objective. Leadership is also a never ending process of self-studies with the purpose to know yourself and your behaviour as individual and in a group better. Understanding group dynamics is essential in order to inspire employees into higher levels of teamwork. It could be argued that for any improvement, leadership forms the main resource basis on which success of change relies.

    Gotland University has during several years carried out well frequented distance courses in leadership. The typical student is a person with a degree working in some organisation, often in a managerial position. Course assessments have indicated appreciation and a high level of student satisfaction.

    Purpose

    The question is if leadership theories and methodologies learnt really are put into use when the course is finished. The main purpose of this research is to explore how current leadership teaching is transferred into practical use in organisations. Another purpose is to see how current management attitudes correspond with the main theories. The results will help to improve the understanding of the practical relevance of different parts of leadership theory. Additionally the role of pedagogy and contextual factors when putting leadership theory into practise are highlighted.

    Methodology/Approach

    An alumni database for former students is used for sending a questionnaire asking for the relevance of different topics. Focus is on seeing what parts of theory have been used and to what extent. Based on the first results from the questionnaire a number of interviews are carried out to find out more detailed areas of improvement relating both to what theory to focus on and how to learn. Additionally randomly chosen written reports from courses are used to identify current managerial behaviour.

    Findings

    Preliminary findings indicate that theories are being used, but that there is improvement potential (study is still in progress).

    Limitations

    The study is limited to the theories used in the current courses. Students are practically all mature students already working.

    Value

    Leadership is a practical issue and it is important to know that what is taught is relevant and that it is being used. This paper gives a good indication of the practical relevance of important parts of current leadership theory.

  • 37.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Utbildningskvalitet: vad är det och hur ser den ut i campus- respektive distansutbildning?2011In: Gotlandsakademiker tycker om ...: 2011, Visby: Gotland University Press, 2011, p. 111-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Ljungblom, Mia
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Implement Management Partner.
    University Services for Regional Development: The case of Knowledge Management of Change Competence in Gotland2011In: Proceedings: QMOD Conference on Qualityand Service Sciences 2011: From LearnAbility & InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo, Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 1102-1115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key element in organizational success should be the organization’s capacity to change and to develop new knowledge – to be a learning organization. A good knowledge management system assures that all relevant knowledge is being acquired and used in all activities. The practical aspects of change management should form an important part of the knowledge that needs to be managed in any organization and Universities could be seen as centres for knowledge management within different areas of competence. Universities might also be able to support regional change with competence within change management.

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. The specific research questions in this study are:

    How could knowledge management be described on the regional level?

    How could a university contribute to regional knowledge management?

    How could knowledge management of regional change management be described?

    Knowledge management theory is reviewed with focus on knowledge management of change management. The process view can generally be used to describe organizations and it should therefore also be possible to view regions as process based systems. To do this, generic process models are used. A process model integrating knowledge management is presented and discussed. Based on the regional vision, change challenges are identified and these are translated into competence needs. These needs are compared with university competences

    Results show that the process view can be used to describe regional knowledge management. Based on descriptions from ongoing processes it is possible to show how and to what extent universities contribute to regional needs. There are considerable improvement opportunities in improving the support of knowledge management of regional change management. The results indicate that universities should be able to contribute with important knowledge management components for regional development.

  • 39.
    Mrema, Alex
    et al.
    Unversity of Dar Es Salaam.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Cement Performance in Sand Cement Blocks – A Case Study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania2016In: Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa (ACCTA) conference January 27-29, 2016 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania http://www.accta2016.bam.de/en/home/index.htm, 2016, p. 383-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Tanzania a large part of the building material products, especially in Dar es Salaam, consist of solid sand cement blocks - sandcrete. The objective of the investigation was to determine cement performance in these sandcrete blocks and to relate results to a defined best performance. The purpose was to assess how well the cement compressive strength potential has been utilised and to identify factors affecting the performance. Results indicate that only about 30% of the inherent cement compressive strength potential is used and that the main problem is the design of the sandcrete blocks. Mostly solid six-inch blocks consisting of cement sand and water are used in Dar es Salaam. The compressive strength requirement is relatively low which leads to a low cement content. Proper compaction of the sand cement blocks requires high amounts of water leading to high water cement ratios with these often being over 1. This then leads to that only about 30% of the cement building potential is used. Since cement drives price and the carbon footprint the situation is far from ideal. One possible improvement would be to change from solid to hollow blocks, which would enable a lower water to cement ratio.

  • 40.
    Norberg, Monica
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    How Could Stereotypes Promote Diversity2010In: The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations,Communities & Nations, ISSN 1447-9532, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 89-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It takes about 8 seconds for you to decide what kind of person is in front of you. Doing this you have classified the person using a stereotype. If your classification was correct or wrong, is something that, you probably will find out later. What happens if you made an inaccurate assessment and the person is not “allowed” to show her or his legal personality? Stereotyping is usually classified as something negative, but how could we use the knowledge from a stereotype to highlight the opportunities of diversity? Diversity: is it only another way to make stereotypes? Using a stereotype – will that make me act, to the person in front of me, as a “type”? Using diversity – will that make me act differently? Will it make me see the person more as a human being than a “type”, or does it not matter? This paper is based on a survey that shows how people categorize others. Expectations or prejudices are formed differently depending on which “stereotype” is in use. However, diversity is a “new” and modern word that could also lead us wrong even if the intention is good. A tentative synthesis of negative and positive components of stereotyping and applying diversity is presented. Results from the survey indicate that, stereotyping is generally perceived as something clearly negative, and should not be used, but is never the less in use. Using diversity is generally perceived as more positive than negative. The expression about using diversity is also put into question as a fad. The free text comments input support the model proposed that by the help of awareness permits using both stereotypes and diversity in a positive way.

     

  • 41.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå universitet.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Uppsala universitet.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå universitet.
    From global goals and planetary boundaries to public governance: A framework for prioritizing organizational sustainability activities2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A particular challenge in the work to realize the global goals for sustainable development is to find ways for organizations to identify and prioritize organizational activities that address these goals. There are also several sustainability initiatives, guidelines and tools to consider when planning, working with and reporting on sustainable development. Although progress has been made, little has been written about how organizations rise to and manage the challenge. The paper explores how organizations address sustainable development, which sustainability aspects they prioritize and whether previous research can improve the priority process by using materiality analysis approach. Methods: A case study approach was chosen. Data was collected by interactive workshops and documentation. The participating organizations were two Swedish municipalities; Results: The municipalities have introduced a number of sustainability aspects into their organizational governance, especially in terms of society, human rights and the environment. A materiality analysis was conducted to determine the relevance and significance of sustainability aspects. The result shows that climate action, biodiversity and freshwater use are aspects that should be prioritized; Conclusion: The materiality analysis methodology chosen for prioritizing of sustainability aspects was useful and easy to work with. However, the sustainability aspect matrix and the risk assessment have to be updated regularly in order to form an effective base for the materiality analysis

  • 42.
    Sabai, Shadrack
    et al.
    Ardhi University, Tanzania.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Kinabo, Leandri
    Maganga, Johanes
    Tanzania Bureau of Standards.
    Minja, Stephen
    Tanzania Bureau of Standards.
    Relevance, consequences and change needs of the current Tanzania Concrete Bricks and Blocks standard TZS 283:20022016In: 2nd International Conference on Advances in Cement and Concrete Technology in Africa 2016, 2016, p. 623-634Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards play an important role in setting the right level of performance. It is important that standard requirements are relevant to its field of application. In Tanzania about 70% of the building material products, especially in Dar es Salaam, consist of sand cement block, so called sandcrete blocks. There has been some concern of non-compliance of the standard. This could indicate problems with enforcing the standard, but it could also be that the standard requirements are not relevant for the market. The aim of this paper is to assess how well the block standard TZS 283:2002 works for guiding the building material market in Dar es Salaam and also if the standard compressive strength requirements are relevant for the market applications. The current performance in Dar es Salaam was reviewed and compared with the standard requirements with focus on compressive strength. The standard requirements have been studied and discussed to further assess the relevance. Results indicate that only about 60% of the blocks taken randomly comply with minimum requirements. Results are similar to those found in Ghana and Nigeria. The findings indicated that it is important to start a revision of the standard in order to make it more relevant to the market. A more relevant standard could support making better use of materials for more affordable and more sustainable building materials.

  • 43.
    Siva, Vanajah
    et al.
    Chalmers, Dept Technol Management & Econ, Div Qual Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers, Dept Technol Management & Econ, Div Qual Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Garvare, Rickard
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Zobel, Thomas
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden..
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    The support of Quality Management to sustainable development: a literature review2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 138, p. 148-157Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Management is considered to be suitable as support for the integration of sustainability considerations in areas such as product development. The purpose of this paper is to review research in which Quality Management methods, tools or practices have been used in conjunction with sustainable development initiatives. We have identified four themes that synthesize the research on Quality Management and its support to approaches for sustainable development: (I) supporting sustainability through integration of management systems, (II) Quality Management as support to the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and to the management of sustainability, (III) supporting integration of sustainability considerations in daily work, and (IV) supporting stakeholder management and customer focus. By far the most research has been conducted within the first two themes. This paper also contributes with proposals for future research, such as the need to move beyond existing standards and management systems to enable more radical improvements, and the need for empirical evidence of the effect of integrated management systems on environmental performance. We also highlight the point that Quality Management practices and tools must be developed and adapted in order to support sustainability considerations.

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