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  • 1.
    Ahlstrom, Christina A.
    et al.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, SE-39185 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Microbiol, SE-39185 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Acquisition and dissemination of cephalosporin-resistant E.coli in migratory birds sampled at an Alaska landfill as inferred through genomic analysis2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens threatens global health, though the spread of AMR bacteria and AMR genes between humans, animals, and the environment is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of AMR Escherichia coli. Using next-generation sequencing, we characterized cephalosporin-resistant E. coli cultured from sympatric gulls and bald eagles inhabiting a landfill habitat in Alaska to identify genetic determinants conferring AMR, explore potential transmission pathways of AMR bacteria and genes at this site, and investigate how their genetic diversity compares to isolates reported in other taxa. We found genetically diverse E. coli isolates with sequence types previously associated with human infections and resistance genes of clinical importance, including blaCTX-M and blaCMY. Identical resistance profiles were observed in genetically unrelated E. coli isolates from both gulls and bald eagles. Conversely, isolates with indistinguishable core-genomes were found to have different resistance profiles. Our findings support complex epidemiological interactions including bacterial strain sharing between gulls and bald eagles and horizontal gene transfer among E. coli harboured by birds. Results suggest that landfills may serve as a source for AMR acquisition and/or maintenance, including bacterial sequence types and AMR genes relevant to human health.

  • 2.
    Ahlstrom, Christina A.
    et al.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden;Kalmar Cty Council, Dept Infect Dis, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Res Sect, Dept Dev & Publ Hlth, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Clin Microbiol, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Reed, John A.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Tibbitts, Lee
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Douglas, David C.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, Juneau, AK USA.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    US Geol Survey, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Satellite tracking of gulls and genomic characterization of faecal bacteria reveals environmentally mediated acquisition and dispersal of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska2019In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 2531-2545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gulls (Larus spp.) have frequently been reported to carry Escherichia coli exhibiting antimicrobial resistance (AMR E. coli); however, the pathways governing the acquisition and dispersal of such bacteria are not well described. We equipped 17 landfill-foraging gulls with satellite transmitters and collected gull faecal samples longitudinally from four locations on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska to assess: (a) gull attendance and transitions between sites, (b) spatiotemporal prevalence of faecally shed AMR E. coli, and (c) genomic relatedness of AMR E. coli isolates among sites. We also sampled Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) harvested as part of personal-use dipnet fisheries at two sites to assess potential contamination with AMR E. coli. Among our study sites, marked gulls most commonly occupied the lower Kenai River (61% of site locations) followed by the Soldotna landfill (11%), lower Kasilof River (5%) and upper Kenai River (<1%). Gulls primarily moved between the Soldotna landfill and the lower Kenai River (94% of transitions among sites), which were also the two locations with the highest prevalence of AMR E. coli. There was relatively high spatial and temporal variability in AMR E. coli prevalence in gull faeces and there was no evidence of contamination on salmon harvested in personal-use fisheries. We identified E. coli sequence types and AMR genes of clinical importance, with some isolates possessing genes associated with resistance to as many as eight antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that gulls acquire AMR E. coli at habitats with anthropogenic inputs and subsequent movements may represent pathways through which AMR is dispersed.

  • 3.
    Antonodimitrakis, Pantelis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Wassberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Gerovasileiou, Spyridon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Back, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Hallgren, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Fulminant hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to a reactivated EBV infection: A case report2013In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an aggressive inflammatory syndrome that results from inappropriate activation of the immune system. HLH has a high mortality if not treated. We describe a case of a fulminant HLH, associated with a reactivation of an EBV infection. The patient responded well to steroid treatment.

  • 4. Ardiles-Villegas, Karen
    et al.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Fecal Bacteria Isolated from Christmas Shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra) at Remote Easter Island2011In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 486-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  • 5. Artursson, Karin
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Varför är det så svårt att förstå betydelsen av One Health?2014In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. Feb, no 2, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Atterby, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Mourkas, Evangelos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Milner Ctr Evolut, Bath, Avon, England.
    Meric, Guillaume
    Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Milner Ctr Evolut, Bath, Avon, England.
    Pascoe, Ben
    Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Milner Ctr Evolut, Bath, Avon, England;MRC CLIMB Consortium, Bath, Avon, England.
    Wang, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sheppard, Samuel K.
    Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Milner Ctr Evolut, Bath, Avon, England;MRC CLIMB Consortium, Bath, Avon, England.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    The Potential of Isolation Source to Predict Colonization in Avian Hosts: A Case Study in Campylobacter jejuni Strains From Three Bird Species2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, infecting humans mostly through consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni is common in the gut of wild birds, and shows distinct strain-specific association to particular bird species. This contrasts with farm animals, in which several genotypes co-exist. It is unclear if the barriers restricting transmission between host species of such specialist strains are related to environmental factors such as contact between host species, bacterial survival in the environment, etc., or rather to strain specific adaptation to the intestinal environment of specific hosts. We compared colonization dynamics in vivo between two host-specific C. jejuni from a song thrush (ST-1304 complex) and a mallard (ST-995), and a generalist strain from chicken (ST-21 complex) in a wild host, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). In 18-days infection experiments, the song thrush strain showed only weak colonization and was cleared from all birds after 10 days, whereas both mallard and chicken strains remained stable. When the chicken strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection of the same birds with a mallard strain, it was rapidly outcompeted by the latter. In contrast, when the mallard strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection with the chicken strain, the mallard strain remained and expansion of the chicken strain was delayed. Our results suggest strain-specific differences in the ability of C. jejuni to colonize mallards, likely associated with host origin. This difference might explain observed host association patterns in C. jejuni from wild birds.

  • 7. Axelsson-Olsson, Diana
    et al.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Haemig, Paul D.
    Brudin, Lars
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Acanthamoeba-Campylobacter coculture as a novel method for enrichment of Campylobacter species2007In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 73, no 21, p. 6864-6869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we present a novel method to isolate and enrich low concentrations of Campylobacter pathogens. This method, Acanthamoeba-Campylobacter coculture (ACC), is based on the intracellular survival and multiplication of Campylobacter species in the free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Four of the Campylobacter species relevant to humans and livestock, Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. hyointestinalis, were effectively enriched by the coculture method, with growth rates comparable to those observed in other Campylobacter enrichment media. Studying six strains of C. jejuni isolated from different sources, we found that all of the strains could be enriched from an inoculum of fewer than 10 bacteria. The sensitivity of the ACC method was not negatively affected by the use of Campylobacter-selective antibiotics in the culture medium, but these were effective in suppressing the growth of seven different bacterial species added at a concentration of 10(4) CFU/ml of each species as deliberate contamination. The ACC method has advantages over other enrichment methods as it is not dependent on a microaerobic milieu and does not require the use of blood or other oxygen-quenching agents. Our study found the ACC method to be a promising tool for the enrichment of Campylobacter species, particularly from water samples with low bacterial concentrations.

  • 8. Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Avril, Alexis
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Elmberg, Johan
    Soderquist, Par
    Norevik, Gabriel
    Tolf, Conny
    Safi, Kamran
    Fiedler, Wolfgang
    Wikelski, Martin
    Olsén, Bjorn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Movements, Home-Range Size and Habitat Selection of Mallards during Autumn Migration2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e100764-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is a focal species in game management, epidemiology and ornithology, but comparably little research has focused on the ecology of the migration seasons. We studied habitat use, time-budgets, home-range sizes, habitat selection, and movements based on spatial data collected with GPS devices attached to wild mallards trapped at an autumn stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Sixteen individuals (13 males, 3 females) were followed for 15-38 days in October to December 2010. Forty-nine percent (SD = 8.4%) of the ducks' total time, and 85% of the day-time (SD = 28.3%), was spent at sheltered reefs and bays on the coast. Two ducks used ponds, rather than coast, as day-roosts instead. Mallards spent most of the night (76% of total time, SD = 15.8%) on wetlands, mainly on alvar steppe, or in various flooded areas (e.g. coastal meadows). Crop fields with maize were also selectively utilized. Movements between roosting and foraging areas mainly took place at dawn and dusk, and the home-ranges observed in our study are among the largest ever documented for mallards (mean = 6,859 ha; SD = 5,872 ha). This study provides insights into relatively unknown aspects of mallard ecology. The fact that autumn-staging migratory mallards have a well-developed diel activity pattern tightly linked to the use of specific habitats has implications for wetland management, hunting and conservation, as well as for the epidemiology of diseases shared between wildlife and domestic animals.

  • 9. Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Safi, Kamran
    Avril, Alexis
    Fiedler, Wolfgang
    Wikelski, Martin
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Elmberg, Johan
    Tolf, Conny
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?2016In: The Royal Society, ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 2, article id UNSP 150633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence.

  • 10.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Christerson, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Chlamydia psittaciin Swedish Wetland Birds: A Risk to Zoonotic Infection2012In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 737-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydia psittaci in birds may be transmitted to humans and cause respiratory infections, sometimes as severe disease. Our study investigated the C. psittaci prevalence in migratory birds in Sweden by real-time PCR. Fecal specimens or cloacal swabs were collected from 497 birds from 22 different species, mainly mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), at two bird observatories in Sweden. DNA from C. psittaci was found in six (1.2%) birds from three different species. Five of the positive specimens were infected with four novel strains of C. psittaci, based on sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene and ompA gene, and the sixth was indentified as a recently described Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium. Considering exposure to humans it is concluded that the risk of zoonotic infection is low.

  • 11.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Christerson, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Lindberg, Peter
    Helander, Björn
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden2012In: Infection ecology & epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 2, p. 8435-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown.

    METHODS:

    DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:

    The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  • 12. Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Stedt, Johan
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA2014In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 897-899Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden.;Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, SE-39185 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Linnaeus Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnaeus Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0141315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-15) and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds.

  • 14. Bröjer, Caroline
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Gavier-Widén, Dolores
    Pathobiology and virus shedding of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/H1N1) infection in mallards exposed to oseltamivir2013In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in wild birds are important as they can constitute the basis for the development of high-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses or form part of human-adapted strains with pandemic potential. However, the LPAI infection as such is not very well characterized in the natural reservoir, dabbling ducks, and results are in part contradictory. The effects on the infection by artificial versus natural infection, exposure to antiviral drugs or development of resistance have not been studied. Therefore, we used q-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to study mallards infected with an influenza A/H1N1 virus isolated from a wild mallard in Sweden. The mallards were either inoculated intra-esophageally or infected by virus shed by other ducks in the experiment. The birds were subjected to low levels of the active metabolite of oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and the resistance mutation H274Y developed during the course of the experiment.

    All mallards but one had a strictly intestinal localization of the LPAI infection. The exception was a bird euthanized one day post artificial inoculation whose infection was located solely in the lung, possibly due to intra-tracheal deposition of virus. The intestinal infection was characterized by degenerating cells in the lamina propria, infiltrating heterophils and lymphocytes as well as positivity of IHC and q-PCR on samples from feces and intestinal contents. Histopathological changes, IHC positivity and viral shedding all indicate that the infection peaked early, around two days post infection. Furthermore, the infection had a longitudinal progression in the intestine with more activity in the proximal parts early in the infection and vice versa as observed both by IHC and by q-PCR. There was no obvious difference in the course of the infection in artificial versus natural infection, when the level of OC was increased from 80 ng/L to 80 µg/L or when the resistance mutation H274Y developed.

  • 15. Chryssanthou, E.
    et al.
    Wennberg, H.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Occurrence of yeasts in faecal samples from Antarctic and South American seabirds2011In: Mycoses (Berlin), ISSN 0933-7407, E-ISSN 1439-0507, Vol. 54, no 6, p. e811-e815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During an expedition to the Southern Argentinean town of Ushuaia, the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Islands and the Falkland Islands, we collected 94 faecal specimens from wild birds to screen for yeast within the different bird species. The yeast species were identified by morphological features and commercial characterisation kits. From 54% of the specimens, we isolated 122 strains representing 29 yeast species. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lambica and Candida krusei were the most frequently isolated species. We found a plethora of yeasts in birds living in proximity to humans, whereas birds living in more remote areas were colonised with a lower number of fungal species.

  • 16. Comstedt, Pär
    et al.
    Bergström, Sven
    Olsen, Björn
    Garpmo, Ulf
    Marjavaara, Lisette
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Museums etc., Museum of Evolution.
    Barbour, Alan G.
    Bunikis, Jonas
    Migratory passerine birds as reservoirs of Lyme borreliosis in Europe2006In: Emerging Infect. Dis., Vol. 12, p. 1087-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Elfving, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Falu Hospital, Falun, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Bergström, Sven
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Clinical Mic0robiology, Umeå University Hospital.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Dissemination of Spotted Fever Rickettsia Agents in Europe by Migrating Birds2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 1, p. e8572-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for species identification. Rickettsia spp. organisms were detected in 108 (11.3%) of the ticks. Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia associated with human infections, was predominant among the PCR-positive samples. In 9 (0.8%) of the ticks, the partial sequences of 17kDa and ompB genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp.IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1.4%) of the ticks, the 17kDa, ompB, gltA and ompA genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti, Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, all closely phylogenetically related, the former previously found in Amblyomma tholloni ticks in Africa and previously not detected in Ixodes spp. ticks. The infestation prevalence of ticks infected with rickettsial organisms was four times higher among ground foraging birds than among other bird species, but the two groups were equally competent in transmitting Rickettsia species. The birds did not seem to serve as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia spp., but in one case it seems likely that the bird was rickettsiemic and that the ticks had acquired the bacteria from the blood of the bird. In conclusion, migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents and their diseases.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Lorente-Leal, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, Kalmar, Sweden.
    González-Acuna, Daniel
    Univ Concepcion, Fac Ciencias Vet, Chillan, Chile.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    INRA, UMR0346 EPIA, VetAgro Sup, St Genes Champanelle, France.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Attachment Patterns of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses to Trachea and Colon of 26 Bird Species: Support for the Community Concept2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) have a broad host range, but are most intimately associated with waterfowl (Anseriformes) and, in the case of the H13 and H16 subtypes, gulls (Charadriiformes). Host associations are multifactorial, but a key factor is the ability of the virus to bind host cell receptors and thereby initiate infection. The current study aims at investigating the tissue attachment pattern of a panel of AIVs, comprising H3N2, H6N1, H12N5, and H16N3, to avian trachea and colon tissue samples obtained from host species of different orders. Virus attachment was not restricted to the bird species or order from which the virus was isolated. Instead, extensive virus attachment was observed to several distantly related avian species. In general, more virus attachment and receptor expression were observed in trachea than in colon samples. Additionally, a human seasonal H3N2 virus was studied. Unlike the studied AIVs, this virus mainly attached to tracheae from Charadriiformes and a very limited set of avian cola. In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed.

  • 19. Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Haemig, Paul D.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Wallensten, Anders
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Antiviral Oseltamivir is not removed or degraded in normal sewage water treatment: Implications for development of resistance by influenza A virus2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 10, p. e986-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir is the main antiviral for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza. The increase in oseltamivir resistance reported recently has therefore sparked a debate on how to use oseltamivir in non pandemic influenza and the risks associated with wide spread use during a pandemic. Several questions have been asked about the fate of oseltamivir in the sewage treatment plants and in the environment. We have assessed the fate of oseltamivir and discuss the implications of environmental residues of oseltamivir regarding the occurrence of resistance. A series of batch experiments that simulated normal sewage treatment with oseltamivir present was conducted and the UV-spectra of oseltamivir were recorded. Findings: Our experiments show that the active moiety of oseltamivir is not removed in normal sewage water treatments and is not degraded substantially by UV light radiation, and that the active substance is released in waste water leaving the plant. Our conclusion is that a ubiquitous use of oseltamivir may result in selection pressures in the environment that favor development of drug-resistance.

  • 20.
    Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Soderstrom, Hanna
    Holmberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Tolf, Conny
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards2015In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 2378-2383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and emerging human IAVs often contain gene segments from avian viruses. The active drug metabolite of oseltamivir (oseltamivir carboxylate [OC]), stockpiled as Tamiflu for influenza pandemic preparedness, is not removed by conventional sewage treatment and has been detected in river water. There, it may exert evolutionary pressure on avian IAV in waterfowl, resulting in the development of resistant viral variants. A resistant avian IAV can circulate among wild birds only if resistance does not restrict viral fitness and if the resistant virus can persist without continuous drug pressure. In this in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study, we tested whether an OC-resistant avian IAV (H1N1) strain with an H274Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA-H274Y) could retain resistance while drug pressure was gradually removed. Successively infected mallards were exposed to decreasing levels of OC, and fecal samples were analyzed for the neuraminidase sequence and phenotypic resistance. No reversion to wild-type virus was observed during the experiment, which included 17 days of viral transmission among 10 ducks exposed to OC concentrations below resistance induction levels. We conclude that resistance in avian IAV that is induced by exposure of the natural host to OC can persist in the absence of the drug. Thus, there is a risk that human-pathogenic IAVs that evolve from IAVs circulating among wild birds may contain resistance mutations. An oseltamivir-resistant pandemic IAV would pose a substantial public health threat. Therefore, our observations underscore the need for prudent oseltamivir use, upgraded sewage treatment, and surveillance for resistant IAVs in wild birds.

  • 21.
    Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Nordh, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Bröjer, Caroline
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Resistance Mutation R292K Is Induced in Influenza A(H6N2) Virus by Exposure of Infected Mallards to Low Levels of Oseltamivir2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, p. e71230-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is problematic as these drugs constitute the major treatment option for severe influenza. Extensive use of the NAI oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) results in up to 865 ng/L of its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) in river water. There one of the natural reservoirs of influenza A, dabbling ducks, can be exposed. We previously demonstrated that an influenza A(H1N1) virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to 1 µg/L of OC developed oseltamivir resistance through the mutation H274Y (N2-numbering). In this study, we assessed the resistance development in an A(H6N2) virus, which belongs to the phylogenetic N2 group of neuraminidases with distinct functional and resistance characteristics. Mallards were infected with A(H6N2) while exposed to 120 ng/L, 1.2 µg/L or 12 µg/L of OC in their sole water source. After 4 days with 12 µg/L of OC exposure, the resistance mutation R292K emerged and then persisted. Drug sensitivity was decreased ≈13,000-fold for OC and ≈7.8-fold for zanamivir. Viral shedding was similar when comparing R292K and wild-type virus indicating sustained replication and transmission. Reduced neuraminidase activity and decrease in recovered virus after propagation in embryonated hen eggs was observed in R292K viruses. The initial, but not the later R292K isolates reverted to wild-type during egg-propagation, suggesting a stabilization of the mutation, possibly through additional mutations in the neuraminidase (D113N or D141N) or hemagglutinin (E216K). Our results indicate a risk for OC resistance development also in a N2 group influenza virus and that exposure to one NAI can result in a decreased sensitivity to other NAIs as well. If established in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds, the resistance could spread to humans via re-assortment or direct transmission. This could potentially cause an oseltamivir-resistant pandemic; a serious health concern as preparedness plans rely heavily on oseltamivir before vaccines can be mass-produced.

  • 22.
    Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Nykvist, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Wille, Michelle
    Daggfeldt, Annika
    Bröjer, Caroline
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Acquires Resistance-Related Neuraminidase I222T Substitution When Infected Mallards Are Exposed to Low Levels of Oseltamivir in Water2015In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 5196-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and new human IAVs often contain gene segments originating from avian IAVs. Treatment options for severe human influenza are principally restricted to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), among which oseltamivir is stockpiled in preparedness for influenza pandemics. There is evolutionary pressure in the environment for resistance development to oseltamivir in avian IAVs, as the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) passes largely undegraded through sewage treatment to river water where waterfowl reside. In an in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) model, we tested if low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus might become resistant if the host was exposed to low levels of OC. Ducks were experimentally infected, and OC was added to their water, after which infection and transmission were maintained by successive introductions of uninfected birds. Daily fecal samples were tested for IAV excretion, genotype, and phenotype. Following mallard exposure to 2.5 μg/liter OC, the resistance-related neuraminidase (NA) I222T substitution, was detected within 2 days during the first passage and was found in all viruses sequenced from subsequently introduced ducks. The substitution generated 8-fold and 2.4-fold increases in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OC (P < 0.001) and zanamivir (P = 0.016), respectively. We conclude that OC exposure of IAV hosts, in the same concentration magnitude as found in the environment, may result in amino acid substitutions, leading to changed antiviral sensitivity in an IAV subtype that can be highly pathogenic to humans. Prudent use of oseltamivir and resistance surveillance of IAVs in wild birds are warranted.

  • 23. Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    et al.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Moreno, Lucila
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Palma, Ricardo
    Latorre, Alejandra
    Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
    Kinsella, Mike J.
    Martin, Nicolas
    Araya, Karolina
    Torres, Ivan
    Fernandez, Nicolas
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Health evaluation of wild gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in the Antarctic Peninsula2013In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1749-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically wildlife conservation was based on habitat protection and exploitation control. Only recently have diseases been considered an important issue. However, pathogens are usually described during or after disease outbreaks, but to determine which pathogens may be emerging, surveys of wildlife health are critical in a given time. This study deals with the health status of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua in two localities at the Antarctica Peninsula and one at Ardley Island off the South Shetland Islands. Cloacal swaps, fresh fecal samples, ectoparasites, and blood smears were collected. We examined and dissected 14 penguin corpses found dead. Fecal samples were positive for Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and in the carcasses four endoparasitic species were found: Diphyllobothrium sp. and Parorchites zederi, Corynosoma shackletoni and Stegophorus adeliae. The tick Ixodes uriae occurred in five of the examined penguins, and the louse Austrogoniodes gressitti on six birds. From the colony grounds, we collected 1,184 I. uriae. We recorded antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as E. coli, in ecosystems where gentoo penguins breed. Cloacal samples (300) were negative for Chlamydia, as well as for Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, Newcastle and Influenza viruses.

  • 24. Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Colles, Frances M
    McCarthy, Noel D
    Hansbro, Philip M
    Ashhurst-Smith, Chris
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Maiden, Martin C J
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds2013In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 1463-1472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoonotic pathogens often infect several animal species, and gene flow among populations infecting different host species may affect the biological traits of the pathogen including host specificity, transmissibility and virulence. The bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic multihost pathogen, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Poultry products are important transmission vehicles to humans, but the bacterium is common in other domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, which are a potential infection source. Population genetic studies of C. jejuni have mainly investigated isolates from humans and domestic animals, so to assess C. jejuni population structure more broadly and investigate host adaptation, 928 wild bird isolates from Europe and Australia were genotyped by multilocus sequencing and compared to the genotypes recovered from 1366 domestic animal and human isolates. Campylobacter jejuni populations from different wild bird species were distinct from each other and from those from domestic animals and humans, and the host species of wild bird was the major determinant of C. jejuni genotype, while geographic origin was of little importance. By comparison, C. jejuni differentiation was restricted between more phylogenetically diverse farm animals, indicating that domesticated animals may represent a novel niche for C. jejuni and thereby driving the evolution of those bacteria as they exploit this niche. Human disease is dominated by isolates from this novel domesticated animal niche.

  • 25. Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Engvall, Eva Olsson
    Akerlind, Britt
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Genetic diversity and host associations in Campylobacter jejuni from human cases and broilers in 2000 and 20082015In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 178, no 1-2, p. 94-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, with a global distribution. It can colonize numerous host species, including both domestic and wild animals, but is particularly associated with birds (poultry and wild birds). For human campylobacteriosis, poultry products are deemed the most significant risk factor for acquiring infection. We conducted a genotyping and host attribution study of a large representative collection of C jejuni isolated from humans and broilers in Sweden in the years 2000 and 2008. In total 673 broiler and human isolates from 10 different abattoirs and 6 different hospitals were genotyped with multilocus sequence typing. Source attribution analyses confirmed the strong linkage between broiler C jejuni and domestic human cases, but also indicated a significant association to genotypes more commonly found in wild birds. Genotype distributions did not change dramatically between the two study years, suggesting a stable population of infecting bacteria.

  • 26. Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Hansbro, Philip M
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Campylobacter jejuni sequence types show remarkable spatial and temporal stability in Blackbirds.2015In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has a broad host range but is especially associated with birds, both domestic and wild. Earlier studies have indicated thrushes of the genus Turdus in Europe to be frequently colonized with C. jejuni, and predominately with host-associated specific genotypes. The European Blackbird Turdus merula has a large distribution in Europe, including some oceanic islands, and was also introduced to Australia by European immigrants in the 1850s.

    METHODS: The host specificity and temporal stability of European Blackbird C. jejuni was investigated with multilocus sequence typing in a set of isolates collected from Sweden, Australia, and The Azores.

    RESULTS: Remarkably, we found that the Swedish, Australian, and Azorean isolates were genetically highly similar, despite extensive spatial and temporal isolation. This indicates adaptation, exquisite specificity, and stability in time for European Blackbirds, which is in sharp contrast with the high levels of recombination and mutation found in poultry-related C. jejuni genotypes.

    CONCLUSION: The maintenance of host-specific signals in spatially and temporally separated C. jejuni populations suggests the existence of strong purifying selection for this bacterium in European Blackbirds.

  • 27. Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Axelsson-Olsson, Diana
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Olsén, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Multilocus Sequence Typing and FlaA Sequencing Reveal the Genetic Stability of Campylobacter jejuni Enrichment during Coculture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga2013In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 79, no 7, p. 2477-2479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low concentrations of C. jejuni cells in environmental samples make them difficult to study with conventional culture methods. Here we show that enrichment by amoebae co-cultures works well with low concentration samples, and that this method can be combined with molecular techniques without loss of genetic specificity.

  • 28.
    Gullsby, Karolina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bondeson, Kåre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains in Sweden, 1996–2017, and the emergence of a new P1 cytadhesin gene, Variant 2e2019In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 57, no 6, article id e00049-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes respiratory infections, such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with epidemics recurring every 3 to 7 years. In 2010 and 2011, many countries experienced an extraordinary epidemic peak. The cause of these recurring epidemics is not understood, but decreasing herd immunity and shifts in the strains' antigenic properties have been suggested as contributing factors. M. pneumoniae PCR-positive samples were collected between 1996 and 2017 from four neighboring counties inhabited by 12% of Sweden's population. A total of 578 isolates were characterized directly from 624 clinical samples using P1 typing by sequencing and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR approach was also used to detect mutations associated with macrolide resistance in the 23S rRNA gene. Through P1 typing, the strains were classified into type 1 and type 2, as well as variants 2a, 2b, 2c, and a new variant found in nine of the strains, denoted variant 2e. Twelve MLVA types were distinguished, and 3-5-6-2 (42.4%), 4-5-7-2 (37.4%), and 3-6-6-2 (14.9%) predominated. Several P1 and MLVA types cocirculated each year, but type 2/variant 2 strains and MLVA types 3-5-6-2 and 4-5-7-2 predominated during the epidemic period comprising the peak of 2010 and 2011. In 2016 and 2017, type 1 became more common, and MLVA type 4-5-7-2 predominated. We also found that 0.2% (1/578) of the strains carried a macrolide resistance-associated mutation, indicating a very low prevalence of macrolide resistance in this region of Sweden.

  • 29. Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Hobson, Keith A.
    Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Fouchier, Ron A. M.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Disease Dynamics and Bird Migration: Linking Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Subtype Diversity of the Influenza A Virus in Time and Space2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e35679-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (delta H-2) of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.

  • 30. Haemig, Paul D.
    et al.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica) Test Negative for Salmonella2008In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 451-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers around the world have been urged to eliminate barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from their buildings, based on the unproven assumption that these birds amplify and spread Salmonella to livestock, humans, and stored food. However, we tested over 500 barn swallows in Sweden and found no evidence that they carry Salmonella. Our results cast doubt on the hypothesis that barn swallows are competent reservoirs of Salmonella and suggest that their role, if any, is limited to being accidental hosts of the bacterium.

  • 31. Haemig, Paul D.
    et al.
    Lithner, Stefan
    Sjöstedt de Luna, Sara
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Hansson, Lennart
    Arneborn, Malin
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Red fox and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans: Can predators influence public health?2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 40, no 6-7, p. 527-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing datasets from hunting statistics and human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), we found a positive correlation between the number of human TBE cases and the number of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Time lags were also present, indicating that high numbers of red fox in 1 y translated into high numbers of human TBE cases the following y. Results for smaller predators were mixed and inconsistent. Hares and grouse showed negative correlations with human TBE cases, suggesting that they might function as dilution hosts. Combining our findings with food web dynamics, we hypothesize a diversity of possible interactions between predators and human disease - some predators suppressing a given disease, others enhancing its spread, and still others having no effect at all. Larger-sized predators that suppress red fox numbers and activity (i.e. wolf, Canis lupus; European lynx, Lynx lynx) were once abundant in our study area but have been reduced or extirpated from most parts of it by humans. We ask what would happen to red foxes and TBE rates in humans if these larger predators were restored to their former abundances.

  • 32. Haemig, Paul D
    et al.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, S
    Grafström, A
    Lithner, Stefan
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Stedt, Johan
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Forecasting risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): using data from wildlife and climate to predict next year's number of human victims2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 366-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Over the past quarter century, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased in most European nations. However, the number of humans stricken by the disease varies from year to year. A method for predicting major increases and decreases is needed.

    METHODS:

    We assembled a 25-y database (1984-2008) of the number of human TBE victims and wildlife and climate data for the Stockholm region of Sweden, and used it to create easy-to-use mathematical models that predict increases and decreases in the number of humans stricken by TBE.

    RESULTS:

    Our best model, which uses December precipitation and mink (Neovison vison, formerly Mustela vison) bagging figures, successfully predicted every major increase or decrease in TBE during the past quarter century, with a minimum of false alarms. However, this model was not efficient in predicting small increases and decreases.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Predictions from our models can be used to determine when preventive and adaptive programmes should be implemented. For example, in years when the frequency of TBE in humans is predicted to be high, vector control could be intensified where infested ticks have a higher probability of encountering humans, such as at playgrounds, bathing lakes, barbecue areas and camping facilities. Because our models use only wildlife and climate data, they can be used even when the human population is vaccinated. Another advantage is that because our models employ data from previously-established databases, no additional funding for surveillance is required.

  • 33.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Drobni, Peter
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Dissemination of NDM-12012In: Lancet. Infectious diseases (Print), ISSN 1473-3099, E-ISSN 1474-4457, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 99-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Faruque, Rayhan
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Sadique, Abdus
    Ahmed, Kabir Uddin
    Islam, Zahirul
    Parvez, M. B. Hossain
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Alam, Munirul
    High Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Large- and Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Bangladesh2011In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 689-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in avian bacterial pathogens is a common problem in the Bangladesh poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the present status of antibiotic resistance patterns in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Bangladesh. Of 279 dead or sick poultry of different ages, 101 pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from broilers and layer hens with colibacillosis infections were screened to determine phenotypic expression of antimicrobial resistance against 13 antibiotics used in both veterinary and human medicine in Bangladesh. Of 101 pathogenic E. coli isolates, more than 55% were resistant to at least one or more of the tested compounds, and 36.6% of the isolates showed multiple-drug-resistant phenotypes. The most common resistances observed were against tetracycline (45.5%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (26.7%), nalidixic acid (25.7%), ampicillin (25.7%), and streptomycin (20.8%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (12.9%), chlormaphenicol (8.9%), nitrofurantoin (2%), and gentamicin (2%) was also observed, and none of the isolates were resistant to tigecycline as well as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. One isolate was resistant to cefuroxime (1%), cefadroxil (1%), and mecillinam (1%) but was not an ESBL producer. Resistance rates, although significant in Bangladeshi isolates, were found to be lower than those reported for avian isolates from the Republic of Korea and clinical, avian, and environmental isolates from Bangladesh. The high level of antibiotic resistance in avian pathogens from Bangladesh is worrisome and indicates that widespread use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and disease prevention could have negative implications for human and animal health and the environment.

  • 35.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Islam, Kamrul
    Ahsan, Murshidul
    Hossain, Zakir
    Rashid, Mahmudur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Talukder, Bibhas
    Ahmed, Kabir Uddin
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Kashem, Mohammad Abul
    Fecal carriage of multi-drug resistant and extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing E. coli in household pigeons, Bangladesh2014In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 168, no 1, p. 221-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance and ESBL constitute a risk to human and animal health. Birds residing close to humans could mirror the spectrum of human associated antibiotic resistance. Household pigeons were screened in Bangladesh to shed light on human associated, as well as, environmental antibiotic resistance. Escherichia coil from pigeons (n = 150) were tested against 11 antibiotics. 89% E. coil isolates were resistant to one or more critically important human antibiotics like ampicillin, cefadroxil, mecillinam, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tigecycline. No carbapenamase-producers were detected and the lower ESBL prevalence (5%) in pigeons. ESBL-producing E. coil isolates had bla(CTX-M_15) genes. Pigeons shared some bacterial clones and had bird associated sequence types like E. coil ST1408. Fecal carriage of bacteria resistance of critically important human antibiotics, together with examples of shared genotypes among pigeons, indicate the human-birds and bird to bird transmissions are important in the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

  • 36.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal2014In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 466-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and frequency of multiresistant bacteria in wild birds act as indicators of the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance. To explore the rate of contamination mediated by Escherichia coli, 150 fecal samples from the brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) and 8 water samples from the Bay of Bengal area were collected, cultured, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Special attention was paid to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically. Antibiotic resistance was found in 42.3% (36/85) of the E. coli isolates and multidrug resistance in 11.8%. Isolates from the area with a higher human activity were more resistant than those from an area with a lower level of activity. Most frequent was resistance to ampicillin (29.4%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.7%) and quinolones (22.4%). Carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high (17.3%) in the gulls, whereas no ESBL producers were found in the water. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, but one, carried blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-15-like genes. A blaCTX-M-14-like enzyme was found as an exception. Gulls from two different colonies shared E. coli clones and harbored the clinically relevant sequence types ST10, ST48, and ST131. The high frequency of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production among E. coli isolates from gulls indicates that the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance has already gone far on the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal. Considering the limited control over the antibiotic consumption and waste from human activities in Bangladesh, there is no easy solution in sight.

  • 37.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Alam, A
    Akter, L
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Dissemination of the multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli O25b-ST131 clone and the role of house crow (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh.2015In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 21, no 11, article id UNSP 1000.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two hundred and thirty-eight faecal samples from crows foraging on hospital wastes were analysed for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. ESBL-producing crow isolates were characterized and compared with 31 patient isolates. Among the crows, 59% carried ESBL producers. These included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter cloacae harbouring the genes for CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-79, and CTX-M-14. Human isolates carried only the CTX-M-15 gene. Two-thirds of crow E. coli isolates and all human E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant. Crows and patients shared E. coli sequence types, including the epidemic E. coli O25b-ST131 clone. The scavenging behaviour of crows at poorly managed hospital waste dumps made them potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, including ESBLs.

  • 38.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Perveen, Khalida
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Zahra, Rabaab
    Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals in Pakistan2014In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0022-2615, E-ISSN 1473-5644, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of pan-resistance in bacterial pathogens poses a threat to human health. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a serious challenge, causing nosocomial infection and community-acquired outbreaks in hospitals globally, including in Pakistan. We collected 90 Acinetobacter isolates from patients with secondary or nosocomial infections from different hospitals in Pakistan and screened for carbapenem-resistant strains. Of the 90 isolates, 59 were resistant to carbapenems. Among oxacillinase -encoding genes, blaOXA-51-like was common in all isolates, including in combination with blaOXA-23-like in 14 isolates; however, blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58-like were completely absent. Among metallo-β-lactamase-encoding genes, only blaNDM-1 was found in one isolate, while the other three genes, blaIMP, blaVIM and blaSIM, were completely absent. None of the isolates was found to harbour the blaCTX-M gene. The isolates were also tested for susceptibilities to a panel of different antibiotics belonging to several classes. Of all the drugs tested, tigecycline was the most effective with 80 % sensitivity amongst isolates, followed by colistin with 50 % sensitivity. Three categories of resistance were found in these isolates: extreme drug resistance in 26, pan-drug resistance in 19 and multidrug resistance in 87 isolates. The isolates exhibited a high resistance to cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam antibiotics, followed by tetracycline and β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor combination, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycosides. The results show a prominent level of antibiotic-resistance phenotypes in A. baumannii and strongly suggest the need for full-scale national surveillance of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii with particular emphasis on the newly identified NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1).

  • 39.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh2012In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 2055-2058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidrug resistance was found in 22.7% of Escherichia coli isolates from bird samples in Bangladesh; 30% produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases, including clones of CTX-M genes among wild and domestic birds. Unrestricted use of antimicrobial drugs in feed for domestic birds and the spread of resistance genes to the large bird reservoir in Bangladesh are growing problems.

  • 40.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Johansson, Anders
    Stedt, Johan
    Bengtsson, Stina
    Porczak, Aleksandra
    Granholm, Susanne
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e76150-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin's gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance.

  • 41.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    et al.
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Prado, Valeria
    Torres, Daniel
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Haemig, Paul D.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella2007In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1227-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rectal swabs were collected from Antarctic fur seal pups Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff, South Shetland Islands, and analyzed for the presence of anthropogenic pathogens. Two of the 33 pups tested positive for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). These samples are the first records of EPEC in Antarctic wildlife and suggest that more needs to be done to protect the Antarctic fauna from exotic anthropogenic pathogens.

  • 42.
    Hernández, Jorge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Lindberg, Peter
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)2012In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 2, p. 7373-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  • 43.
    Hernández, Jorge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Stedt, Johan
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Molin, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy
    Gomez-Fuentes, Claudio
    Astorga-España, M Soledad
    González-Acuña, Daniel
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Blomqvist, Maria
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Human-Associated Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in the Antarctic2012In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 2056-2058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coli bacteria with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) type CTX-M resistance were isolated from water samples collected close to research stations in Antarctica. The isolates had blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15 genotypes and sequence types (ST) indicative of a human-associated origin. This is the first record of ESBL-producing enterobacteria from Antarctica.

  • 44.
    Hessman, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Atterby, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    High Prevalence and Temporal Variation of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria in Urban Swedish Mallards2018In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria present a growing global healthcare challenge. Previous research demonstrates that wild birds harbor extended spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and may contribute to their dissemination. We aimed to assess prevalence and temporal variation in the detection rate of ESBL-producing bacteria in urban wild birds and to evaluate methods regarding sample handling. Monthly fecal sampling was performed in 2013 at an urban pond in Sweden. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction targeting bla(CTX-M). Subsets of samples were analyzed in multiple replicates and without previous freezing. Pond water samples were screened for 12 antibiotics. Out of 813 fecal samples, 47% grew ESBL-producing E. coli, a higher prevalence than in similar studies. Detection rate varied considerably between months, ranging from 4.2% in May to 84% in July, and was significantly higher during warm months. A majority of isolates harbored CTX-M-15 type ESBL. Detection rates were increased by duplicating samples and by avoiding freezing. No antibiotics were detected in pond water. This study demonstrates high prevalence and a previously undescribed temporal variation in detection rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wild birds. The distribution of CTX-M genes corresponds well with Swedish human isolates, indicating communication between the genetic pools of ESBLs in humans and wild birds. Urban ponds may serve as important natural reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance.

  • 45.
    Hoffman, Tove
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Barboutis, Christos
    Hellen Ornithol Soc Birdlife, Athens, Greece.
    Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz
    Ondokuz Mayis Univ, Samsun, Turkey.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Fransson, Thord
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Figuerola, Jordi
    Estn Biol Donana, Seville, Spain;Ciber Epidemil & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Kiat, Yosef
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Moutailler, Sara
    Agence Natl Secur Sanit Alimentat, Maisons Alfort, France.
    Nystrom, Fredrik
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA in Hyalomma rufipes Ticks Infesting Migratory Birds, Europe and Asia Minor2018In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 879-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus RNA was detected in immature Hyalomma rufipes ticks infesting northward migratory birds caught in the North Mediterranean Basin. This finding suggests a role for birds in the ecology of the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus and a potential mechanism for dissemination to novel regions. Increased surveillance is warranted.

  • 46. Hurt, Aeron C.
    et al.
    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran
    Butler, Jeffrey
    Baas, Chantal
    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian
    Carolina Silva-de-la-Fuente, M.
    Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Kelso, Anne
    Barr, Ian G.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica2014In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 5, no 3, p. e01098-14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adelie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra-and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we characterized H11N2 viruses sampled from Adelie penguins from two geographically different sites in Antarctica and show that the segmented AIV genome diverged between 49 and 80 years ago from other AIVs, with several genes showing similarity and shared ancestry with H3N8 equine influenza viruses. This study provides the first insight into the ecology of AIVs in Antarctica and highlights the potential risk of an introduction of highly pathogenic AIVs into the continent.

  • 47.
    Isaksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Christerson, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Blomqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Wille, Michelle
    Alladio, Lucia A.
    Sachse, Konrad
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium, but no Chlamydia psittaci, in sea birds from Antarctica2015In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1931-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the growing order of Chlamydiales, there are a number of pathogens. One is Chlamydia psittaci, a zoonotic pathogen, with birds as natural hosts that may be transmitted to humans and cause severe respiratory disease, psittacosis. The prevalence of this pathogen in Antarctic birds is almost unknown as well as the ramifications of its potential spread in naïve bird populations. To investigate the prevalence of chlamydia organisms, cloacal and fecal samples were collected from 264 penguins and 263 seabirds on the Antarctic Peninsula and in Southern Chile. No C. psittaci could be detected by 23S rRNA real-time PCR. However, DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA 298-bp signature sequence revealed a Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium previously found in seabirds from the subarctic zone, demonstrating that this not yet fully characterized bacterium is widespread. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. psittaci among wild birds on the Antarctic Peninsula seems to be low, but other types of chlamydial organisms are common. Further studies are required to taxonomically define and finally understand the role of these non-classified Chlamydiae.

  • 48.
    Jaenson, TGT
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Tälleklint, L
    Lundqvist, L
    Olsen, B
    Chirico, J
    Mejlon, H
    Uppsala University, Museums etc., Museum of Evolution.
    Geographical distribution, host associations, and vector roles of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae, Argasidae) in Sweden.1994In: J Med Entomol, ISSN 0022-2585, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 240-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review covers the geographic distribution and host relationships of the tick species in Sweden. Ixodes uriae White, I. caledonicus Nuttall, I. unicavatus Neumann, I. arboricola Schulze & Schlottke, and I. lividus Koch are ornithophagous species. I. trianguliceps Birula, I. canisuga Johnston, I. hexagonus Leach, and Argas vespertilionis (Latreille) are mammalophagous. I. ricinus (L.) and Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzago feed on both birds and mammals. All these tick species may be considered to be permanently present in Sweden. I. persulcatus Schulze, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), may be regarded as not indigenous to Sweden although they may be regularly introduced by spring-migrating birds or imported dogs, respectively. The first European record of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), is reported. There are several records of Hyalomma aegyptium (L.) from imported tortoises in Sweden. Excluding other ticks imported on exotic pets and zoo animals, another 13 tick species are listed that may occur, at least occasionally, in Sweden. Because of its wide geographic distribution, great abundance, and wide host range, I. ricinus is medically the most important arthropod in northern Europe. I. ricinus is common in southern and south-central Sweden and along the coast of northern Sweden and has been recorded from 29 mammal species, 56 bird species, and two species of lizards in Sweden alone. The potential introduction to Sweden of exotic pathogens with infected ticks (e.g., I. persulcatus and H. marginatum on birds or Dermacentor spp. and R. sanguineus on mammals) is evident.

  • 49. Jansson, Désirée S
    et al.
    Mushtaq, Memoona
    Johansson, Karl-Erik
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Andersson, Dan I
    Broman, Tina
    Berg, Charlotte
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica.2015In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region.

    METHOD: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed.

    RESULTS: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested strains showed decreased susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, tylvalosin, lincomycin, or tylosin.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intestinal spirochaetes from this region. Despite limitations of current diagnostic methods, our results, together with earlier studies, show that Brachyspira spp., including potentially pathogenic strains, occur globally among free-living avian hosts, and that this genus encompasses a higher degree of biodiversity than previously recognised.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Artursson, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, Kalmar, Sweden;Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hansson, Ingrid
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Lab Microbiol, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Lopez-Martin, Juana
    Univ Concepcion, Fac Ciencias & Vet, Dept Patol & Med Prevent, Chillan, Chile.
    Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
    Univ Andres Bello, Ctr Invest Sustentabilidad, Santiago, Chile.
    Moreno, Lucile
    Univ Concepcion, Fac Ciencias Nat & Oceanograf, Concepcion, Chile.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Engvall, Eva Olsson
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skarin, Hanna
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Troell, Karin
    Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ågren, Joakim
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
    Univ Concepcion, Fac Ciencias Vet, Chillan, Chile.
    Characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0206502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of knowledge of naturally occurring pathogens is limiting our ability to use the Antarctic to study the impact human-mediated introduction of infectious microorganisms have on this relatively uncontaminated environment. As no large-scale coordinated effort to remedy this lack of knowledge has taken place, we rely on smaller targeted efforts to both study present microorganisms and monitor the environment for introductions. In one such effort, we isolated Campylobacter species from fecal samples collected from wild birds in the Antarctic Peninsula and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Indeed, in South Georgia, we found Campylobacter lari and the closely related Campylobacter peloridis, but also distantly related human-associated multilocus sequence types of Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast, in the Antarctic Peninsula, we found C. tart and two closely related species, Campylobacter subantarcticus and Campylobacter volucris, but no signs of human introduction. In fact, our finding of human-associated sequence types of C. jejuni in South Georgia, but not in the Antarctic Peninsula, suggests that efforts to limit the spread of infectious microorganisms to the Antarctic have so far been successful in preventing the introduction of C. jejuni. However, we do not know how it came to South Georgia and whether the same mode of introduction could spread it from there to the Antarctic Peninsula.

123 1 - 50 of 102
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