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  • 1. Abarca-Gómez, L.
    et al.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Ezzati, M
    Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10113, p. 2627-2642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.

    METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).

    FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m(2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m(2) per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m(2) per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m(2) per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.

    INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.

  • 2.
    Andersén, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Berglund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Strengthened General Self-Efficacy with Multidisciplinary Vocational Rehabilitation in Women on Long-Term Sick Leave: A Randomised Controlled Trial2018In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To investigate the effects of two vocational rehabilitation interventions on self-efficacy, for women on long-term sick leave ≥ 1 year due to chronic pain and/or mental illness. Methods This study uses data from a randomised controlled trial consisting of two phases and comprising 401 women on long-term sick leave. They were allocated to either (1) a multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention (TEAM), (2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or (3) control group. Data were collected through repeated measurements from self-reported questionnaires before intervention, 6 and 12 months later and registry data. Data from measurements of general self-efficacy, sociodemographics, anxiety and depression were analysed with linear regression analyses. Results During the intervention period, the women in the TEAM group’s self-efficacy mean increased from 2.29 to 2.74. The adjusted linear regression model, which included group allocation, sociodemographics, self-efficacy pre-treatment, anxiety and depression showed increased self-efficacy for those in the TEAM intervention at 12 months (B = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.41). ACT intervention had no effect on self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.02, 95% CI − 0.16 to 0.19). The results in the adjusted model also showed that higher self-efficacy at pre-treatment was associated with a higher level of self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.81). Conclusion A multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention increased self-efficacy in women on sick leave for an extremely long time (mean 7.8 years) who had a low mean level of self-efficacy prior to inclusion. Thus, self-efficacy needs to be addressed in vocational rehabilitation.

  • 3.
    Andersén, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Univ Uppsala Hosp, ArbetsRehab Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Univ Uppsala Hosp, ArbetsRehab Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Predictors of self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave2015In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 320-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-efficacy has been shown to be related to sick leave and to be a predictor of return to work after sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether factors related to sick leave predict self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave because of pain and/or mental illness. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 337 Swedish women with pain and/or mental illness. All included women took part in vocational rehabilitation. Data were collected through a sick leave register and a baseline questionnaire. General self-efficacy, sociodemographics, self-rated health, anxiety, depression, view of the future, and social support were measured and analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. The full multivariate linear regression model, which included mental health factors together with all measured factors, showed that anxiety and depression were the only predictive factors of lower self-efficacy (adjusted R-2 = 0.46, P < 0.001) and explained 46% of the variance in self-efficacy. The mean scores of general self-efficacy were low, especially in women born abroad, those with low motivation, those with uncertainties about returning to work, and women reporting distrust. Anxiety and depression are important factors to consider when targeting self-efficacy in vocational rehabilitation.

  • 4. Bellavia, Andrea
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Orsini, Nicola
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Cannon, Christopher P
    Himmelmann, Anders
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Renlund, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Time-based measures of treatment effect: reassessment of ticagrelor and clopidogrel from the PLATO trial2017In: Open heart, E-ISSN 2053-3624, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e000557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Treatment effects to binary endpoints using time-to-event data in randomised controlled trials are typically summarised by reporting HRs derived with Cox proportional hazard models. Alternative and complementary methods include summarising the between-treatment differences on the metric time scale, quantifying the effect as delay of the event (DoE). The aim of this study was to reassess data from the PLATO study expressing the effects as the time by which the main outcomes are delayed or hastened due to treatment.

    METHODS: PLATO was a randomised controlled double-blind multicentre study (n=18,624), conducted between 2006 and 2008, which demonstrated superiority of the antiplatelet treatment ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing risk of several cardiovascular events. In the present study, four of the main PLATO outcomes were reassessed by calculating the time by which an event may be delayed due to the treatment.

    RESULTS: The effects of ticagrelor, as compared with clopidogrel, consisted of a substantial delay of the evaluated outcomes, ranging from 83 to 98 days over 400-day follow-up. The Delay of Events Curves showed that the effects progressively increased over time, and the significant findings were concordant with those presented in the original PLATO study.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed evidence of a beneficial effect of ticagrelor over clopidogrel, and provided the magnitude of such effects in terms of delayed event time. Investigating time-to-event data with a percentile approach allows presenting treatment effects from randomised controlled studies as absolute measures of the time by which an event may be delayed due to the treatment.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PLATO (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00391872); Results.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population2016In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.

  • 6.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Adherence to and beliefs in lipid-lowering medical treatments: A structural equation modeling approach including the necessity-concern framework2013In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    This study attempts to identify a structure among patient-related factors that could predict treatment adherence in statin patients, especially with regards to the necessity-concern framework.

    Methods

    414 Swedish patients using statins completed a questionnaire about their health, treatment, locus of control, perception of necessity-concern and adherence. The data were handled using a structural equation modeling approach.

    Results

    Patients that reported high perceptions of necessity to treatment seemed to adhere well, and side effects appear to affect adherence negatively. Disease burden, cardiovascular disease experience and high locus of control seem to have mediating effects on adherence.

    Conclusion

    This study provides support for the hypothesis that health- and treatment-related factors, as well as locus of control factors, are indirectly associated with treatment adherence via their association with mediating factor necessity.

    Practice implications:

    This study highlights the importance of considering patients' beliefsabout medications, disease burden, experience of cardiovascular events and locus of control as these factors are associated with adherence behavior to statin treatment. This study also emphasizes more generally the importance of an approach targeting necessity and concern when communicating with and treating patients with lipid-lowering medication. (

  • 7.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health and wellbeing in informal caregivers and non-caregivers: a comparative cross-sectional study of the Swedish a general population2015In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 13, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Informal caregiving by relatives is a great resource for individuals as well as for society, but the caregiving role is associated with health problems for the caregiver. This study aimed to compare caregivers' self-rated health, number of recent days with poor health and psychological wellbeing with that of non-caregivers in a general Swedish population. Methods: From 2004 to 2013, 90,845 Swedish people completed a postal questionnaire about their health, number of recent days with poor health during last month, psychological wellbeing and if they were performing caregiving or not. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, ANOVA, logistic regressions and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between being a caregiver or not and health and wellbeing. Negative binomial regression was used to assess the relation between caregiver status and recent days with poor health or functioning. Results: Eleven percent reported having a caregiving role. Caregivers reported poorer self-rated health compered to non-caregivers, also in adjusted models; odds ratio (OR): 1.07 with a 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.13. Caregivers also reported lower psychological wellbeing compared to non-caregivers; OR: 1.22, CI: 1.15-1.30. Caregiving status was associated with more recent days with poor physical health and more recent days with poor mental health. Conclusions: This study suggests that caregivers have worse perceptions in self-rated health and psychological wellbeing compared with non-caregivers, indicating that the role of caregiver is adversely associated with health. This association also appears in terms of reporting days of poor health in the last month. The underlying mechanism of these associations, including the potential detrimental health effects of being a caregiver, needs to be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    The influence of locus of control on self-rated health in context of chronic disease: a structural equation modeling approach in a cross sectional study2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 492-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-rated health is a robust predictor of several health outcomes, such as functional ability, health care utilization, morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate and explore how health locus of control and disease burden relate to self-rated health among patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods: In 2009, 414 Swedish patients who were using statins completed a questionnaire about their health, diseases and their views on the three-dimensional health locus of control scale. The scale determines which category of health locus of control - internal, chance or powerful others - a patient most identifies with. The data was analyzed using logistic regression and a structural equation modeling approach. Results: The analyses showed positive associations between internal health locus of control and self-rated health, and a negative association between health locus of control in chance and powerful others and self-rated health. High internal health locus of control was negatively associated with the cumulative burden of diseases, while health locus of control in chance and powerful others were positively associated with burden of diseases. In addition, age and education level had indirect associations with self-rated health through health locus of control. Conclusions: This study suggests that self-rated health is positively correlated with internal locus of control and negatively associated with high locus of control in chance and powerful others in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, disease burden seems to be negatively associated with self-rated health.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Housing Type and Neighbourhood Safety Behaviour Predicts Self-rated Health, Psychological Well-being and Frequency of Recent Unhealthy Days: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of the General Population in Sweden2017In: Planning practice + research, ISSN 0269-7459, E-ISSN 1360-0583, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 444-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at analysing associations among housing type, neighbourhood safety behaviour, self-rated health (SRH), psychological well-being and unhealthy days in the general population. From 2004 to 2013, 90,845 Swedes completed a questionnaire about their health, number of days with poor health, psychological well-being, housing type, and whether they refrained from going out based on perception of neighbourhood safety. People not living in private housing and those who did not go out for safety reasons reported lower SRH and psychological well-being and higher frequency of recent unhealthy days and days without work capacity due to poor health.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Social and health-related factors associated with refraining from seeking dental care: A cross-sectional population study2017In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 258-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social inequities are considered to affect healthcare utilization, whereas less is known about the factors associated with refraining from seeking dental care. This study aimed to investigate whether people with no social support, long-term illness, caregiver burden and low socioeconomic status (SES) refrained from seeking dental care in higher proportion than the general Swedish population.

    Methods: This study used cross-sectional questionnaire data from repeated nationwide health surveys during 2004-2013 of a total of 90 845 people. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, social support, long-term illness, caregiving burden, SES and dental care-seeking behaviour. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, correlation analyses and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between independent variables and dental care-seeking behaviour.

    Results: In the total sample, 15.1% of respondents reported refraining from seeking dental care. Having no emotional social support or having no instrumental social support was separately associated with reporting refraining from seeking dental care in adjusted multivariate models (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.34 and OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.67-2.13, respectively). Having a long-term illness was associated with refraining from seeking dental care in adjusted models (adjusted OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.35-1.51). Furthermore, being an informal caregiver was associated with refraining from seeking dental care (adjusted OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-1.23). Low SES was associated with higher refraining from seeking dental care; the strongest association was with having financial problems (adjusted OR: 3.57, 95% CI: 3.19-4.00). Interaction effects were found between education level and SES, and between social support and long-term illness, and the outcome.

    Conclusions: The findings in this study imply that having no social support, having long-term illness, being informal caregiver or having financial problems are factors associated with reporting refraining from seeking dental care, on a population basis.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Treatment effect expressed as the novel Delay of Event measure is associated with high willingness to initiate preventive treatment - A randomized survey experiment comparing effect measures2016In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 99, no 12, p. 2005-2011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate patients' willingness to initiate a preventive treatment and compared two established effect measures to the newly developed Delay of Events (DoE) measure that expresses treatment effect as a gain in event-free time. Methods: In this cross-sectional, randomized survey experiment in the general Swedish population, 1079 respondents (response rate 60.9%) were asked to consider a preventive cardiovascular treatment. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of three effect descriptions: DoE, relative risk reduction (RRR), or absolute risk reduction (ARR). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed investigating willingness to initiate treatment, views on treatment benefit, motivation and importance to adhere and willingness to pay for treatment. Results: Eighty-one percent were willing to take the medication when the effect was described as DoE, 83.0% when it was described as RRR and 62.8% when it was described as ARR. DoE and RRR was further associated with positive views on treatment benefit, motivation, importance to adhere and WTP. Conclusions: Presenting treatment effect as DoE or RRR was associated with a high willingness to initiate treatment. Practice implications: An approach based on the novel time-based measure DoE may be of value in clinical communication and shared decision making.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Wallman, Thorne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Gustavsson, Catharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.
    Motivation for return to work and actual return to work among people on long-term sick leave due to pain syndrome or mental health conditionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13. Danaei, Goodarz
    et al.
    Fahimi, Saman
    Lu, Yuan
    Zhou, Bin
    Hajifathalian, Kaveh
    Di Cesare, Mariachiara
    Lo, Wei-Cheng
    Reis-Santos, Barbara
    Cowan, Melanie J.
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Bentham, James
    Lin, John K.
    Bixby, Honor
    Magliano, Dianna
    Bovet, Pascal
    Miranda, J. Jaime
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
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    Fall, Caroline H.
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    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ma, Guansheng
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    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
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    Peykari, Niloofar
    Pilav, Aida
    Pitakaka, Freda
    Piwonska, Aleksandra
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    Plans-Rubio, Pedro
    Porta, Miquel
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    Pradeepa, Rajendra
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    Punab, Margus
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    Ramos, Rafel
    Rampal, Sanjay
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    Redon, Josep
    Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.
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    Robitaille, Cynthia
    Rodriguez, Laura A.
    Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando
    Rodriguez-Perez, Maria del Cristo
    Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba
    Romaguera, Dora
    Rosengren, Annika
    Rubinstein, Adolfo
    Rui, Ornelas
    Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra
    Rutkowski, Marcin
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    Sachdev, Harshpal S.
    Saidi, Olfa
    Sakarya, Sibel
    Salanave, Benoit
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    Salvetti, Massimo
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    Nunes, Renata
    Santos, Rute
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Scazufca, Marcia
    Schargrodsky, Herman
    Scheidt-Nave, Christa
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Shin, Youchan
    Shiri, Rahman
    Siantar, Rosalynn
    Sibai, Abla M.
    Simon, Mary
    Simons, Judith
    Simons, Leon A.
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta
    Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
    Smeeth, Liam
    Snijder, Marieke B.
    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Soumare, Aicha
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
    Stehle, Peter
    Stein, Aryeh D.
    Stessman, Jochanan
    Stockl, Doris
    Stokwiszewski, Jakub
    Strufaldi, Maria Wany
    Sun, Chien-An
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
    Sy, Rody G.
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Tarawneh, Mohammed
    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Tolstrup, Janne S.
    Topbas, Murat
    Torrent, Maties
    Traissac, Pierre
    Trinh, Oanh T. H.
    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.
    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka
    Turley, Maria L.
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Ueda, Peter
    Ukoli, Flora M.
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Valdivia, Gonzalo
    Van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
    Vanderschueren, Dirk
    Vanuzzo, Diego
    Vega, Tomas
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Verschuren, Monique
    Vioque, Jesus
    Virtanen, Jyrki
    Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
    Viswanathan, Bharathi
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Voutilainen, Sari
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Wagner, Aline
    Walton, Janette
    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan
    Wang, Ming-Dong
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    Weerasekera, Deepa
    Whincup, Peter H.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Wilks, Rainford J.
    Willeit, Johann
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Woo, Jean
    Woodward, Mark
    Wu, Aleksander Giwercman
    Wu, Frederick C.
    Wu, Shou Ling
    Xu, Haiquan
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    Ye, Xingwang
    Yoshihara, Akihiro
    Younger-Coleman, Novie O.
    Zambon, Sabina
    Zargar, Abdul Hamid
    Zdrojewski, Tomasz
    Zhao, Wenhua
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants2015In: LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, ISSN 2213-8587, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 624-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA(1c) (HbA(1c) >= 6 . 5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG >= 7 . 0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT >= 11 . 1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG- or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r= 0 . 98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA(1c) was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42 . 8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41 . 6%; in the other 15 . 6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA(1c)-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA(1c) 6 . 5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52 . 8% (95% CI 51 . 3-54 . 3%) and a pooled specificity of 99 . 74% (99 . 71-99 . 78%) compared with FPG 7 . 0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30 . 5% (28 . 7-32 . 3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA(1c) versus FPG. Interpretation Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA(1c)-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.

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    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
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    Univ Florence, Florence, Italy..
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    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
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    Natl Inst Hlth & Nutr, Tokyo 162, Japan..
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    Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
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    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
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    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
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    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
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    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
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    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Rio Grande, Mexico..
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    World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Giza, Egypt..
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    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France..
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    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
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    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
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    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Tunis, Tunisia..
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    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
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    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
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    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
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    Strasbourg Univ & Hosp, Strasbourg, France..
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    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
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    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
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    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
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    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
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    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
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    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
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    Univ Palermo, I-90133 Palermo, Italy..
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    Pan Amer Hlth Org, El Paso, TX USA..
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    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco..
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    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada..
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    BJ Med Coll, New Delhi, India..
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    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India..
    Chan, Angelique W.
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Chan, Queenie
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.
    Natl Inst Med Stat, New Delhi, India..
    Chaturvedi, Nishi
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Chen, Chien-Jen
    Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chen, Fangfang
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Huashuai
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27706 USA..
    Chen, Shuohua
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Zhengming
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Chetrit, Angela
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Chiolero, Arnaud
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Chiou, Shu-Ti
    Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chirita-Emandi, Adela
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Cho, Yumi
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Seoul, South Korea..
    Christensen, Kaare
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Chudek, Jerzy
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland..
    Cifkova, Renata
    Charles Univ Prague, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Claessens, Frank
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Louvain, Belgium..
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Concin, Hans
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria..
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England..
    Cooper, Rachel
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Coppinger, Tara C.
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland..
    Costanzo, Simona
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    Cottel, Dominique
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Cowell, Chris
    Westmead Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Craig, Cora L.
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Crujeiras, Ana B.
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain..
    D'Arrigo, Graziella
    CNR, Rome, Italy..
    d'Orsi, Eleonora
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Damasceno, Albertino
    Eduardo Mondlane Univ, Maputo, Mozambique..
    Damsgaard, Camilla T.
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Dankner, Rachel
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Dauchet, Luc
    Lille Univ Hosp, Lille, France..
    De Backer, Guy
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    de Gaetano, Giovanni
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    De Smedt, Delphine
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Deepa, Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Deev, Alexander D.
    Natl Res Ctr Prevent Med, Moscow, Russia..
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Delisle, Helene
    Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Delpeuch, Francis
    Inst Rech Dev, Lyon, France..
    Dhana, Klodian
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil..
    Diaz, Alejandro
    Natl Council Sci & Tech Res, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Do, Ha T. P.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Dobson, Annette J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Donfrancesco, Chiara
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Doering, Angela
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Doua, Kouamelan
    Minist Sante & Lutte Sida, Yamoussoukro, Cote Ivoire..
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Egbagbe, Eruke E.
    Univ Benin, Coll Med Sci, Benin, Nigeria..
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    El Ati, Jalila
    Natl Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Elliott, Paul
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Engle-Stone, Reina
    Univ Calif Davis, Davis, CA USA..
    Erasmus, Rajiv T.
    Univ Stellenbosch, ZA-7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Erem, Cihangir
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey..
    Eriksen, Louise
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Rio Grande, Mexico..
    Evans, Alun
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Faeh, David
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Fall, Caroline H.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.
    Ferguson, Trevor S.
    Univ W Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    Fernandez-Berges, Daniel
    Ferrante, Daniel
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Ferrari, Marika
    Council Agr Res & Econ, Rome, Italy..
    Ferreccio, Catterina
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France..
    Finn, Joseph D.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Fischer, Krista
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Monterubio Flores, Eric
    Inst Nacl Salud Publ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Foeger, Bernhard
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria..
    Foo, Leng Huat
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Shah Alam, Malaysia..
    Forslund, Ann-Sofie
    Univ Lulea, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Fortmann, Stephen P.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Fouad, Heba M.
    Francis, Damian K.
    Franco, Maria do Carmo
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Frontera, Guillermo
    Fuchs, Flavio D.
    Fuchs, Sandra C.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, BR-90046900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Fujita, Yuki
    Kinki Univ, Fac Med, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577, Japan..
    Furusawa, Takuro
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
    Gaciong, Zbigniew
    Med Univ Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland..
    Gafencu, Mihai
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Gareta, Dickman
    Garnett, Sarah P.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Gasull, Magda
    Gates, Louise
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Ghasemian, Anoosheh
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Gianfagna, Francesco
    Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy..
    Giovannelli, Jonathan
    Lille Univ Hosp, Lille, France..
    Giwercman, Aleksander
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Goldsmith, Rebecca A.
    Gonzalez Gross, Marcela
    Univ Politecn Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.
    Andes Clin Cardiometab Studies, Caracas, Venezuela..
    Bonet Gorbea, Mariano
    Natl Inst Hyg Epidemiol & Microbiol, Havana, Cuba..
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Univ Lille 2, F-59800 Lille, France..
    -Iversen, Sidsel Graff
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Grafnetter, Dusan
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Grajda, Aneta
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.
    Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Gregor, Ronald D.
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada..
    Grodzicki, Tomasz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Grontved, Anders
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Gruden, Grabriella
    Univ Turin, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Grujic, Vera
    Inst Publ Hlth Vojvodina, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Gu, Dongfeng
    Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Guan, Ong Peng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland..
    Guerrero, Ramiro
    Univ Icesi, Cali, Colombia..
    Guessous, Idris
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Guimaraes, Andre L.
    Gulliford, Martin C.
    Kings Coll London, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
    Guo, Xiu H.
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Yin
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, New Delhi, India..
    Gureje, Oye
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Gurzkowska, Beata
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Gutierrez, Laura
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Gutzwiller, Felix
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Hardy, Rebecca
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Kumar, Rachakulla Hari
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Hayes, Alison J.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Tulane Univ, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA..
    He, Jiang
    Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico..
    Heshmat, Ramin
    Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Ho, Sai Yin
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Ho, Suzanne C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Hobbs, Michael
    Univ Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia..
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Hormiga, Claudia M.
    Horta, Bernardo L.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil..
    Houti, Leila
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria..
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Htike, Maung Maung Than
    Minist Hlth, Naypyidaw, Myanmar..
    Hu, Yonghua
    Peking Univ, Hlth Sci Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Hussieni, Abdullatif S.
    Birzeit Univ, Bir Zayt, Israel..
    Huu, Chinh Nguyen
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France..
    Hwalla, Nahla
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Iacoviello, Licia
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Rome, Italy..
    Iannone, Anna G.
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy..
    Ibrahim, M. Mohsen
    Cairo Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Irazola, Vilma E.
    Islam, Muhammad
    Aga Khan Univ, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Iwasaki, Masanori
    Niigata Univ, Niigata 95021, Japan..
    Jackson, Rod T.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Jacobs, Jeremy M.
    Hadassah Univ, Med Ctr, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Jafar, Tazeen
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Jamil, Kazi M.
    Kuwait Inst Scientifi c Res, Kuwait, Kuwait..
    Jamrozik, Konrad
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Jasienska, Grazyna
    Jiang, Chao Qiang
    Guangzhou 12th Hosp, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Joffres, Michel
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada..
    Johansson, Mattias
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Joshi, Pradeep
    World Hlth Org Country Off, New Delhi, India..
    Juolevi, Anne
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Espoo, Finland..
    Jurak, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana 61000, Slovenia..
    Juresa, Vesna
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    German Canc Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece..
    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Kapantais, Efthymios
    Hellen Med Assoc Obes, Iraklion, Greece..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Katz, Joanne
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Kaur, Prabhdeep
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Keil, Ulrich
    Univ Munster, Munster, Germany..
    Boker, Lital Keinan
    Univ Haifa, IL-31999 Haifa, Israel..
    Kelishadi, Roya
    Kemper, Han H. C. G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kengne, Andre P.
    South African Med Res Council, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Res Inst Child Nutr FKE, Munich, Germany..
    Key, Timothy
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Amman, Jordan..
    Khalili, Davood
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Khaw, Kay-Tee H.
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Khouw, Ilse M. S. L.
    FrieslandCampina, Singapore, Singapore..
    Kiechl, Stefan
    Med Univ Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Killewo, Japhet
    Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Tanza, Tanzania..
    Kim, Jeongseon
    Natl Canc Ctr, Seoul, South Korea..
    Kiyohara, Yutaka
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka 812, Japan..
    Klimont, Jeannette
    Stat Austria, Vienna, Austria..
    Kolle, Elin
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    Inst Trop Med, Brussels, Belgium..
    Korrovits, Paul
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia..
    Koskinen, Seppo
    Kouda, Katsuyasu
    Kinki Univ, Fac Med, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577, Japan..
    Koziel, Slawomir
    Polish Acad Sci, Anthropol Unit, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Kratzer, Wolfgang
    Univ Hosp Ulm, Ulm, Germany..
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Oslo, Norway..
    Kromhout, Daan
    Wageningen Univ, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kruger, Herculina S.
    North West Univ, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kula, Krzysztof
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Kulaga, Zbigniew
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Kumar, R. Krishna
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Kochi, India..
    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi 110029, India..
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco..
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lachat, Carl
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Laid, Youcef
    Lam, Tai Hing
    Landrove, Orlando
    Lanska, Vera
    Lappas, Georg
    Sahlgrens Acad, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laugsand, Lars E.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Oslo, Norway..
    Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen
    Le, Tuyen D.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Leclercq, Catherine
    Food & Agr Org, Rome, Italy..
    Lee, Jeannette
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore..
    Lee, Jeonghee
    Natl Canc Ctr, Seoul, South Korea..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland..
    Lekhraj, Rampal
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia..
    Leon-Munoz, Luz M.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Lim, Wei-Yen
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore..
    Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Lin, Xu
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Linneberg, Allan
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Lissner, Lauren
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Litwin, Mieczyslaw
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Lodz, Poland..
    Liu, Jing
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Anzhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lorbeer, Roberto
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Eugenio Lozano, Jose
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta Castilla & Leon, Leon, Spain..
    Luksiene, Dalia
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Tampere, Finland..
    Lunet, Nuno
    Univ Porto, Sch Med, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ma, Guansheng
    Peking Univ, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Machi, Suka
    Jikei Univ, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan..
    Maggi, Stefania
    CNR, Pisa, Italy..
    Magliano, Dianna J.
    Baker IDI Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Makdisse, Marcia
    Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Malhotra, Rahul
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio Univ Athens, Athens, Greece..
    Mann, Jim I.
    Univ Otago, Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan..
    Manzato, Enzo
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Margozzini, Paula
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile..
    Markey, Oonagh
    Univ Reading, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England..
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Marrugat, Jaume
    Martin-Prevel, Yves
    Inst Rech Dev, Lyon, France..
    Martorell, Reynaldo
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Masoodi, Shariq R.
    Sherikashmir Inst Med Sci, Jammu, India..
    Matsha, Tandi E.
    Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Mazur, Artur
    Univ Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland..
    Mbanya, Jean Claude N.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    McFarlane, Shelly R.
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    McLachlan, Stela
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian, Scotland..
    McLean, Rachael M.
    McNulty, Breige A.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland..
    Yusof, Safiah Md
    Univ Teknol MARA, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia
    Meirhaeghe, Aline
    Meisinger, Christa
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Mendes, Larissa L.
    Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Juiz De Fora, Brazil..
    Menezes, Ana Maria B.
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Meshram, Indrapal I.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Mi, Jie
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Michaelsen, Kim F.
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Mikkel, Kairit
    Univ Tartu, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Miller, Jody C.
    Francisco Miquel, Juan
    Jaime Miranda, J.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Mohamed, Mostafa K.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Mohammad, Kazem
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Esfahan, Iran..
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd
    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Molbo, Drude
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Moller, Niels C.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Molnar, Denes
    Univ Pecs, Pecs, Hungary..
    Mondo, Charles K.
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda..
    Monterrubio, Eric A.
    Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.
    Univ Limpopo, Limpopo, South Africa..
    Moreira, Leila B.
    Morejon, Alain
    Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba..
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain..
    Morgan, Karen
    RCSI Dublin, Dublin, Ireland..
    Mortensen, Erik Lykke
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Moschonis, George
    Harokopio Univ Athens, Athens, Greece..
    Mossakowska, Malgorzata
    Mota, Jorge
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Motta, Jorge
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama..
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza
    Univ Brescia, I-25121 Brescia, Italy..
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Murphy, Neil
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Mursu, Jaakko
    Univ Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland..
    Murtagh, Elaine M.
    Mary Immaculate Coll, Limerick, Ireland..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Kota Baharu, Malaysia..
    Musil, Vera
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Univ Ulm, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Nakamura, Harunobu
    Namesna, Jana
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia..
    Nang, Ei Ei K.
    Nangia, Vinay B.
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nankap, Martin
    Helen Keller Int, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Narake, Sameer
    Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva
    Nenko, Ilona
    Neovius, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nervi, Flavio
    Neuhauser, Hannelore K.
    Nguyen, Nguyen D.
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam..
    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc
    Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.
    Ning, Guang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Ninomiya, Toshiharu
    Nishtar, Sania
    Heartfile, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Noale, Marianna
    Norat, Teresa
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Noto, Davide
    Univ Palermo, I-90133 Palermo, Italy..
    Al Nsour, Mohannad
    Eastern Mediterranean Publ Hlth Network, Amman, Jordan..
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.
    Univ Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador..
    Oh, Kyungwon
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Seoul, South Korea..
    Olayan, Iman H.
    Kuwait Inst Sci Res, Kuwait, Kuwait..
    Anselmo Olinto, Maria Teresa
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil..
    Oltarzewski, Maciej
    Omar, Mohd A.
    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Ordunez, Pedro
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, El Paso, TX USA..
    Ortiz, Ana P.
    Univ Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR USA..
    Osler, Merete
    Osmond, Clive
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England..
    Ostojic, Sergej M.
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia..
    Otero, Johanna A.
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Paccaud, Fred Michel
    Padez, Cristina
    Univ Coimbra, P-3000 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Palli, Domenico
    Palloni, Alberto
    Univ Madison Wisconsin, Madison, WI USA..
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Panza, Francesco
    Univ Bari, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Parnell, Winsome R.
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Pednekar, Mangesh S.
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Peixoto, Sergio Viana
    Pereira, Alexandre C.
    Heart Inst InCor, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Perez, Cynthia M.
    Peters, Annette
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Pham, Son Thai
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Leibniz, Germany..
    Pikhart, Hynek
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Pilav, Aida
    Fed Minist Hlth, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herceg..
    Pilotto, Lorenza
    Pistelli, Francesco
    Univ Hosp Pisa, Pisa, Italy..
    Pitakaka, Freda
    Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Piwonska, Aleksandra
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Piwonski, Jerzy
    Plans-Rubio, Pedro
    Poh, Bee Koon
    Publ Hlth Agcy Catalonia, Catalonia, Spain..
    Porta, Miquel
    Portegies, Marileen L. P.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios
    Pradeepa, Rajendra
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Prashant, Mathur
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Price, Jacqueline F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Puiu, Maria
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm, Cluj Napoca, Romania..
    Punab, Margus
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia..
    Qasrawi, Radwan F.
    Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Golestan, Iran..
    Bao, Tran Quoc
    Radic, Ivana
    Inst Publ Hlth Vojvodina, Vojvodina, Serbia..
    Radisauskas, Ricardas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Rahman, Mahmudur
    Inst Epidemiol Dis Control & Res, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Raitakari, Olli
    Turku Univ Hosp, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Raj, Manu
    Rao, Sudha Ramachandra
    Ramachandran, Ambady
    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India..
    Ramke, Jacqueline
    Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Ramos, Rafel
    Rampal, Sanjay
    Univ Malaya, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Redon, Josep
    Univ Valencia, E-46003 Valencia, Spain..
    Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines..
    Ribeiro, Robespierre
    Riboli, Elio
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Rigo, Fernando
    Hlth Ctr San Agustin, Madrid, Spain..
    de Wit, Tobias Floris Rinke
    PharmAccess Fdn, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Robinson, Sian M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England..
    Robitaille, Cynthia
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria
    Canarian Hlth Serv, Madrid, Spain..
    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.
    Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Colombia..
    Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba
    Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Romaguera, Dora
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain..
    Ronkainen, Kimmo
    Rosengren, Annika
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rouse, Ian
    Fiji Natl Univ, Nasinu, Fiji..
    Rubinstein, Adolfo
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Ruehli, Frank J.
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Rui, Ornelas
    Univ Madeira, Funchal, Portugal..
    Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Rio Grande, Mexico..
    Russo Horimoto, Andrea R. V.
    Rutkowski, Marcin
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Sabanayagam, Charumathi
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sachdev, Harshpal S.
    Sitaram Bhartia Inst Sci & Res, New Delhi, India..
    Saidi, Olfa
    Fac Med Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Salanave, Benoit
    French Inst Hlth Surveillance, Lyon, France..
    Salazar Martinez, Eduardo
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Salonen, Jukka T.
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Salvetti, Massimo
    Univ Brescia, I-25121 Brescia, Italy..
    Sanchez-Abanto, Jose
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Sandjaja,
    Sans, Susana
    Catalan Dept Hlth, Madrid, Spain..
    Santos, Diana A.
    Univ Lisbon, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Santos, Osvaldo
    dos Santos, Renata Nunes
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, Rute
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Univ Lisbon, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Saum, Kai-Uwe
    German Canc Res Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Savva, Savvas C.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Nicosia, Cyprus..
    Scazufca, Marcia
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath
    Schargrodsky, Herman
    Hosp Italiano Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Schienkiewitz, Anja
    Schmidt, Ida Maria
    Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Schneider, Ione J.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schultsz, Constance
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    MRC North West Univ, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Minist Hlth, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Senbanjo, Idowu O.
    Lagos State Univ, Coll Med, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shalnova, Svetlana A.
    Natl Res Ctr Prevent Med, Moscow, Russia..
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo 1138654, Japan..
    Shin, Youchan
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Espoo, Finland..
    Siantar, Rosalynn
    Sibai, Abla M.
    Silva, Antonio M.
    Univ Fed Maranhao, Sao Luis, Brazil.;Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Simon, Mary
    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India..
    Simons, Judith
    St Vincents Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Simons, Leon A.
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
    Smeeth, Liam
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Smith, Margaret C.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Snijder, Marieke B.
    So, Hung-Kwan
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Soekatri, Moesijanti Y. E.
    Hlth Polytech Inst, Bandung, Indonesia..
    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
    Univ Bari, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Soric, Maroje
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Jerome, Charles Sossa
    Soumare, Aicha
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Starc, Gregor
    Stathopoulou, Maria G.
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Staub, Kaspar
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Stavreski, Bill
    Heart Fdn, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Stehle, Peter
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany..
    Stein, Aryeh D.
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Stergiou, George S.
    Sotiria Hosp, Athina, Greece..
    Stessman, Jochanan
    Stieber, Jutta
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Stoeckl, Doris
    Helmholtz Zentrum mUNCHEN, Munich, Germany..
    Stocks, Tanja
    Stokwiszewski, Jakub
    Natl Inst Hyg, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Warsaw, Poland..
    Stratton, Gareth
    Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Strufaldi, Maria Wany
    Sun, Chien-An
    Fu Jen Catholic Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sung, Yn-Tz
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Madrid, Spain..
    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Swinburn, Boyd A.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Sy, Rody G.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines..
    Szponar, Lucjan
    Natl Food & Nutr Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore..
    Tammesoo, Mari-Liis
    Univ Tartu, Ulikooli 18, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia..
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Tang, Line
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Odense, Denmark..
    Tang, Xun
    Peking Univ, Hlth Sci Ctr, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Tanser, Frank
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Tao, Yong
    Peking Univ, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Tarp, Jakob
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Taylor, Anne
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Tchibindat, Felicite
    UNICEF, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Odense, Denmark..
    Tolonen, Hanna K.
    Tolstrup, Janne S.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Topbas, Murat
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Ankara, Turkey..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Torrent, Maties
    Traissac, Pierre
    Inst Rech Dev, Lyon, France..
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Trinh, Oanh T. H.
    Trivedi, Atul
    Govt Med Coll, New Delhi, India..
    Tshepo, Lechaba
    Sefako Makgatho Hlth Sci Univ, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.
    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Dasman Diabet Inst, Kuwait, Kuwait. Minist Hlth, Hamilton, New Zealand..
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tzotzas, Themistoklis
    Hellen Med Assoc Obes, Athens, Greece..
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Ueda, Peter
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ukoli, Flora A. M.
    Meharry Med Coll, Nashville, TN USA..
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Med Univ Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Unal, Belgin
    Dokuz Eylul Univ, TR-35210 Alsancak, Turkey..
    Valdivia, Gonzalo
    Vale, Susana
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Valvi, Damaskini
    Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Van Herck, Koen
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Minh, Hoang Van
    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vanderschueren, Dirk
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Louvain, Belgium..
    Vanuzzo, Diego
    Ctr Prevenz Cardiovasc Udine, Udine, Italy..
    Vatten, Lars
    Vega, Tomas
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy..
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Viegi, Giovanni
    Viet, Lucie
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Viikari-Juntura, Eira
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Vineis, Paolo
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, London, England..
    Vioque, Jesus
    Univ Miguel Hernandez, Madrid, Spain..
    Virtanen, Jyrki K.
    Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Viswanathan, Bharathi
    Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles..
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Voutilainen, Sari
    Vrijheid, Martine
    Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Madrid, Spain..
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Wagner, Aline
    Univ Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France..
    Walton, Janette
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan
    Inst Med Res, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Wang, Ming-Dong
    Wang, Qian
    Xinjiang Med Univ, Xinjiang, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Beijing Tongren Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Weerasekera, Deepa
    Minist Hlth, Hamilton, New Zealand..
    Whincup, Peter H.
    Univ London, London WC1E 7HU, England..
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Med Univ Vienna, Vienna, Austria..
    Widyahening, Indah S.
    Univ Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia..
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland..
    Wilks, Rainford J.
    Willeit, Johann
    Med Univ Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Wong, Jyh Eiin
    Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia..
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Duke NUS Grad Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Woo, Jean
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Woodward, Mark
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Wu, Frederick C.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Wu, JianFeng
    Shandong Univ Tradit Chinese Med, Jinan, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Shou Ling
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Haiquan
    Minist Agr, Inst Food & Nutr Dev, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Liang
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yamborisut, Uruwan
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Yan, Weili
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yardim, Nazan
    Minist Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Ye, Xingwang
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.
    Cyprus Univ Technol, Limassol, Cyprus..
    Yoshihara, Akihiro
    Niigata Univ, Niigata 95021, Japan..
    You, Qi Sheng
    Younger-Coleman, Novie O.
    Yusoff, Ahmad F.
    Minist Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Zainuddin, Ahmad A.
    Univ Teknol MARA, Serdang, Malaysia..
    Zambon, Sabina
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Zdrojewski, Tomasz
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Zeng, Yi
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27706 USA.;Peking Univ, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Dong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Anzhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Wenhua
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Dan
    Inner Mongolia Med Univ, Inner Mongolia, Peoples R China..
    Zimmermann, Esther
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Zuniga Cisneros, Julio
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama..
    Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10026, p. 1377-1396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries.

    Methods We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18.5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18.5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), = 40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue.

    Findings We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19.2 million adult participants (9.9 million men and 9.3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21.7 kg/m(2) (95% credible interval 21.3-22.1) in 1975 to 24.2 kg/m(2) (24.0-24.4) in 2014 in men, and from 22.1 kg/m(2) (21.7-22.5) in 1975 to 24.4 kg/m(2) (24.2-24.6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21.4 kg/m(2) in central Africa and south Asia to 29.2 kg/m(2) (28.6-29.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21.8 kg/m(2) (21.4-22.3) in south Asia to 32.2 kg/m(2) (31.5-32.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13.8% (10.5-17.4) to 8.8% (7.4-10.3) in men and from 14.6% (11.6-17.9) to 9.7% (8.3-11.1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23.4% (17.8-29.2) in men and 24.0% (18.9-29.3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3.2% (2.4-4.1) in 1975 to 10.8% (9.7-12.0) in 2014 in men, and from 6.4% (5.1-7.8) to 14.9% (13.6-16.1) in women. 2.3% (2.0-2.7) of the world's men and 5.0% (4.4-5.6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI = 35 kg/m(2)). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0.64% (0.46-0.86) in men and 1.6% (1.3-1.9) in women.

    Interpretation If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world's poorest regions, especially in south Asia.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Restart - Return To Work After Long-tem Sickness Absence From Work: A Quasi-experimental Study2010In: WebmedCentral REHABILITATION, ISSN 2046-1690, Vol. 1, no 12, p. WMC001209-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with long-term sickness absence due to diffuse health problems are difficult to rehabilitate back to work. In this quasi-experimental study 48 individuals with time-limited sickness benefit were recruited to a return to work (RTW) project. The intervention group (30) participated in a 12-month programme based on a cognitive approach with the aim of strengthening the individuals’ self-esteem and empowerment. The reference group (18) received rehabilitation as usual. Methods: Evaluation methods used for the study group were self-reported questionnaires at baseline, before intervention and at follow-up after 1 year. Results: One year after the intervention 27% had returned to full or part-time work and yet another 10% were in work training and 13% in rehabilitation/treatment with an optimistic back to work prognosis. In the reference group only 1 person had partially (25%) returned to work. Subjectively rated health (SRH) and sleep quality improved following the intervention. MADRS scores decreased during the year for the intervention group. The results support the idea that return to work is an important contributor to better self-perceived mental health for people who have been outside the labour market for a long time. Conclusion: The project shows that long-term sickness absence due to diffuse and subjective health problems is not a permanent condition even in participants with substantial work absences periods. In addition, the importance of structured co-operation between the authorities and the project leaders is supported by previous research.

  • 16. Ingrid, Anderzén
    et al.
    Bravo, Kerstin
    Finnes, Anna
    Lundéen, Carina
    Toreberg, Eva
    Åbrink, Annika
    Molin, Linnea
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vitalis – Back to Life, Back to Work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    James, Stefan K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Bellavia, Andrea
    Orsini, Nicola
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Cannon, Christopher
    Harrington, Robert
    Himmelmann, Anders
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Renlund, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Time Based Measures Of Treatment Effect: Reassessment Of Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel In The Plato Study2016In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 67, no 13, p. 548-548Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Creating falseness - How to establish statistical evidence of the untrue2017In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 923-927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Null hypothesis significance testing is the typical statistical approach in search of the truthfulness of hypotheses. This method does not formally consider the prior credence in the hypothesis, which affects the chances of reaching correct conclusions. When scientifically implausible or empirically weakly supported hypotheses are tested, there is an increased risk that a positive finding in a test in fact is false positive. This article argues that when scientifically weakly supported hypotheses are tested repeatedlysuch as when studying the clinical effects of homeopathythe accumulation of false positive study findings will risk providing false evidence also in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. False positive findings are detrimental to science and society, as once published, they accumulate persistent untrue evidence, which risks giving rise to nonpurposive research programmes, policy changes, and promotion of ineffective treatments. The problems with false positive findings are discussed, and advice is given on how to minimize the problem. The standard of evidence of a hypothesis should depend not only on the results of statistical analyses but also on its a priori support. Positive findings from studies investigating hypotheses with poor theoretical and empirical foundations should be viewed as tentative until the results are replicated and/or the hypothesis gains more empirical evidence supporting it as likely to be true.

  • 19.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Någonting är sjukt2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Power of the Pill: Views about Cardiovascular Risk and the Risk-reducing Effect of Statins2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical treatments with statins are prescribed to patients with increased risk of cardiovascular events. The benefits from statin treatment are well documented in clinical trials, but long-term adherence in patients is low, indicating that patients have an uncertainty about the necessity and benefits of treatment.

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate how patients and doctors view different aspects of statin treatment. Further aims were to investigate if the cardiovascular risk level in patients affects their views about different aspects of statin treatment. Yet further aims were to compare health behaviours and views about risk factors in patients using statins to a non-treated population.

    Data was obtained from patients (n = 829), doctors (n = 330) and a population sample (n = 720) using postal questionnaires. Views about the effect of statin treatment were assessed in different ways for patients and doctors. Patients based their assessments on their own situation, and doctors’ treatment decisions and assessments of anticipated effect of treatment were based on two hypothetical patient cases.

    The results indicate that patients greatly overestimate the general effect of statins, compared to efficacy results reported from clinical trials. Patients’ previous coronary heart disease or high overall risk were factors not associated with their views and expectations of treatment effect. Statin users with an internally perceived health control and patients satisfied with their doctor’s treatment explanation reported higher beliefs in treatment necessity and benefits. Statin users reported having better health behaviours and generally rated risk factors as more important than the non-treated population. Doctors had suboptimal understanding of the number of patients expected to benefit following five years of statin treatment and had a varying understanding of statins’ ability to prolong life.

    Overall the results illustrate that patients and doctors have different perspectives and views of the benefits from statin treatment which puts emphasis on how statin treatment is discussed in the clinical setting.

    List of papers
    1. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Assessments and Health Behaviours in Patients Using Statins Compared to a Non-Treated Population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiovascular Risk Factor Assessments and Health Behaviours in Patients Using Statins Compared to a Non-Treated Population
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The perception of cardiovascular risk factors is believed to be associated with a person's willingness to carry out lifestyle changes as well as their willingness to adhere to prescribed preventive medications. Little is known about whether these perceptions differ between statin users and those not using statins, including how these factors relate to health behaviours.

    PURPOSE

    The objective was to investigate and compare the perceptions of known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients using statins with those of a non-treated population. One further objective was to investigate if statin use was associated with favourable health behaviours.

    METHOD

    Data about health, perception of the importance of cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours were collected through questionnaires from 829 statin users and 629 non-statin users. Beliefs about risk factors were compared in univariate analyses, and four health behaviours were compared in multivariate regression models.

    RESULTS

    Statin users had better health behaviours in univariate analyses compared to non-statin users. Statin users rated lifestyle-related risk factors as more important contributors for the development of cardiovascular disease than non-statin users. In a multivariate model, statin use was associated with having better eating habits.

    CONCLUSION

    People using statins are more concerned about cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-statin users. The behaviour of taking statins seems to be associated with favourable eating habits.

    Keywords
    risk factor, risk perception, health behaviours, statin treatment
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122137 (URN)10.1007/s12529-011-9157-6 (DOI)000304399500002 ()21494820 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-04-06 Created: 2010-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Patient expectations on lipid-lowering drugs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient expectations on lipid-lowering drugs
    2007 (English)In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 67, no 1-2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to assess expectations of effect when using statins in a treatment population. Further the aim was to examine factors, including history and concurrent risk of coronary heart disease, associated with a higher and lower treatment belief.

    Methods

    Eight hundred and twenty-nine (829) Swedish patients using statins completed postal questionnaires about their health, life style, cardiovascular risk factors and expectation of the treatment. Expected treatment benefit was used as outcome measurement.

    Results

    A medical history of coronary heart disease did not affect treatment expectations. Patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease reported a slightly lower expectation of the treatment effect at a 10-year perspective (p<0.01) but not at shorter time perspectives. Low satisfaction with the explanation of the purpose of the treatment and a poor perceived control of own health was associated with a more negative view on treatment benefit.

    Conclusion

    The rationale applied by physicians prescribing statins does not seem to relate to the patients’ expectations, whereas factors relating to the patient–physician relationship, the social situation and the perceived control of health seem to affect patient belief.

    Practice implications

    The association between patients’ poor satisfaction of treatment explanation and a low belief in treatment benefits emphasizes the importance of the patient–physician communication. It is suggested that clinical tools are developed in order to identify patients with poor belief in treatment benefit since tailored education for this group might reduce the risk of non-compliance and subsequently reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

    Keywords
    (MeSH), Cholesterol, Patient expectations, Prevention, Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-11270 (URN)10.1016/j.pec.2007.03.004 (DOI)000248014200020 ()17433602 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2007-08-21 Created: 2007-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Views on Treatment Necessity, Harm, and Benefits in Patients Using Statins
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Views on Treatment Necessity, Harm, and Benefits in Patients Using Statins
    2010 (English)In: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681X, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 594-609Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Patients with dyslipidemia and high overall risk of ischemic heart disease are those most likely to benefit from treatment with statins. The objective of this study was to investigate patients' views of the necessity, harm, and expected benefits of their statin treatment, as well as factors associated with these treatment beliefs. One main objective was to investigate whether cardiovascular risk level and previous coronary heart disease affect the way patients view these different aspects of their medication.

    METHODS

    A total of 829 statin users were recruited while visiting a pharmacy to collect their statin medication (response rate, 69.4%). Patients returned a questionnaire assessing their medical history, concurrent risk status, social demographic factors, as well as their views and expectations regarding their statin treatment. RESULTS: Previous ischemic heart disease, or high risk of such disease, was not associated with a more favorable notion on statin treatment. Having an internal health locus of control as well as being satisfied with the physician's treatment explanation were factors associated with more positive views on expected treatment effect. The views on necessity, harm, and treatment benefit were closely associated with each other.

    CONCLUSION

    The main findings in this study suggest that cardiovascular risk level and previous coronary heart disease are not associated with the way patients value potential benefits of statin treatment. Patients' views of the treatment's necessity, harm, and benefits do not seem to be independent dimensions of patient beliefs but rather represent one overall question: is this good for me?

    Keywords
    Statins, prevention, patient expectations, patient views, cardiovascular risk
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112924 (URN)10.1177/0272989X09353196 (DOI)000283174800012 ()20008151 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-01-22 Created: 2010-01-22 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. How do prescribing doctors anticipate the effect of statins?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do prescribing doctors anticipate the effect of statins?
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 420-428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    Statins are a lipid-lowering treatment, prescribed frequently to prevent cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to explore how doctors anticipate the effect of statins and what factors are associated with their willingness to initiate treatment.

    Methods:

    A total of 330 Swedish cardiologists, internists and general practitioners were asked to consider two hypothetical patient cases, one with and one without previous coronary heart disease. Based on these cases, the respondents answered questions about their willingness to initiate treatment and what effects they might expect. The expectation of effect was assessed in two ways: (1) the absolute risk reduction of myocardial infarction in 1000 patients treated with statins for 5 years; and (2) statins' average effect on increased life expectancy. The doctors' beliefs about absolute risk reduction were compared with results from clinical trials.

    Results:

    Most doctors had a suboptimal expectation about absolute risk reduction; only about one-third had expectations in the range supported by evidence-based data. There were different views about statins' ability to prolong life: that is, average gain in life expectancy due to treatment was believed to be 2 years in the primary patient case, and 3 years in the second patient case. The doctors' beliefs about statins' ability to prolong life were associated significantly with their willingness to initiate treatment.

    Conclusion:

    The overall results imply that doctors have varying and suboptimal understanding of the effect of statins. This may inhibit the goal of integrating clinical research into clinical practice.

    Keywords
    absolute risk reduction, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, doctors, prevention. statins, treatment expectations
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122139 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01442.x (DOI)000290581000002 ()20545813 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-04-06 Created: 2010-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 21.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Andersen, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Liljestam Hurtigh, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Kams, Piret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Vitalis: A randomized intervention and coordination program aimed at Return to Work for women with long term sick leave2014Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    A proposal for an additional clinical trial outcome measure assessing preventive effect as delay of events2012In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 903-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many effect measures used in clinical trials are problematic because they are differentially understood by patients and physicians. The emergence of novel methods such as accelerated failure-time models and quantile regression has shifted the focus of effect measurement from probability measures to time-to-event measures. Such modeling techniques are rapidly evolving, but matching non-parametric descriptive measures are lacking. We propose such a measure, the delay of events, demonstrating treatment effect as a gain in event-free time. We believe this measure to be of value for shared clinical decision-making. The rationale behind the measure is given, and it is conceptually explained using the Kaplan–Meier estimate and the quantile regression framework. A formula for calculation of the delay of events is given. Hypothetical and empirical examples are used to demonstrate the measure. The measure is discussed in relation to other measures highlighting the time effects of preventive treatments. There is a need to further investigate the properties of the measure as well as its role in clinical decision-making.

  • 23.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Cardiovascular Risk Factor Assessments and Health Behaviours in Patients Using Statins Compared to a Non-Treated Population2012In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The perception of cardiovascular risk factors is believed to be associated with a person's willingness to carry out lifestyle changes as well as their willingness to adhere to prescribed preventive medications. Little is known about whether these perceptions differ between statin users and those not using statins, including how these factors relate to health behaviours.

    PURPOSE

    The objective was to investigate and compare the perceptions of known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients using statins with those of a non-treated population. One further objective was to investigate if statin use was associated with favourable health behaviours.

    METHOD

    Data about health, perception of the importance of cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviours were collected through questionnaires from 829 statin users and 629 non-statin users. Beliefs about risk factors were compared in univariate analyses, and four health behaviours were compared in multivariate regression models.

    RESULTS

    Statin users had better health behaviours in univariate analyses compared to non-statin users. Statin users rated lifestyle-related risk factors as more important contributors for the development of cardiovascular disease than non-statin users. In a multivariate model, statin use was associated with having better eating habits.

    CONCLUSION

    People using statins are more concerned about cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-statin users. The behaviour of taking statins seems to be associated with favourable eating habits.

  • 24.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Doctors anticipation of statins' effect on life length2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    How do prescribing doctors anticipate the effect of statins?2011In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 420-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    Statins are a lipid-lowering treatment, prescribed frequently to prevent cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to explore how doctors anticipate the effect of statins and what factors are associated with their willingness to initiate treatment.

    Methods:

    A total of 330 Swedish cardiologists, internists and general practitioners were asked to consider two hypothetical patient cases, one with and one without previous coronary heart disease. Based on these cases, the respondents answered questions about their willingness to initiate treatment and what effects they might expect. The expectation of effect was assessed in two ways: (1) the absolute risk reduction of myocardial infarction in 1000 patients treated with statins for 5 years; and (2) statins' average effect on increased life expectancy. The doctors' beliefs about absolute risk reduction were compared with results from clinical trials.

    Results:

    Most doctors had a suboptimal expectation about absolute risk reduction; only about one-third had expectations in the range supported by evidence-based data. There were different views about statins' ability to prolong life: that is, average gain in life expectancy due to treatment was believed to be 2 years in the primary patient case, and 3 years in the second patient case. The doctors' beliefs about statins' ability to prolong life were associated significantly with their willingness to initiate treatment.

    Conclusion:

    The overall results imply that doctors have varying and suboptimal understanding of the effect of statins. This may inhibit the goal of integrating clinical research into clinical practice.

  • 26.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Kardiovaskulär risk påverkar ej patienters förväntningar på  blodfettssänkande behandling.2007In: Svenska läkaresällskapets handlingar 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Views on Treatment Necessity, Harm, and Benefits in Patients Using Statins2010In: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681X, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 594-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Patients with dyslipidemia and high overall risk of ischemic heart disease are those most likely to benefit from treatment with statins. The objective of this study was to investigate patients' views of the necessity, harm, and expected benefits of their statin treatment, as well as factors associated with these treatment beliefs. One main objective was to investigate whether cardiovascular risk level and previous coronary heart disease affect the way patients view these different aspects of their medication.

    METHODS

    A total of 829 statin users were recruited while visiting a pharmacy to collect their statin medication (response rate, 69.4%). Patients returned a questionnaire assessing their medical history, concurrent risk status, social demographic factors, as well as their views and expectations regarding their statin treatment. RESULTS: Previous ischemic heart disease, or high risk of such disease, was not associated with a more favorable notion on statin treatment. Having an internal health locus of control as well as being satisfied with the physician's treatment explanation were factors associated with more positive views on expected treatment effect. The views on necessity, harm, and treatment benefit were closely associated with each other.

    CONCLUSION

    The main findings in this study suggest that cardiovascular risk level and previous coronary heart disease are not associated with the way patients value potential benefits of statin treatment. Patients' views of the treatment's necessity, harm, and benefits do not seem to be independent dimensions of patient beliefs but rather represent one overall question: is this good for me?

  • 28.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Effectiveness of two vocational rehabilitation programmes in women with long-term sick leave due to pain syndrome or mental illness: 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial2017In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Mental illness and chronic pain are common reasons for long-term sick leave, typically more so for women. This study investigated the effects on return to work of 2 vocational rehabilitation programmes. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 308 women were allocated to treatment with acceptance and commitment therapy, to multidisciplinary assessment and individualized rehabilitation interventions, or to a control group. Return-to-work at 12 months was assessed as: (i) returning to health insurance; (ii) number of reimbursed health insurance days during follow-up; (iii) self-reported change in working hours; (iv) a composite measure of self-reported change in work-related engagement. Results: The mean age of the Swedish study population was 48.5 years (standard deviation (SD) 6.3 years) and the mean time on sick leave 7.5 years (SD 3.2 years). There were no significant differences in reimbursed days or returning to the health insurance at 12 months. The multidisciplinary assessment and individualized rehabilitation interventions group, compared with control, reported a significant increase in working hours per week, as well as a significant increase in work-related engagement. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary assessments and individual rehabilitation interventions may improve the chance of return-to-work in women with long-term sick leave due to pain condition or mental illness.

  • 29.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Återgång till arbete är möjlig för långtidssjukskrivna: Resultat från samverkansprojekt mellan sjukvården och Försäkringskassan2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 22, p. 1480-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Återgång till arbete är möjlig för långtidssjukskrivna: Resultat från samverkansprojekt mellan sjukvården och Försäkringskassan2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 22, p. 1480-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to develop interventions to support returning to work for patients with long-term time sick absence due to diffuse health problems. In a pilot project 30 persons with long sickness absence (mean 6 yrs) met with a motivational coach at three different occasions to go through their life history, present health situation and psychosocial/social situation. An action plan was formed by the participants and was after the intervention communicated to representatives from the social insurance office and the employment office to create a mutual understanding and facilitate the search for an employer. At evaluation after one year 27% of participants had returned to part- or full-time work and another 23% were in work training or rehabilitation activities but with a fairly good prognosis to return to work in the future. Mean MADRS-score and self-rated health had improved at the one-year follow up.

  • 31.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Interplay of overweight and insulin resistance on hypertension development2014In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 834-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Obesity and hypertension are associated, possibly through causal pathways involving insulin resistance and metabolic derangements. We aimed to investigate in a whites sample if overweight or obese persons without insulin resistance are at risk of developing hypertension or blood pressure progression. Methods: In a meta-analysis, using multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated the risks of hypertension development and blood pressure progression by combinations of relative weight classes and presence or absence of insulin resistance (defined as highest vs. lower three quartiles using the homeostatic model assessment method) in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 2322) and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors studies (n = 1066). These two samples, consisting mainly of middle-aged and elderly men, provided 1846 observations for the development of hypertension in normotensive individuals and 4223 observations for progressing to a higher blood pressure stage. Results: During a median of 10 years of follow-up, 884 (47.9%) developed hypertension and 1639 (38.8%) progressed to a higher blood pressure stage. Overweight or obese persons without insulin resistance had an increased risk of hypertension development [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.88] and blood pressure progression (OR 1.32, 1.10-1.59) compared with normal-weight persons without insulin resistance. Conclusion: According to this study, being overweight or obese without insulin resistance increases the risk of hypertension and blood pressure progression. This adds to the evidence that overweight and obesity may be harmful per se, and that overweight and obesity without glucometabolic derangements are not benign conditions.

  • 32.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Health in women on long-term sick leave because of pain or mental illness2015In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness and pain are common causes of long-term sick absence and major difficulties in vocational rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate health in a group of women with pain or mental illness who had exhausted their days of sickness benefit. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 355 women on long-term sick leave participating in controlled intervention studies aiming at returning to work. The study population filled in a written questionnaire with questions of self-rated health and sleep quality and validated indexes of mental health, satisfaction with life and general self-efficacy. Clinical psychiatric screening was performed on 230 individuals. The study population had a mean age of 48.8 years (SD 8.4), with an average time on sick leave of 7.8 years (SD 3.2). Self-rated health and sleep quality was poor compared with other populations. In all, 80.1% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis according to the psychiatric screening, and the average numbers of psychiatric diagnoses were 2.2 (SD 1.9). Foreign-born women showed significantly higher levels of mental illness, poorer self-rated health and sleep quality and lower self-efficacy and life satisfaction than native Swedish women. Women with long sick leave because of mental illness and/or pain have poor self-rated health and sleep quality, high prevalence of mental illness and low self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Psychiatric screening suggests more extensive mental illness than what was stated on the sick leave certificates. The health of foreign-born women seems to be worse than that of native Swedish women.

  • 33.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Endothelial function and risk of hypertension and blood pressure progression: the prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors2013In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 936-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES

    Impaired endothelial function is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly via increased blood pressure. We aimed to investigate if impaired endothelial function is associated with risk of hypertension and blood pressure progression in a large community-based sample.

    METHODS

    In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) was measured in resistance arteries using the invasive forearm technique and in conduit arteries using the flow-mediated vasodilation technique (FMD) at age 70, and participants were re-examined after 5 years. We investigated risk of developing hypertension or blood pressure progression in multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models.

    RESULTS

    In 201 out of 506 untreated persons, blood pressure progressed to a higher stage, and among 197 normotensive persons, 87 developed hypertension. Endothelial function, measured with the invasive forearm technique and the brachial ultrasound technique, did not predict either the development of hypertension [EDV: odds ratio (OR) per SD 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.59; FMD: OR per SD 1.00, 95% CI 0.76-1.33) or blood pressure progression (EDV: OR per SD 0.90, 95% CI 0.73-1.11; FMD: OR per SD 1.01, 95% CI 0.84-1.21).

    CONCLUSION

    In this large community-based sample of elderly, impaired endothelial function measured with the invasive forearm technique did not play a major role in the development of hypertension or blood pressure progression. Observed associations between endothelial dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular events are likely mediated through other pathways than hypertension.

  • 34.
    Lytsy, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Patient expectations on lipid-lowering drugs2007In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 67, no 1-2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to assess expectations of effect when using statins in a treatment population. Further the aim was to examine factors, including history and concurrent risk of coronary heart disease, associated with a higher and lower treatment belief.

    Methods

    Eight hundred and twenty-nine (829) Swedish patients using statins completed postal questionnaires about their health, life style, cardiovascular risk factors and expectation of the treatment. Expected treatment benefit was used as outcome measurement.

    Results

    A medical history of coronary heart disease did not affect treatment expectations. Patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease reported a slightly lower expectation of the treatment effect at a 10-year perspective (p<0.01) but not at shorter time perspectives. Low satisfaction with the explanation of the purpose of the treatment and a poor perceived control of own health was associated with a more negative view on treatment benefit.

    Conclusion

    The rationale applied by physicians prescribing statins does not seem to relate to the patients’ expectations, whereas factors relating to the patient–physician relationship, the social situation and the perceived control of health seem to affect patient belief.

    Practice implications

    The association between patients’ poor satisfaction of treatment explanation and a low belief in treatment benefits emphasizes the importance of the patient–physician communication. It is suggested that clinical tools are developed in order to identify patients with poor belief in treatment benefit since tailored education for this group might reduce the risk of non-compliance and subsequently reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  • 35. Molin, Linnea
    et al.
    Finnes, Anna
    Kams, Piret
    Lundéen, Carina
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ingrid, Anderzén
    Vitalis: A randomized intervention study aiming at Return To Work for women with long-term sick leave2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Westerholm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Fredriksson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rehfisch, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Zaar, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Aktivitetsersättning - en väg till arbete?: En systematisk litteraturöversikt2013Report (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Westerholm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Rehfisch, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Palmer, Edward
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Evidence-based methods for enhancing the labour-force entrance of people with mental disabilities: A systematic literature review2015Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Comprehensive health literacy and the experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purposes of the study were to investigate refugees’ experiences of communication during their health examination for asylum seekers and the usefulness of that examination, and to investigate whether health literacy is associated with those experiences.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2013, among 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Health literacy was measured using the Swedish Functional health literacy scale and the short European health literacy questionnaire. Experiences of communication and the usefulness of health examination for asylum seekers were measured in several questions.  Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were used to investigate group differences.

    Results: A considerable proportion of refugees in Sweden had bad experiences of the communication and the usefulness of the health examination for asylum seekers. Refugees with inadequate comprehensive health literacy experienced more communication problems and the examination as less useful, compared to those with non-inadequate comprehensive health literacy. No differences in those experiences could be seen between refugees with different levels of functional health literacy.

    Conclusion: Refugees’ own experiences indicate that a low level of comprehensive health literacy could act as a barrier to fulfilling the purposes of the health examination for asylum seekers. Comprehensive health literacy seems to be of greater importance in that context than functional health literacy

    Practical Implications: Health literacy must be highlighted and acted upon in clinical praxis to increase the quality of the health examination for asylum seekers.

  • 39.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Comprehensive health literacy is associated with experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - A Swedish cross-sectional study2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Comprehensive health literacy is associated with experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - A Swedish cross-sectional study2015In: The 3rd European Health Literacy Conference: Developing Health Literacy During the Life Course, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Little is known about refugees’ health literacy (HL) and their experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers (HEA).  Communication problems and difficulties with HL are common in clinical care targeted to migrants. Limited language skills, different cultural views of health, and health care knowledge about health and health literacy may explain some of the communication problems.  From a public health perspective, communication problems are serious as they limit access to health care and information. One vulnerable group of migrants in terms of health is refugees, i.e. persons who have fled from and/or cannot return to their country for a well-founded fear of persecution, including war or civil conflict. Many refugees come into contact with health information when they participate in an HEA, provided in most countries that accept refugees.  The overall purpose of HEA is to identify poor health in order to secure the well-being of seekers of asylum and to guarantee the safety of the population in the host country.  Refugees´ experiences of communication during the HEA and about its usefulness are thus far not known. However, important information and good communication and interpersonal relations between health care receivers and providers are viewed as being important to the quality of health care.  In the context of HEA, limited HL may result in failure to identify health problems and in participants not getting treatments and information their medical situation calls for. The purposes of the study were to investigate refugees’ experiences of communication during their health examination for asylum seekers and the usefulness of that examination, and to investigate whether health literacy is associated with those experiences.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2013, among 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Health literacy was measured using the Swedish Functional HL Scale (S-FHL) and the short European HL Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q16). Experiences of communication and the usefulness of HEA were measured in several questions.  Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were used to investigate group differences.

    Results: A considerable proportion of refugees in Sweden had bad experiences of the communication and the usefulness of HEA. Refugees with inadequate comprehensive HL experienced more communication problems and the examination as less useful, compared to those with non-inadequate comprehensive HL. No differences in those experiences could be seen between refugees with different levels of functional HL.

    Conclusion: Refugees’ own experiences indicate that a low level of comprehensive HL could act as a barrier to fulfilling the purposes of HEA. Comprehensive HL seems to be of greater importance in that context than functional HL. Health literacy must be highlighted and acted upon in clinical praxis to increase the quality of HEA.

  • 41.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Dept Neurosci & Physiol Occupat Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Comprehensive health literacy is associated with experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - A Swedish cross-sectional study2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 136-136Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Functional and complex health literacy levels among refugees in Sweden; and examination of socio-demographic and health related factors associated with inadequate health literacy2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Worldwide there are more than 10 million refugees; of which many have poorer health compared with indigenous populations. Not being able to access, understand, appraise or apply health information; i.e. low health literacy; could be one explanatory factor. The main purposes of this study were to determine functional and complex health literacy levels among refugees in different subgroups in Sweden; and to investigate socio-demographic and health related factors associated with inadequate health literacy.

    Method: A cross-sectional study with 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English; was performed. Data were collected among participants in 16 strategically selected language schools for immigrants. Health literacy was measured by translated versions of The Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and The HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire. Group differences were investigated by using uni- and multivariate statistical methods.

    Results: About 60 % of the refugees had inadequate functional health literacy and about 80 % had limited functional health literacy. Regarding complex health literacy; about 27 % had inadequate complex health literacy and about 62 % had limited complex health literacy. Those having low education and/or were born in Somalia had a statistical significant increased risk of having inadequate functional health literacy. Those with inadequate functional health literacy had a statistical significant increased risk of having inadequate complex health literacy.

    Conclusions: The majority of refugees participating in the language schools had limited or poor health literacy. Compared with health literacy levels in many indigenous populations; functional as well as complex health literacy showed to be lower among the refugees in the study. Therefore health literacy should be taken into consideration in context and activities affect those. However, more research is needed for a deeper understanding of health literacy among refugees and for development of strategies and methods increasing health literacy as well as facilitating life for those with low health literacy.

  • 43.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Functional and comprehensive health literacy levels among refugees in Sweden, and examination of socio-demographic and health related factors associated with inadequate health literacy2014In: / [ed] Jany Rademarkers, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Worldwide there are more than 10 million refugees; of which many have poorer health compared with indigenous populations. Not being able to access, understand, appraise or apply health information; i.e. low health literacy; could be one explanatory factor. The main purposes of this study were to determine functional and complex health literacy levels among refugees in different subgroups in Sweden; and to investigate socio-demographic and health related factors associated with inadequate health literacy.

    Method: A cross-sectional study with 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English; was performed. Data were collected among participants in 16 strategically selected language schools for immigrants. Health literacy was measured by translated versions of The Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and The HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire. Group differences were investigated by using uni- and multivariate statistical methods.

    Results: About 60 % of the refugees had inadequate functional health literacy and about 80 % had limited functional health literacy. Regarding complex health literacy; about 27 % had inadequate complex health literacy and about 62 % had limited complex health literacy. Those having low education and/or were born in Somalia had a statistical significant increased risk of having inadequate functional health literacy. Those with inadequate functional health literacy had a statistical significant increased risk of having inadequate complex health literacy.

    Conclusions: The majority of refugees participating in the language schools had limited or poor health literacy. Compared with health literacy levels in many indigenous populations; functional as well as complex health literacy showed to be lower among the refugees in the study. Therefore health literacy should be taken into consideration in context and activities affect those. However, more research is needed for a deeper understanding of health literacy among refugees and for development of strategies and methods increasing health literacy as well as facilitating life for those with low health literacy.

  • 44.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health literacy among refugees in Sweden: a cross-sectional study2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1030-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Refugees have poorer health compared to indigenous populations, which may be explained by lower health literacy, i.e. not being able to access, understand, appraise or apply health information. This study aims to determine levels of functional and comprehensive health literacy, and factors associated with inadequate health literacy, in refugees coming to Sweden.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed among 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Participants in 16 strategically selected language schools for immigrants responded to a questionnaire. Health literacy was measured using the Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and the HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire. Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were used to investigate group differences.

    RESULTS: The majority of the participating refugees had inadequate or limited functional health literacy and comprehensive health literacy. About 60% of them had inadequate functional health literacy and 27% had inadequate comprehensive health literacy. Low education and/or being born in Somalia were factors associated with an increased risk of having inadequate functional health literacy. Having inadequate functional health literacy was associated with an increased risk of having inadequate comprehensive health literacy.

    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of refugees in the language schools had limited or poor health literacy. Health literacy should be taken into consideration in contexts and in activities addressing migrants. More research is needed to better understand health literacy among refugees and to develop strategies and methods to increase health literacy and make life easier for those with low health literacy.

  • 45.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health literacy and refugees' experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers: a Swedish cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the health examination for asylum seekers in most countries is to identify poor health in order to secure the well-being of seekers of asylum and to guarantee the safety of the population in the host country. Functional health literacy is an individual's ability to read information and instructions about health and to function effectively as a patient in the health system, and comprehensive health literacy is an individual's competence in accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health information. Little is known about refugees' health literacy and their experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers. The purposes of the study were to investigate refugees' experiences of communication during their health examination for asylum seekers and the usefulness of that examination, and whether health literacy is associated with those experiences.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was made among 360 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Health literacy was measured using the Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and the short European Health Literacy Questionnaire. Experiences of communication and the usefulness of the health examination were measured in several questions. Associations were sought using univariate and multivariate statistical models.

    RESULTS: In the health examination for asylum seekers, a poor quality of communication was experienced by 36 %, receiving little information about health care by 55 %, and receiving little new knowledge by 41 % and/or help by 26 %. Having inadequate as compared to sufficient comprehensive health literacy was associated with the experience of a poorer quality of communication (OR: 9.64, CI 95 %: 3.25-28.58) and the experience of receiving little valuable health care information (OR: 6.54, CI 95 %: 2.45-17.47). Furthermore, having inadequate as compared to sufficient comprehensive health literacy was associated with the experience of not receiving new knowledge (OR: 7.94, CI 95 %: 3.00-21.06) or receiving help with health problems (OR: 8.07, 95 % CI: 2.50-26.07. Functional healthy literacy was not associated with experiences of HEA.

    CONCLUSION: Refugees' experiences indicate that a low level of comprehensive health literacy can act as a barrier to fulfilling the purposes of the health examination for asylum seekers. Comprehensive health literacy seems to be of greater importance in that context than functional health literacy.

  • 46.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health literacy and refugees’ experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers: a Swedish cross-sectional study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health literacy and refugees’ experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers: a Swedish cross-sectional study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Poor health and refraining from seeking healthcare are associated with limited comprehensive health literacy among refugees: a Swedish cross-sectional study2018In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 409-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to explore the distributions of comprehensive health literacy (CHL), general health, psychological well-being and having refrained from seeking healthcare among refugees in Sweden. Further objectives were to examine associations between CHL and the above mentioned factors.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 refugees speaking Arabic, Dari and Somali. Participants in the civic orientation course in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. CHL was measured using the HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate potential associations.

    Results: The majority of the respondents had limited CHL, and about four of ten had reported poor health and/or having refrained from seeking healthcare. Limited CHL was associated with having reported poor health and having refrained from seeking healthcare. 

    Conclusions: A considerable proportion of the refugees in Sweden have limited CHL, and report less than good health and impaired well-being, or that they have refrained from seeking healthcare. Further, CHL is associated with the above mentioned factors. Efforts are needed to promote refugees' CHL, optimal health seeking behavior, and health.

  • 49.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 57
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