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  • 1. Arce, Fernando
    et al.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Navedo, Juan G.
    Storm petrel's breeding skipping in response to oil-spill pollution: Raising concerns over Zabala et al. (2011) methodological approach2011In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 2576-2577Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Nicieza, A. G.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Time constraints and flexibility of growth strategies: Geographic variation in catch-up growth responses in amphibian larvae2012In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 81, no 6, p. 1233-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. As size is tightly associated with fitness, compensatory strategies for growth loss can be vital for restoring individual fitness. However, immediate and delayed costs of compensatory responses may prevent their generalization, and the optimal strategy may depend on environmental conditions. Compensatory responses may be particularly important in high-latitude habitats with short growing seasons, and thus, high-latitude organisms might be more efficient at compensating after periods of unfavourable growth conditions than low-latitude organisms. 2. We investigated geographical differences in catch-up growth strategies of populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria) from southern and northern Sweden in two factorial common garden experiments involving predation risk and two different causes of growth arrest (nutritional stress and low temperatures) to evaluate how the compensatory strategies can be affected by context-dependent costs of compensation. Larval and metamorphic traits, and post-metamorphic performance were used as response variables. 3. Only northern tadpoles exposed to low food completely caught up in terms of metamorphic size, mainly by extending the larval period. Low food decreased survival and post-metamorphic jumping performance in southern, but not in northern tadpoles, suggesting that northern tadpoles have a better ability to compensate after periods of restricted food. 4. Both northern and southern tadpoles were able to metamorphose at the same size as control tadpoles after being exposed to low temperatures, indicating that consequences of variation in temperature and food availability differed for tadpoles. However, the combination of low temperatures and predation risk reduced survival in both southern and northern tadpoles. Also, predation risk decreased energy storage in both experiments. 5. Our results highlight the influence of climatic variation and the type of stressor as selective factors shaping compensatory strategies.

  • 3.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Geographic variation in corticosterone response to chronic predator stress in tadpoles2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1066-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid hormones, which elevate during stress. We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to maintain higher growth under stressful conditions. Southern tadpoles had higher CORT content in response to predators after 1 day of exposure, whereas there was no increase in CORT in the northern populations. Two weeks later, there were no predator-induced CORT elevations. Artificially elevated CORT levels strongly decreased growth, development and survival in both northern and southern tadpoles. We suggest that the lower CORT response in high-latitude populations can be connected with avoidance of CORT-mediated reduction in growth and development, but also discuss other possible explanations.

  • 4.
    Dijk, Ben
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is one defence enough?: Disentangling the relative importance of morphological and behavioural predator-induced defences2016In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisms show predator-induced behavioural and morphological phenotypic plasticity. These defence mechanisms are often expressed simultaneously. To estimate the relative importance of these two defences, we conducted a laboratory experiment using tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) as prey and Aeshna dragonfly larvae as predators. We first raised tadpoles in the presence and absence of caged predators to induce differences in defensive morphology, and then conducted free ranging predator trials in environments that were either with or without the presence of predation cues to induce differences in defensive behaviour. This 2 x 2 design allowed us to separate the effects of inducible morphology from inducible behaviour. Caged predators induced deeper bodies and tailfins and reduced activity levels in tadpoles. The time to first capture was shortest in tadpoles without morphological or behavioural defences. Tadpoles with a behavioural defence had a significantly longer time to first capture. Tadpoles with only antipredator morphology tended to have a longer time to first capture as compared to those without any induced defences. This treatment also had a higher number of injured tadpoles as compared to other treatments, suggesting that inducible morphology facilitates predator escape due to the 'lure effect'. However, tadpoles with both behavioural and morphological defences did not have a longer time to first capture as compared to tadpoles with only morphological or behavioural induced defences. Our results suggest that both behavioural and morphological antipredator responses contribute to reduced capture efficiency by predators, but their simultaneous expression did not have any additive effect to the time of first capture and survival, and that the morphology response is most effective when tadpoles are active.

  • 5.
    Murillo-Rincon, Andrea P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Inst Zool, D-24118 Kiel, Germany..
    Kolter, Nora A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Intraspecific priority effects modify compensatory responses to changes in hatching phenology in an amphibian2017In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 128-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra-and interspecific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early-hatching individuals have over late-hatching ones). 2. Here, we conducted a factorial experiment to determine whether intraspecific priority effects can alter compensatory phenotypic responses to hatching delay in a synchronic breeder by rearing moor frog (Rana arvalis) tadpoles in different combinations of phenological delay and food abundance. 3. Tadpoles compensated for the hatching delay by speeding up their development, but only when reared in groups of individuals with identical hatching phenology. In mixed phenology groups, strong competitive effects by non-delayed tadpoles prevented the compensatory responses and delayed larvae metamorphosed later than in single phenology treatments. Non-delayed individuals gained advantage from developing with delayed larvae by increasing their developmental and growth rates as compared to single phenology groups. 4. Food shortage prolonged larval period and reduced mass at metamorphosis in all treatments, but it did not prevent compensatory developmental responses in larvae reared in single phenology groups. 5. This study demonstrates that strong intraspecific priority effects can constrain the compensatory growth and developmental responses to phenological change, and that priority effects can be an important factor explaining the maintenance of synchronic life histories (i.e. explosive breeding) in seasonal environments.

  • 6.
    Murillo-Rincon, Andrea P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Inst Zool, Kiel, Germany..
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, Germán
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Compensating for delayed hatching reduces offspring immune response and increases life-history costs2017In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 126, no 4, p. 565-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms are exposed to multiple sources of stress in nature. When confronted with a stressful period affecting growth and development, compensatory responses allow the restoration of individual fitness, providing an important buffering mechanism against climatic and other environmental variability. However, tradeoffs between increased growth/development and other physiological traits are predicted to prevent these high growth and development rates from becoming constitutive. Here, we investigated how compensatory responses in growth and development affect immune responses. By using low temperature to stop embryonic development, we exposed moor frog Rana arvalis tadpoles to two levels of time-constraints: non-delayed hatching and 12-day delayed hatching. In a common garden experiment, we recorded larval growth and development, as well as their immune response, measured as the inflammatory reaction after the injection of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Tadpoles originating from delayed hatching treatments had a lower immune response to PHA challenge than those from the non-delayed hatching treatment. In general, tadpoles from the delayed hatching treatment reached metamorphosis faster and at a smaller size than control tadpoles. However, immune-challenged tadpoles were not able to accelerate their development in response to delayed hatching. Our results indicate that 1) the innate immune response can be reduced in organisms undergoing compensatory developmental responses in growth and development and 2) compensatory capacity can be reduced when organisms are immunologically challenged. These dual findings reveal the complexity of handling multiple stressors and highlight the importance of examining the costs and limits of mounting an immune response in the context of increasing phenological instability ascribed to climate change.

  • 7. Navedo, Juan G.
    et al.
    Masero, Jose A.
    Overdijk, Otto
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Sanchez-Guzman, Juan M.
    Assessing the role of multiple environmental factors on Eurasian Spoonbill departure decisions from stopover sites2010In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, E-ISSN 2213-1175, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the factors driving departure decisions from stopover sites is critical when predicting the dynamics of bird migration. We investigated the interactive effects of wind, tidal characteristics, and precipitation on the departure decisions of the Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea I. leucorodia from a major coastal stopover locality in northern Iberia. Most departing Spoonbills (>80%) crossed an adjacent mountain range to follow a direct route over inland Iberia, while the remainder made a detour following an indirect coastal route along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula. During four consecutive autumns, we daily monitored departing Spoonbills leaving along these two routes. The birds taking the inland route, crossing unsuitable habitats and needing therefore higher fuel-loads, departed preferentially under favourable tailwind conditions (TWC). This represented a significant increase in distance covered and/or a decrease in energy spent per unit time. Moreover, Spoonbills taking the inland route often departed during spring tides. For the indirect coastal route, TWC did not affect the onset of migration but bird departures increased with neap tides. Precipitation and date were negatively correlated with departures towards both routes, whereas Spoonbill density at the stopover had a positive effect. Our findings provide empirical support for the role that wind assistance may play for Spoonbills to resume migration.

  • 8. Navedo, Juan G.
    et al.
    Orizaola, Germán
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Masero, Jose A.
    Overdijk, Otto
    Sanchez-Guzman, Juan M.
    Long-distance travellers stopover for longer: a case study with spoonbills staying in North Iberia2010In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 151, no 4, p. 915-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-distance migration is widespread among birds, connecting breeding and wintering areas through a set of stopover localities where individuals refuel and/or rest. The extent of the stopover is critical in determining the migratory strategy of a bird. Here, we examined the relationship between minimum length of stay of PVC-ringed birds in a major stopover site and the remaining flight distance to the overwintering area in the Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea l. leucorodia) during four consecutive autumn migrations. We also analysed the potential effect of timing (arrival date), as well as the role of experience in explaining stopover duration of spoonbills. Overall, birds wintering in Africa, and facing long-distance travel from the stopover site (ca. 3,000 km) stay for longer (2.7 +/- A 0.4 days) than Iberian winterers (1.5 +/- A 0.2 days) that perform a much shorter migration (ca. 800 km). These differences were consistent between years. Stopover duration was not significantly affected by the age of the bird. However, there was a significant reduction as migration advanced. Our results suggest that spoonbills develop different stopover strategies depending on the expected distance to the wintering grounds. Adults, especially long-distance migratory ones, could reduce the potential negative effects of density-dependence processes by avoiding stopover at the end of the migration period. These findings are of significant relevance for understanding differences in migratory behaviour within single populations, especially for declining waterbirds, as well as stress the relevance of preserving stopover localities for the conservation of intraspecific diversity in migratory species.

  • 9.
    Nunes, Ana L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rebelo, Rui
    Morphological and life-history responses of anurans to predation by an invasive crayfish: an integrative approach2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 1491-1503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity has been widely documented in response to native predators, but studies examining the extent to which prey can respond to exotic invasive predators are scarce. As native prey often do not share a long evolutionary history with invasive predators, they may lack defenses against them. This can lead to population declines and even extinctions, making exotic predators a serious threat to biodiversity. Here, in a community-wide study, we examined the morphological and life-history responses of anuran larvae reared with the invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, feeding on conspecific tadpoles. We reared tadpoles of nine species until metamorphosis and examined responses in terms of larval morphology, growth, and development, as well as their degree of phenotypic integration. These responses were compared with the ones developed in the presence of a native predator, the larval dragonfly Aeshna sp., also feeding on tadpoles. Eight of the nine species altered their morphology or life history when reared with the fed dragonfly, but only four when reared with the fed crayfish, suggesting among-species variation in the ability to respond to a novel predator. While morphological defenses were generally similar across species (deeper tails) and almost exclusively elicited in the presence of the fed dragonfly, life-history responses were very variable and commonly elicited in the presence of the invasive crayfish. Phenotypes induced in the presence of dragonfly were more integrated than in crayfish presence. The lack of response to the presence of the fed crayfish in five of the study species suggests higher risk of local extinction and ultimately reduced diversity of the invaded amphibian communities. Understanding how native prey species vary in their responses to invasive predators is important in predicting the impacts caused by newly established predator-prey interactions following biological invasions.

  • 10.
    Nunes, Ana L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Rebelo, Rui
    Rapid evolution of constitutive and inducible defenses against an invasive predator2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 6, p. 1520-1530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive alien predators can impose strong selection on native prey populations and induce rapid evolutionary change in the invaded communities. However, studies on evolutionary responses to invasive predators are often complicated by the lack of replicate populations differing in coexistence time with the predator, which would allow the determination of how prey traits change during the invasion. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii has invaded many freshwater areas worldwide, with negative impacts for native fauna. Here, we examined how coexistence time shapes antipredator responses of the Iberian waterfrog (Pelophylax perezi) to the invasive crayfish by raising tadpoles from five populations differing in historical exposure to P. clarkii (30 years, 20 years, or no coexistence). Tadpoles from non-invaded populations responded to the presence of P. clarkii with behavioral plasticity (reduced activity), whereas long-term invaded populations showed canalized antipredator behavior (constant low activity level). Tadpoles from one of the long-term invaded populations responded to the crayfish with inducible morphological defenses (deeper tails), reflecting the use of both constitutive and inducible antipredator defenses against the exotic predator by this population. Our results suggest that, while naive P. perezi populations responded behaviorally to P. clarkii, the strong predation pressure imposed by the crayfish has induced the evolution of qualitatively different antipredator defenses in populations with longer coexistence time. These responses suggest that strong selection by invasive predators may drive rapid evolutionary change in invaded communities. Examining responses of prey species to biological invasions using multiple populations will help us better forecast the impact of invasive predators in natural communities.

  • 11.
    Orizaola, G
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Laurila, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Microgeographic variation in the effects of larval temperature environment on juvenile morphology and locomotion in the pool frog2009In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 277, no 4, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In animals with complex life cycles, the environment experienced early during the development may have strong effects on later performance and fitness. We investigated the intraspecific variation in the effects of larval temperature environment on the morphology and locomotory performance of juvenile pool frogs Rana lessonae originating from three closely located populations of the northern fringe metapopulation in central Sweden. Tadpoles were raised individually at two temperatures (20 and 25 degrees C) until metamorphosis. We measured the morphology of the metamorphs and tested the jumping performance of the froglets after complete tail absorption. We found that early temperature environment affected juvenile morphology, metamorphs from high-temperature environments having relatively longer hindlimbs (tibiofibulas) and longer tails when weight at metamorphosis was accounted for. In absolute terms, froglets from low temperature jumped significantly longer; however, after correcting for size differences the relationship was reversed, individuals raised at high temperature performing better. In both temperatures, relative jumping performance was positively associated with tibiofibula and body length. Populations differed both in metamorphic traits and in jumping capacity, especially at low temperature, suggesting microgeographical variation in temperature sensitivity within the metapopulation. Our results indicate that the temperature environment experienced during the early aquatic stages can influence the morphology and performance of juvenile frogs, and that these effects can be population specific.

  • 12.
    Orizaola, Germa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Dahl, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Reversibility of predator-induced plasticity and its effect at a life-history switch point2012In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural systems, organisms are frequently exposed to spatial and temporal variation in predation risk. Prey organisms are known to develop a wide array of plastic defences to avoid being eaten. If inducible plastic defences are costly, prey living under fluctuating predation risk should be strongly selected to develop reversible plastic traits and adjust their defences to the current predation risk. Here, we studied the induction and reversibility of antipredator defences in common frog Rana temporaria tadpoles when confronted with a temporal switch in predation risk by dragonfly larvae. We examined the behaviour and morphology of tadpoles in experimental treatments where predators were added or withdrawn at mid larval development, and compared these to treatments with constant absence or presence of predators. As previous studies have overlooked the effects that developing reversible anti-predator responses could have later in life (e.g. at life history switch points), we also estimated the impact that changes in antipredator responses had on the timing of and size at metamorphosis. In the presence of predators, tadpoles reduced their activity and developed wider bodies, and shorter and wider tails. When predators were removed tadpoles switched their behaviour within one hour to match that found in the constant environments. The morphology matched that in the constant environments in one week after treatment reversal. All these responses were highly symmetrical. Short time lags and symmetrical responses for the induction/reversal of defences suggest that a strategy with fast switches between phenotypes could be favoured in order to maximise growth opportunities even at the potential cost of phenotypic mismatches. We found no costs of developing reversible responses to predators in terms of life-history traits, but a general cost of the induction of the defences for all the individuals experiencing predation risk during some part of the larval development (delayed metamorphosis). More studies examining the reversibility of plastic defences, including other type of costs (e.g. physiological), are needed to better understand the adaptive value of these flexible strategies.

  • 13.
    Orizaola, German
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Dahl, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Compensating for delayed hatching across consecutive life-history stages in an amphibian2010In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 980-987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conditions experienced early in the ontogeny can have a strong impact on individual fitness and performance later in life. Organisms may counteract the negative effects of poor developmental conditions by developing compensatory responses in growth and development. However, previous studies on compensatory responses have largely ignored the effects that poor embryonic conditions could have during the later life stages. In this study, we examined the effects of artificially delayed development in early life over two later life history transitions by investigating the compensatory growth of larval moor frogs Rana arvalis in response to temperature variation during embryonic development, and the associated costs during the larval 'and postmetamorphic stages. Low temperature during embryonic stage lead to delayed hatching at smaller size. The groups with delayed embryonic development showed strong compensatory growth during the larval stage, and reached similar metamorphic size than the controls in a shorter time. However, the most strongly delayed group was not able to fully catch up the total development time. These compensatory responses were found in the absence of photoperiod cues indicating that the delay in embryonic development was sufficient to initiate the compensatory response in larval growth and development. No apparent costs of compensatory growth were detected in terms of morphology or locomotor performance at the juvenile stage. We found that compensatory responses can be activated as early as at the embryonic stage and extend over several consecutive life history transitions, mitigating the effects of poor conditions experienced early in development. Potential short-term costs in natural environments and the occurrence of long-term costs, which prevent the generalisation of a faster larval life style, are discussed.

  • 14.
    Orizaola, German
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Dahl, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Nicieza, Alfredo G.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Larval life history and anti-predator strategies are affected by breeding phenology in an amphibian2013In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 171, no 4, p. 873-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal time constraints can pose strong selection on life histories. Time-constrained animals should prioritise fast development over predation risk to avoid unfavourable growing conditions. However, changes in phenology could alter the balance between anti-predator and developmental needs. We studied variation of anti-predator strategies in common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles in four populations from the two extremes of a latitudinal gradient across Sweden. We examined, under common conditions in the laboratory, the anti-predator responses and life histories of tadpoles raised with predatory Aeshna dragonfly larvae in two consecutive years with a difference of 20 days in breeding time in the north, but no difference in breeding time in the nouth. In a year with late breeding, northern tadpoles did not modify their behaviour and morphology in the presence of predators, and metamorphosed faster and smaller than tadpoles born in a year with early breeding. In the year with early breeding, northern tadpoles showed a completely different anti-predator strategy by reducing activity and developing morphological defences in the presence of predators. We discuss the possible mechanisms that could activate these responses (likely a form of environmentally-mediated parental effect). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that a vertebrate modifies the anti-predator strategy of its offspring in response to natural variation in reproductive phenology, which highlights the need to consider phenology in studies of life-history evolution.

  • 15.
    Orizaola, German
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Developmental plasticity increases at the northern range margin in a warm-dependent amphibian2016In: Evolutionary Applications, ISSN 1752-4571, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 471-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate predictions regarding how climate change affects species and populations are crucial for the development of effective conservation measures. However, models forecasting the impact of climate change on natural environments do not often consider the geographic variation of an organism's life history. We examined variation in developmental plasticity to changing temperature in the pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae) across its distribution by studying populations from central areas (Poland), edge populations (Latvia) and northern marginal populations (Sweden). Relative to central and edge populations, northern populations experience lower and less variable temperature and fewer episodes of warm weather during larval development. Plasticity in larval life-history traits was highest at the northern range margin: larvae from marginal populations shortened larval period and increased growth rate more than larvae from central and edge populations when reared at high temperature. Maintaining high growth and development under the scarce spells of warm weather is likely adaptive for high-latitude populations. The detection of high levels of developmental plasticity in isolated, marginal populations suggests that they may be better able to respond to the temperature regimes expected under climate change than often predicted, reflecting the need to incorporate geographic variation in life-history traits into models forecasting responses to environmental change.

  • 16.
    Orizaola, German
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Growing with kin does not bring benefits to tadpoles in a genetically impoverished amphibian population2008In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of intraspecific competition can be modified through the interaction with genetic relatedness among the competing individuals. Theory of kin selection predicts that organisms should modify their behaviour to increase the fitness of their relatives and consequently their inclusive fitness. However, in populations with low genetic variation, the recognition of kin and nonkin individuals could be compromised. In this study, we tested the influence of density and relatedness on larval development in a genetically impoverished population of the pool frog (Rana lessonae Camerano, 1882), exposing individuals from four families to two densities and to competition by full-sibling and nonkin larvae. Larvae in high-density treatment were smaller than those in low-density treatment. No effect of kin, or interaction between density and kin, was detected. However, significant differences were detected in body size among the families and high heritability for size was found in both densities. Lack of variation in recognition alleles may explain the lack of kin effects on growth, whereas variation has been maintained in life-history traits either owing to their polygenic inheritance or owing to maternal effects.

  • 17.
    Orizaola, German
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Intraspecific variation of temperature-induced effects on metamorphosis in the pool frog (Rana lessonae)2009In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 581-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the factors that affect the process of metamorphosis in species with complex life cycles, and in particular their variation within and among populations, has been rarely explored until recently. We examined the effects of temperature environment on several metamorphic characteristics in three populations of the pool frog (Rana lessonae Camerano, 1882) by rearing individuals at two temperature environments (20 and 25 degrees C). Higher temperature shortened the metamorphic period and reduced the absolute mass loss, although there was no difference between the temperatures in the percentage of mass lost. No differences among the populations were detected, but there was significant intrapopulation variation both in the mean and in the plasticity for the duration of metamorphosis. These results indicate that several aspects of metamorphosis are plastic in amphibians, these traits may have considerable intrapopulation variation, and that temperature is a strong factor affecting the process of metamorphosis.

  • 18.
    Orizaola, German
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Microgeographic variation in temperature-induced plasticity in an isolated amphibian metapopulation2009In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 979-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in local environments may lead to variation in the selection pressures and differentiation among local populations even at microgeographic scale. We investigated variation in temperature-induced plasticity in larval life-history traits among populations of an isolated pool frog (Rana lessonae) metapopulation in Central Sweden. Successful breeding of this northern fringe metapopulation is highly dependent on early summer temperature, however, the metapopulation shows very little variation in molecular genetic markers suggesting limited potential for local differentiation. We exposed larvae from three closely-located populations to two temperatures (20 and 25A degrees C) in laboratory to investigate their growth and development responses to temperature variation. In general, larvae exposed to warmer temperature experienced higher survival and metamorphosed faster, but at a smaller size than those at low temperature. We found differences among the populations in both trait mean values and in the plastic responses. Among-family variation within populations was found in growth rate and time to metamorphosis, as well as in plasticity suggesting that these traits have a capacity to evolve. Our results indicate ample phenotypic variation within and among these closely-located populations despite the low molecular genetic variation. The differences in pond temperature characteristics detected in the study in the three localities may suggest that differential selection is acting in the populations. The strong differentiation found in the larval traits implies that understanding the factors that influence the potential of the populations to adapt to environmental changes may be essential for successful conservation strategies.

  • 19.
    Orizaola, German
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Valdés, Ana Elisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Free the tweet at scientific conferences2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 350, no 6257, p. 170-U149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Orizaola, Germán
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Dahl, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Compensatory growth strategies are affected by the strength of environmental time constraints in anuran larvae2014In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms normally grow at a sub-maximal rate. After experiencing a period of arrested growth, individuals often show compensatory growth responses by modifying their life-history, behaviour and physiology. However, the strength of compensatory responses may vary across broad geographic scales as populations differ in their exposition to varying time constraints. We examined differences in compensatory growth strategies in common frog (Rana temporaria) populations from southern and northern Sweden. Tadpoles from four populations were reared in the laboratory and exposed to low temperature to evaluate the patterns and mechanisms of compensatory growth responses. We determined tadpoles' growth rate, food intake and growth efficiency during the compensation period. In the absence of arrested growth conditions, tadpoles from all the populations showed similar (size-corrected) growth rates, food intake and growth efficiency. After being exposed to low temperature for 1 week, only larvae from the northern populations increased growth rates by increasing both food intake and growth efficiency. These geographic differences in compensatory growth mechanisms suggest that the strategies for recovering after a period of growth deprivation may depend on the strength of time constraints faced by the populations. Due to the costs of fast growth, only populations exposed to the strong time constraints are prone to develop fast recovering strategies in order to metamorphose before conditions deteriorate. Understanding how organisms balance the cost and benefits of growth strategies may help in forecasting the impact of fluctuating environmental conditions on life-history strategies of populations likely to be exposed to increasing environmental variation in the future.

  • 21.
    Orizaola, Germán
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Quintela, María
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Climatic adaptation in an isolated and genetically impoverished amphibian population2010In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 730-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of populations to respond adaptively to environmental change is essential for their persistence. Isolated populations often harbour reduced genetic variation, which is predicted to decrease adaptive potential, and can be detrimental under the current scenarios of global change. In this study, we examined climatic adaptation in larval life history traits in the pool frog Rana lessonae along a latitudinal gradient across the northern distribution area of the species, paying special attention to the isolated and genetically impoverished fringe populations in central Sweden. Larvae from eight populations within three geographic areas (Poland, Latvia and Sweden) were reared under three temperatures (19, 22 and 26 degrees C) in a common garden laboratory experiment. We found clear evidence for latitudinal adaptation in R. lessonae populations, larvae from higher latitudes growing and developing faster than low-latitude ones. Larvae from the Swedish populations were able to compensate for the effects of cooler temperatures and a shorter growth season with genetically higher growth and development rates (i.e. countergradient variation) in the two higher temperature treatments, but there was no difference among the populations at the lowest temperature treatment, which is likely to be close to the temperature limiting growth in R. lessonae. Our results demonstrate that isolated and genetically impoverished populations can be locally adapted, and identify the Swedish fringe populations as a significant conservation unit adapted to the northern environmental conditions.

  • 22.
    Orizaola, Germán
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Valdés, Ana Elisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Redes Sociales para el Desarrollo Científico2015In: The Information and Scientific News Service (SINC)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Richter-Boix, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity links breeding phenology with offspring life-history2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 10, p. 2715-2722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of seasonal life-history events is assumed to evolve to synchronize life cycles with the availability of resources. Temporal variation in breeding time can have severe fitness consequences for the offspring, but the interplay between adult reproductive decisions and offspring phenotypes remains poorly understood. Transgenerational plasticity (TGP) is a potential mechanism allowing rapid responses to environmental change. Here, we investigated if experimentally delayed breeding induces TGP in larval life-history traits in the moor frog (Rana arvalis). We found clear evidence of TGP in response to changes in breeding phenology: delayed breeding increased offspring development and growth rates in the absence of external cues. This constitutes the first unequivocal evidence for TGP in response to changes in breeding phenology in vertebrates. TGP can play an important role in adjusting offspring life-history strategies to the environment they are most likely to encounter, and may constitute an important mechanism for coping with climate change.

  • 24. Tejedo, Miguel
    et al.
    Marangoni, Federico
    Pertoldi, Cino
    Richter-Boix, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Nicieza, Alfredo G.
    Alvarez, David
    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan
    Contrasting effects of environmental factors during larval stage on morphological plasticity in post-metamorphic frogs2010In: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 43, no 1-2, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In organisms with complex life cycles, environmentally induced plasticity across sequential stages can have important consequences on morphology and life history traits such as developmental and growth rates. However, previous research in amphibians and other ectothermic vertebrates suggests that some morphological traits are generally insensitive to environmental inductions. We conducted a literature survey to examine the allometric responses in relative hind leg length and head shape of post-metamorphic anuran amphibians to induced environmental (temperature, resource level, predation and desiccation risk) variation operating during the larval phase in 44 studies using 19 species. To estimate and compare plastic responses across studies, we employed both an index of plasticity and effect sizes from a meta-analysis. We found contrasting trait responses to different environmental cues. Higher temperatures increased development more than growth rate and induced smaller heads but not overall shifts in hind leg length. In contrast, an increment in resource availability increased growth more than development, with a parallel increase in hind leg length but no change in head shape. Increases in predation risk decreased both development and growth rates and slightly reduced relative hind leg length, but there was no change in head shape. Pond desiccation induced quick development and low growth rates, with no changes in morphology. Across environments, both hind leg and head shape plasticity were positively correlated with growth rate plasticity. However, plasticity of developmental rate was only correlated with head shape plasticity. Overall, these results suggest that environmental trends predicted by global warming projections, such as increasing pond temperature and accelerating pond desiccation, will significantly influence hind leg and head morphology in metamorphic frogs, which may affect performance and, ultimately, fitness.

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