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  • 1.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Collin, Marianne
    Sandvik Machining Solutions, Stockholm.
    Andersson, Gunilla
    Sandvik Machining Solutions, Stockholm.
    Nordh, Lars-Göran
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors.
    Heinrichs, Jannica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone in turning of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Collin, Marianne
    Sandvik Machining Solutions, Stockholm.
    Gunilla, Andersson
    Sandvik Machining Solutions, Stockholm.
    Lars-Göran, Nordh
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors.
    Heinrichs, Jannica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone in turning of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel2014In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 214, no 8, p. 1467-1481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of the adhesion between chip and tool rake face by studying the initial material transfer to the tool during orthogonal machining at 150 m/min. Two types of work material were tested, an austenitic stainless steel, 316L, and a carbon steel, UHB 11. The tools used were cemented carbide inserts coated with hard ceramic coatings. Two different CVD coatings, TiN and Al2O3, produced with two different surface roughnesses, polished and rough, were tested. The influences of both tool surface topography and chemistry on the adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone were thus evaluated. Extensive surface analyses of the inserts after cutting were made using techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). As expected, cutting in the stainless steel resulted in a higher amount of adhered material, compared to cutting in the carbon steel. Remnants of built-up layers were found on the surfaces of the 316L chips but not on the UHB 11 chips. Moreover, it was shown that for both materials the tool roughness had a profound effect, with the rougher surfaces comprising much higher amounts of adhered material than the polished ones. Non-metallic inclusions from both types of workpiece steels accumulate in the high temperature area on the inserts. The general tendency was that higher amounts of transferred material were found on the TiN coating than on the Al2O3 coating after cutting.

  • 3.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Heinrichs, Jannica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Nyberg, Harald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Primateria AB, Uppsala.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Evaluation of an intermittent sliding test for reproducing work material transfer in milling operations2012In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 52, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiN coated HSS test cylinders from an intermittent sliding test were compared with TiN coated HSS milling inserts from a single insert milling test. A 20NiCrMo2 case hardening steel was used as counter material and work material in the two tests. HSS test cylinders, coated with AlCrN, TiAlN and Al2O3, were also tested in the intermittent sliding test and evaluated with regard to material adhesion. Two distinctly different tribofilms were formed on test cylinders as well as on cutting inserts. One consisting of Mn, Si, Al and O and one consisting of Fe, Mn, Cr, Si and O. The transferred material was similar in appearance and composition, both when comparing the two test methods and when comparing the different tool coatings.

  • 4.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Urban, Wiklund
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Survey of damage mechanisms on PVD coated HSS hobs used in Swedish gear manufacturing industry2011In: Tribologia, ISSN 0780-2285, Vol. 30, no 1-2, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gear hobbing is widely used for production of cylindrical gears in the Swedish transmission industry. The hob, usually consisting of a homogenous HSS (High Speed Steel) body coated with a ceramic PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) coating, is designed for regrinding and recoating several times without affecting its cutting geometries. Efficient usage of the tool, considering production costs and gear quality, requires reconditioning before wear starts to affect the gear quality negatively and certainly before tool wear renders reconditioning impossible. Hobs of today generally lack in reliability, making it difficult to judge when they have to be taken out for reconditioning.

     

    This work presents a survey of wear as observed on today’s state of the art hobs used by Swedish gear manufactures. It aims to identify damage mechanisms and the common problems in order to enable future production of more reliable hobs. The tools were temporarily borrowed from the production and the analyses were made non-destructively using optical microscopes. This was complemented by destructive cross-sectional analysis on two of the hobs.

     

    Wear was most commonly located on the rake faces and the cutting edges of the cutting teeth. It mainly propagates by discrete fractures which appear to originate at local defects in the coating or at the interface. High intrinsic stress in the coating likely promotes coating spallation and accelerates the wear of the cutting edge.

  • 5.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wear propagation of PVD AlCrN coated HSS hob in dry gear hobbing2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Riddar, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hogmark, Sture
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    On the wear of PVD-coated HSS hobs in dry gear cutting2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 266, no 3-4, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hob is an advanced gear cutting tool usually made of homogenous high-speed steel (HSS) and coated by physical vapour deposition (PVD). It is designed for regrinding and recoating many times. However, hobs of today suffer from unpredictable wear making it difficult to schedule when they should be taken out for reconditioning. This investigation is aimed to contribute to the fundamental knowledge of the wear mechanisms and wear propagation of hobs used in dry gear cutting. Two AlCrN-coated hobs, used in actual gear cutting, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the tool topography, light optical microscopy (LOM) to study metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for surface analyses.

    It is concluded that the high potential of PVD-coated HSS as tool material is not taken full advantage of. The main reason is a combination of a poor surface preparation prior to coating and excessively high compressive residual stresses, making parts of the coating detach along the edge line even on unused cutting teeth. During cutting, the high intrinsic stresses in combination with droplets and defects in the coating facilitated its fragmentation through decohesion and detachment. Simultaneously, the rake face is gradually covered by a thin oxide layer dominated by Fe, Cr and Mn in about equal amounts, and also with a significant content of Si. It is believed but not proved that this layer is beneficial.

    To improve service life and reliability of gear cutting hobs, precautions should be taken for the grinding–polishing preparation prior to PVD-coating to ensure a smooth substrate free from burning damage and other defects. Also, the edge radius and coating thickness has to be matched with the magnitude of compressive residual stresses in the coating.

  • 7.
    Gerth, Julia Lundberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Tribology at the Cutting Edge: A Study of Material Transfer and Damage Mechanisms in Metal Cutting2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision of this thesis is to improve the metal cutting process, with emphasis on the cutting tool, to enable stable and economical industrial production while using expensive tools such as hobs. The aim is to increase the tribological understanding of the mechanisms operating at a cutting edge and of how these can be controlled using different tool parameters. Such understanding will facilitate the development and implementation of future, tribologically designed, cutting tools.

    Common wear and failure mechanisms in gear hobbing have been identified and focused studies of the material transferred to the tool, in both metal cutting operations and in simplified tribological tests, have been conducted. Interactions between residual stresses in the tool coating and the shape of the cutting edge have also been studied.

    It was concluded that tool failure is often initiated via small defects in the coated tool system, and it is necessary to eliminate, or minimize, these defects in order to manufacture more reliable and efficient gear cutting tools. Furthermore, the geometry of a cutting edge should be optimized with the residual stress state in the coating, in mind. The interaction between a compressive stress and the geometry of the cutting edge will affect the stress state at the cutting edge and thus affect the practical toughness and the wear resistance of the coating in that area.

    An intermittent sliding contact test is presented and shown to be of high relevance for studying the interaction between the tool rake face and the chip in milling. It was also demonstrated that material transfer, that can have large effects on the cutting performance, commences already after very short contact times. The nature of the transfer may differ in different areas on the tool. It may include glassy layers, with accumulations of specific elements from the workpiece, and transfer of steel in more or less oxidized form. Both tool coating material, its surface roughness, and the relative speed between the tool surface and the chip, may influence the extent to which the different transfer will occur.

    List of papers
    1. Survey of damage mechanisms on PVD coated HSS hobs used in Swedish gear manufacturing industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survey of damage mechanisms on PVD coated HSS hobs used in Swedish gear manufacturing industry
    2011 (English)In: Tribologia, ISSN 0780-2285, Vol. 30, no 1-2, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Gear hobbing is widely used for production of cylindrical gears in the Swedish transmission industry. The hob, usually consisting of a homogenous HSS (High Speed Steel) body coated with a ceramic PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) coating, is designed for regrinding and recoating several times without affecting its cutting geometries. Efficient usage of the tool, considering production costs and gear quality, requires reconditioning before wear starts to affect the gear quality negatively and certainly before tool wear renders reconditioning impossible. Hobs of today generally lack in reliability, making it difficult to judge when they have to be taken out for reconditioning.

     

    This work presents a survey of wear as observed on today’s state of the art hobs used by Swedish gear manufactures. It aims to identify damage mechanisms and the common problems in order to enable future production of more reliable hobs. The tools were temporarily borrowed from the production and the analyses were made non-destructively using optical microscopes. This was complemented by destructive cross-sectional analysis on two of the hobs.

     

    Wear was most commonly located on the rake faces and the cutting edges of the cutting teeth. It mainly propagates by discrete fractures which appear to originate at local defects in the coating or at the interface. High intrinsic stress in the coating likely promotes coating spallation and accelerates the wear of the cutting edge.

    Keywords
    gear hobbing, hob, wear, HSS, cutting tool, PVD
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165817 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-10 Created: 2012-01-10 Last updated: 2016-04-19Bibliographically approved
    2. On the wear of PVD-coated HSS hobs in dry gear cutting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the wear of PVD-coated HSS hobs in dry gear cutting
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 266, no 3-4, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A hob is an advanced gear cutting tool usually made of homogenous high-speed steel (HSS) and coated by physical vapour deposition (PVD). It is designed for regrinding and recoating many times. However, hobs of today suffer from unpredictable wear making it difficult to schedule when they should be taken out for reconditioning. This investigation is aimed to contribute to the fundamental knowledge of the wear mechanisms and wear propagation of hobs used in dry gear cutting. Two AlCrN-coated hobs, used in actual gear cutting, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the tool topography, light optical microscopy (LOM) to study metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for surface analyses.

    It is concluded that the high potential of PVD-coated HSS as tool material is not taken full advantage of. The main reason is a combination of a poor surface preparation prior to coating and excessively high compressive residual stresses, making parts of the coating detach along the edge line even on unused cutting teeth. During cutting, the high intrinsic stresses in combination with droplets and defects in the coating facilitated its fragmentation through decohesion and detachment. Simultaneously, the rake face is gradually covered by a thin oxide layer dominated by Fe, Cr and Mn in about equal amounts, and also with a significant content of Si. It is believed but not proved that this layer is beneficial.

    To improve service life and reliability of gear cutting hobs, precautions should be taken for the grinding–polishing preparation prior to PVD-coating to ensure a smooth substrate free from burning damage and other defects. Also, the edge radius and coating thickness has to be matched with the magnitude of compressive residual stresses in the coating.

    Keywords
    Gear hobbing, High-speed steel, PVD-coating, Wear propagation
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Materials Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111756 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2008.04.014 (DOI)000263217300011 ()
    Projects
    KUGG
    Available from: 2009-12-21 Created: 2009-12-21 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    3. Evaluation of an intermittent sliding test for reproducing work material transfer in milling operations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an intermittent sliding test for reproducing work material transfer in milling operations
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 52, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    TiN coated HSS test cylinders from an intermittent sliding test were compared with TiN coated HSS milling inserts from a single insert milling test. A 20NiCrMo2 case hardening steel was used as counter material and work material in the two tests. HSS test cylinders, coated with AlCrN, TiAlN and Al2O3, were also tested in the intermittent sliding test and evaluated with regard to material adhesion. Two distinctly different tribofilms were formed on test cylinders as well as on cutting inserts. One consisting of Mn, Si, Al and O and one consisting of Fe, Mn, Cr, Si and O. The transferred material was similar in appearance and composition, both when comparing the two test methods and when comparing the different tool coatings.

    Keywords
    Transfer, Coating, Chip, Sliding
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials; Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167051 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2012.03.015 (DOI)000304798900015 ()
    Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Influence of sliding speed on modes of material transfer as steel slides against PVD tool coatings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of sliding speed on modes of material transfer as steel slides against PVD tool coatings
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 58, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An intermittent sliding test was used in order to study the formation and build-up of tribofilms during intermittent sliding of PVD coated HSS against case hardening steel (20NiCrMo2). Two cutting tool coatings were tested, TIN and AlCrN, and the influence of sliding speed was evaluated. With moderate speed, two tribofilms were formed separately, one consisting of Mn, Si, Al and O on an intermediate layer of Fe and one consisting of Fe, Mn, Cr and O on an intermediate layer of Cr and Mn. At low sliding speeds an uneven transfer of steel occured while high sliding speeds resulted in thermal softening of the substrate leading to coating failure. AlCrN provided better substrate protection at high speeds than TiN did.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167053 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2012.09.012 (DOI)000312610600008 ()
    Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    5. Influence from surface roughness on steel transfer to PVD tool coatings in continuous and intermittent sliding contacts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence from surface roughness on steel transfer to PVD tool coatings in continuous and intermittent sliding contacts
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 56, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A sliding test is used in order to evaluate the influence of tool surface roughness on the material transfer in intermittent and continuous sliding of PVD coated HSS against case hardening steel (20NiCrMo2). Two cutting tool coatings, TiN and AlCrN, and three different surface roughnesses are tested. For polished surfaces the same types of material transfer are obtained irrespective of sliding mode and coating type. If the surfaces are too rough, the tribofilms do not grow thick enough to separate the surfaces and the work material is abrasively worn in both sliding modes. With increased sliding distance, cracking of the TiN coating occurs while the AlCrN coating remains intact.

    Keywords
    Transfer, coating, sliding, roughness
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167054 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2012.06.013 (DOI)000308284000002 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    6. Adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone in turning of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone in turning of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 214, no 8, p. 1467-1481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of the adhesion between chip and tool rake face by studying the initial material transfer to the tool during orthogonal machining at 150 m/min. Two types of work material were tested, an austenitic stainless steel, 316L, and a carbon steel, UHB 11. The tools used were cemented carbide inserts coated with hard ceramic coatings. Two different CVD coatings, TiN and Al2O3, produced with two different surface roughnesses, polished and rough, were tested. The influences of both tool surface topography and chemistry on the adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone were thus evaluated. Extensive surface analyses of the inserts after cutting were made using techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). As expected, cutting in the stainless steel resulted in a higher amount of adhered material, compared to cutting in the carbon steel. Remnants of built-up layers were found on the surfaces of the 316L chips but not on the UHB 11 chips. Moreover, it was shown that for both materials the tool roughness had a profound effect, with the rougher surfaces comprising much higher amounts of adhered material than the polished ones. Non-metallic inclusions from both types of workpiece steels accumulate in the high temperature area on the inserts. The general tendency was that higher amounts of transferred material were found on the TiN coating than on the Al2O3 coating after cutting.

    Keywords
    adhesion, austenitic stainless steel, carbon steel, surface roughness, cutting tools
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183185 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.01.017 (DOI)000336341300001 ()
    Available from: 2012-10-23 Created: 2012-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    7. Assessing the hardness and residual stress at the very edge of a TiAlN coated cutting insert
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the hardness and residual stress at the very edge of a TiAlN coated cutting insert
    Show others...
    (English)In: Surface and coatings technology, ISSN 0257-8972Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    A method for determining residual stresses through nanoindentation has been used in order to evaluate the local residual stress in a PVD Ti0.5Al0.5N coating. The influence of residual stress on the measured hardness is obtained by comparing the hardness of as deposited, residually stressed, coating and stress relieved pillars made in the very same coating. The technique offers high lateral resolution, and it can be applied on complex geometries where conventional stress measurements fall short. In this work, the method proved useful for estimating the residual stress at such a complex geometry as a sharp cutting edge. Edges with two different radii were analysed and it was concluded that the nominal residual compressive stress given to a coating can locally, on the very cutting edge, become significantly reduced by elastic relaxation .This effects the cohesion of the coating at that position which, together with the lift-off stress generated at the edge, make the coating in that region especially vulnerable to damage. The experimental results correlated very well with finite element simulations of the residual stress state around cutting edges with the same geometries.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier
    Keywords
    Residual stress, PVD coating, Cutting edge, Nanoindentation
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183161 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-10-23 Created: 2012-10-23 Last updated: 2013-01-23Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Werner, Mathias
    KTH.
    Larsson, Mats
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Reproducing wear mechanisms in gear hobbing: evaluation of a single insert milling test2008In: Proceedings of the International conference Nordtrib 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Werner, Mathias
    KTH.
    Larsson, Mats
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Reproducing wear mechanisms in gear hobbing: Evaluation of a single insert milling test2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 267, no 12, p. 2257-2268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gear hobbing is a widely used method in industrial gear manufacturing. The most common type of hob is made of homogenous HSS and protected by a PVD coating. In order to increase the reliability and tool life of these milling tools, further developments of the tool surfaces and cutting edges are necessary.

    A single tooth milling test, using a HSS insert in a conventional milling machine, has been developed with the aim to reproduce the wear mechanisms seen on real HSS gear hobbing teeth. The benefits of such a test, compared to actual gear hobbing tests, are primarily accessibility and reduced costs for both design and production of test specimens (inserts).

    The main goal of this study was to verify that the wear mechanisms in the developed test correspond with the wear mechanisms obtained in real gear hobbing. Once this was verified, the influence of surfaces roughness on the performance of TiAlN coated HSS inserts was evaluated by using the tool as delivered or after polishing the tool surfaces. Parameters considered were tool wear, cutting forces and the quality of machined surfaces. The polished inserts, yielded less adhered work material and reduced flank wear but no significant difference in cutting forces as compared to the unpolished inserts.

  • 10.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Adhesion properties in the secondary shear zone in turning of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    The influence of metallic interlayers on the adhesion of pVD TiN coatings on high-speed steel2007In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 264, no 9-10, p. 885-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nearly all applications the adhesion of the coating to the substrate is crucial for the components performance and length of life. To enhance the adhesion it is common to use a metallic interlayer, most often titanium. In this study seven different metallic interlayers, namely W, Mo, Nb, Cr, Ti, Ag and Al, have been evaluated with respect to their influence on the adhesion of PVD TiN coatings to polished high-speed steel, ASP 2060. The purpose of this work is to investigate how some physical properties of a metal affect its capability to function as an adhesion interlayer. Samples were prepared using dc magnetron sputtering for the interlayer and reactive dc magnetron sputtering for the TiN coating. The deposition process included both pre-treatments and in situ treatments of the substrate surface in order to eliminate possible contaminations. The adhesion of the coatings was investigated with two different methods: scratch testing and Rockwell adhesion testing. The results indicate that differences in hardness between the metallic interlayers influence the practical adhesion more than differences in E-modulus. Furthermore, in order to optimize adhesion, the hardness of the interlayer should be close to the hardness of the substrate. It was also suggested that stresses, both in the TiN coating and in the metallic interlayer, affect the adhesion properties negatively. In addition, the necessity of interlayer in TiN on HSS can be questioned as the reference samples, without interlayer, showed adhesion properties comparable to the highest ranked interlayer containing samples in our assessment.

  • 12.
    Gerth, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wear of an AlCrN coated HSS Hob in Dry Gear Cutting2009In: HSS FORUM - Smart Solutions for the Future of Metal Cutting, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Heinrichs, Jannica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gerth, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Dalarna University.
    Larsson, Mats
    Primateria AB, Uppsala.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence from surface roughness on steel transfer to PVD tool coatings in continuous and intermittent sliding contacts2012In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 56, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sliding test is used in order to evaluate the influence of tool surface roughness on the material transfer in intermittent and continuous sliding of PVD coated HSS against case hardening steel (20NiCrMo2). Two cutting tool coatings, TiN and AlCrN, and three different surface roughnesses are tested. For polished surfaces the same types of material transfer are obtained irrespective of sliding mode and coating type. If the surfaces are too rough, the tribofilms do not grow thick enough to separate the surfaces and the work material is abrasively worn in both sliding modes. With increased sliding distance, cracking of the TiN coating occurs while the AlCrN coating remains intact.

  • 14.
    Heinrichs, Jannica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gerth, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Dalarna University.
    Larsson, Mats
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of sliding speed on modes of material transfer as steel slides against PVD tool coatings2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 58, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An intermittent sliding test was used in order to study the formation and build-up of tribofilms during intermittent sliding of PVD coated HSS against case hardening steel (20NiCrMo2). Two cutting tool coatings were tested, TIN and AlCrN, and the influence of sliding speed was evaluated. With moderate speed, two tribofilms were formed separately, one consisting of Mn, Si, Al and O on an intermediate layer of Fe and one consisting of Fe, Mn, Cr and O on an intermediate layer of Cr and Mn. At low sliding speeds an uneven transfer of steel occured while high sliding speeds resulted in thermal softening of the substrate leading to coating failure. AlCrN provided better substrate protection at high speeds than TiN did.

  • 15.
    Nyberg, Harald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Olofsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gerth, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence on surface micro topography of HSS surfaces from argon ion etch cleaning2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Nyberg, Harald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Olofsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gerth, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    On the influence from micro topography on the structure and growth of low friction amorphous carbon PVD coatings2010In: Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering (PSE 2010), September 13-17, 2010, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in metal carbide doped amorphous carbon coatings produced by physical vapour deposition (PVD) for use on heavily stressed machine elements is currently increasing, mainly due to their ability to achieve low friction and reduced wear of the counter surface. The tribological properties of these types of coatings have however been found to vary strongly between seemingly similar coatings. A potential source of these differences could be the micro topography of the coated surfaces.

     

    Argon ion etch cleaning of the substrates is a common process step in the production of PVD coatings and is usually performed as the final cleaning step before coating deposition. For some materials, the etching process may result in a roughening of the substrate surface, due to differences in the etch rates of the different parts of the material. In high speed steels, carbides typically etch slower than the metallic phase, resulting in a surface covered by protruding carbides.

     

    In the current study, it was examined how varying amounts of argon ion etching of highly polished high speed steel substrates prior to coating influences the micro topography of the substrates and the final coatings. Tantalum carbide doped amorphous carbon coatings (TaC:C) were produced by co-sputtering of carbon and tantalum, in an argon atmosphere. The impact of the substrate micro topography on the growth and structure of the coatings was studied, using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of superficial coating cross sections produced with a focused ion beam (FIB). Special attention was paid to coating growth in the immediate vicinity of protruding carbides, as well as to the structure of the coating in these regions.

  • 17.
    Olofsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gerth, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Nyberg, Harald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    On the influence from micro topography of PVD coatings on friction behaviour, material transfer and tribofilm formation2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, no 9-10, p. 204-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PVD coatings based on amorphous carbon with metal-carbides are currently gaining a high interest for use on machine elements due to their potential to give low friction and low wear of the counter surface. However, the performance varies significantly between the various types of such coatings and the causes of this are not clear. One factor is the micro topography of the coating surface. This topography may influence the friction in many ways; by changing the state of lubrication, by causing scratching of the counter surface, by modifying the topography of the counter surface the material transfer, the tribofilm formation, etc.

    TaC/a-C coatings, produced by co-sputtering of carbon and tantalum in an argon atmosphere, were deposited on high speed steel substrates exposed to varying degrees of etching to produce a range of surface roughnesses. Ball-on-disc experiments were used to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings in dry condition against a ball bearing steel ball. The surfaces were analysed using various advanced techniques, including, SEM, XPS, Raman, EDS and AFM, all both prior to and after the testing.

    It was shown that the resulting surface topography of the coating is affected even by very small protrusions on the substrate. The coefficient of friction decreased during use to a stable level, due to a complex process including tribofilm build-up on the sliding ball. Surfaces with lower protrusions exhibited a faster friction decrease, i.e. a faster running in.

  • 18.
    Olofsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gerth, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Nyberg, Harald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    On the influence from micro topography of PVD coatings on friction behaviour, material transfer and tribofilm formation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PVD coatings based on amorphous carbon with metal-carbides are currently gaining a high interest for use on machine elements due to their potential to give low friction and low wear of the counter surface. However, the performance varies significantly between the various types of such coatings and the causes of this are not clear. One factor is the micro topography of the coating surface. This topography may influence the friction in many ways; by changing the state of lubrication, by causing scratching of the counter surface, by modifying the topography of the counter surface the material transfer, the tribofilm formation, etc.

    TaC/a-C coatings, produced by co-sputtering of carbon and tantalum in an argon atmosphere, were deposited on high speed steel substrates exposed to varying degrees of etching to produce a range of surface roughnesses. Ball-on-disc experiments were used to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings in dry condition against a ball bearing steel ball. The surfaces were analysed using various advanced techniques, including, SEM, XPS, Raman, EDS and AFM, all both prior to and after the testing.

    It was shown that the resulting surface topography of the coating is affected even by very small protrusions on the substrate. The coefficient of friction decreased during use to a stable level, due to a complex process including tribofilm build-up on the sliding ball. Surfaces with lower protrusions exhibited a faster friction decrease, i.e. a faster running in.

1 - 18 of 18
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