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  • 1.
    Alev, Uellar
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Eskola, Lari
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Arumägi, Endrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård. Tallinn Univ Technol, Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Jokisalo, Juha
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Siren, Kai
    Aalto Univ, Dept Energy Technol, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Indoor hygrothermal condition and user satisfaction in naturally ventilated historic houses in temperate humid continental climate around the Baltic Sea2016Inngår i: Architectural Science Review, ISSN 0003-8628, E-ISSN 1758-9622, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 53-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor climate and user satisfaction were analysed by field measurement and a questionnaire in 67 traditional rural houses in Estonia, Finland and Sweden. Our findings showed that the indoor climate in all the investigated historic rural houses needs improvement. The room temperature was mainly too low during winter. Leaky houses had also a larger vertical temperature difference. The relative humidity in the unheated and periodically heated houses was high during winter and caused risk for mould growth in 17% of all houses and 33% of unheated houses. Significant differences of indoor humidity loads in different houses were revealed depending on the living density and usage profile. During the winter period, the design value of moisture excess was 4-5g/m(3) and the average moisture load was 2-3.5g/m(3). The indoor humidity load in historic houses was similar to that in modern houses. The results of the questionnaire showed that main problems were related to unstable or too low temperatures. At the same time, inhabitants rated the overall indoor climate as healthy and no statistically important relations were found between average indoor temperature and complaints about too cold or too warm indoor temperatures.

  • 2. Alev, Ullar
    et al.
    Eskola, Lari
    Arumägi, Endrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Jokisalo, Juha
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Siren, Kai
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kalamees, Tango
    Renovation alternatives to improve energy performance of historic rural houses in the Baltic Sea region2014Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 77, s. 58-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses renovation alternatives to improve energy performance of historic rural houses in three countries (Estonia, Finland, Sweden) in the Baltic Sea region (cold climate). The study was conducted by a combination of field measurements and simulations. Indoor climate, typical houses and structures as well as the current condition and need for renovation were determined by field measurements. Based on field measurements, indoor climate and energy simulation models were validated and used to calculate energy use for different renovation measures. Energy renovation packages were calculated for different scenarios (minimal influence on the appearance of the house, improvement of thermal comfort, improvement of building service systems) for different energy saving levels. The analysis showed that the improvement of building service systems and the energy source holds the largest energy saving potential. The building envelope of old rural houses needs improvement also due to high thermal transmittance and air leakage. The insulation of the external wall has the largest single energy saving potential of the building's envelope. The results show how energy savings depend on energy saving targets, typology of the building, thermal transmittance of original structures, and building service systems. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Arumägi, Endrik
    et al.
    Chair of Building Physics and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Chair of Building Physics and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Indoor climate in a naturally ventilated unheated medieval church in Harju-Risti, Estonia2010Inngår i: 10th REHVA World congress Clima 2010: Sustainable Energy Use in Buildings, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor climate in a naturally ventilated unheated medieval church was analysed to determine if the conditions existing suit for three medieval wooden sculptures forming the Calvary group that were decorated the church until 1958. The values of temperature and RH were measured with data loggers at 1-h intervals inside and outside the church. Ventilation measurements were performed using a passive tracer gas technique. The current study shows that there is a considerable risk in bringing back the medieval sculptures forming the Calvary group to the Harju-Risti Church without creating conditions for indoor temperature and humidity regulation. To start risk assessment it is required to maintain a RH level that prevents the risk of mould growth, reduce fluctuations of air RH annually and in the short term period, avoid of too high and too low humidity levels in church that could cause flaking, peeling and cracking of wooden sculptures.

  • 4.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Permeability in lime plaster in relation to durability of covered materials2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In restoration of old buildings, lime plasters are used for reasons of authenticity and for technicalreasons as well. In many traditional constructions, there is wood behind the plasters or there is old limemortar in the masonry. For the durability of both these underlying materials, it is important that therelative humidity, RH is not too high under a long time of exposure. This can lead to an accelerateddegradation process of wood and leaching of lime in mortars. To prevent this, the plaster must have aproper permeability.The permeability of a material determines its ability to transport gas and moisture. In lime plasters,permeability affects hardening, carbonation as well as durability of the underlying materials. In thepresent paper, eleven mixtures of lime mortar were studied. The binders used were lime slaked in fourdifferent ways, hydraulic lime and cement.The following measurements were made to analyse the permeability and the pore structure of thesamples. Gas permeability and draining curves give an indication of rate of carbonation. Vapourpermeability shows the ability of plaster to transmit moisture at different RH. Thin sections were madefor microscopically investigations of the samples.The investigations show that both the vapour permeability and gas permeability decreases with anincreased amount of hydraulic binder in the lime plasters. Even small amounts of hydraulic binderhave a significant effect.By connecting these results with examples from reality, the picture becomes clearer. In the medievaltown Visby in Sweden, there are several examples of both rotten wood and disintegrated lime mortars.It is constructions from 13th to 19th centuries and low permeable cementitious plasters have coveredthem all, during the middle of the 20th century.

  • 5.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Myrin, Malin
    Tyréns AB.
    Thelin, Carl
    Tyréns AB.
    Kettunen, Rebeca
    Gotland Museum.
    Mebus, Ulrika
    Gotland Museum.
    Increased use of ruins through secured masonry and comfortable climate2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation, Petra, Jordan, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a unique scientific research project, funded by the KK-foundation in Sweden together with several companies participating in the project. A primary goal is to find methods to examine and take care of open masonry constructions thereby enabling an increased use of them in a safe and comfortable way without diminishing their cultural values. A second goal is to establish a long-term cooperation/network of researchers, conservators, engineers, antiquarians and craftsmen that can keep and develop the knowledge. The project takes place in year 2010 and 2011. This paper presents a model of cooperation as well as the ongoing experiment and expected results. The project is divided into three major parts:1) Description and assessment of historic masonry as load bearing structures. 2) Assessment of stone and mortar in old masonry and finding the methods to secure and preserve them. 3) The climate in the ruin with respect to comfort and preservation. The goals for the different parts of this research project are to find the best possible solutions of how to: a) Evaluate the construction of complex masonry structures to enable new additions that are appropriate with respect to statics. b) Find efficient methods to evaluate and conserve the status of the materials (stone, mortar) and walls in old masonry to grant safe accessibility. c) Create a comfortable climate in an open masonry structure without closing it. These three research areas all focus on the historic masonry which at the same time forms the climate shell, the bearer of plaster and the historical setting to the activities that are to take place in the ruin.

  • 6.
    Berg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res NIKU, Pb 736 Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo, Norway..
    Flyen, Anne-Cathrine
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res NIKU, Pb 736 Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo, Norway..
    Godbolt, Asne Lund
    SINTEF Bldg & Infrastruct, Pb 124 Blindern, N-0314 Oslo, Norway..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    User-driven energy efficiency in historic buildings: A review2017Inngår i: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 28, s. 188-195Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper draws from the general literature on energy efficiency and historic buildings to explain the importance and potential of user-driven energy efficiency in historic buildings. It is the first review that places the user as a central object of study in the research field of historic buildings and energy efficiency. Relevant interdisciplinary topics and research results that make up the core of the field are presented and discussed in relation to user behaviour and its impact on energy consumption. The paper also investigates how user behaviour aspects can be integrated in a procedural approach to energy refurbishment in historic buildings. Research and experience from the building stock in general clearly shows how a user's awareness and behaviour, such as choice of temperature, zone heating and controlled airing, can have a significant effect on energy demand yet have no physical impact on the building. However, this has not received enough attention with regards to the historic building stock, where many physical energy efficiency measures can have negative impacts on the historic qualities of the building. Modification of user behaviour can therefore be a way not only to reduce energy demand but also to minimise the physical impact of increasing energy efficiency on historic buildings. The paper concludes that the current research agenda on historic buildings and energy efficiency has broken much ground but remains focused more on technical solutions than bottom-up user perspectives. Two main topics are identified as key barriers and future research fields: First, energy performance modelling is identified as a general barrier to developing sustainable strategies that promote user impact in historic buildings. Accurate energy modelling of historic buildings is a complex field reliant on the thermal interplay between user-building and building-district. Improved knowledge and intensified research is necessary to avoid distorted energy modelling results and unwanted rebound effects. Practical tools also require that the modelling can be used for trade-off scenarios where other sustainability aspects such as cultural heritage and economy are weighed in. Second, awareness raising in order to foster a deeper understanding and knowledge about the construction, system and cultural heritage values of a building is proposed as a key ingredient and driver for improved and sustainable energy behaviour. The paper argues that while user-driven energy efficiency represents an important resource for fostering less energy-demanding and less intrusive interventions in historic buildings, there are no guarantees for achieving the planned level of energy efficiency without taking into account user behaviour and the actual operation and energy performance of the historic building. To do this without risking negative consequences, improved decision-making processes are needed on policy, building and user level. An interdisciplinary bottom-up approach to energy refurbishment is presented. The essence of the model is that users and residents should always play a central role in the decision-making process because the well-being of the historic building will always depend on its day-to-day users, and vice versa.

  • 7.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Handbok i hållbar energianvändning för kyrkan2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kyrkans skapelseansvar går hand i hand med vårt gemensamma ansvar för en hållbar livsstil och jordens överlevnad. Handbok i hållbar energianvändning för kyrkan ger handfasta ekonomiska tips på hur man kan effektivisera energianvändningen i kyrkans byggnader. I boken tar bl.a. upp: Ventilation, fjärr- och närvärme, belysning, energideklarationer, vattenförbrukning, solvärme, klimatskal och isolering, transporter, energispartips och biobränsle. Boken ger också råd om uppvärmning och vad som är viktigt att beakta vid ändrad användning av kyrkobyggnaden. Boken vänder sig i första hand till verksamhets- och driftsansvariga i församlingar, samfälligheter och stift, men också till miljösamordnare och antikvarier.

  • 8.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Kulturvård.
    Luft-luftvärmepumpar för skyddsvärme i kyrkor2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of air-to-air heat pumps in a church has been investigated with respect to preservation aspects and energy efficiency. The paper discusses the general problem and presents the results from a case study. The temperatures, velocities and humidity in the church have been measured for four different heating modes. The study shows that there is a significant potential for energy savings with heat pumps and that temperature distribution and air movements are comparable to conventional heating.

  • 9.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Preventive conservation by climate control in historic buildings2008Inngår i: Preservation and conservation in 21st century : knowledge, challenge, attitude :: preprints of the 8th Triennal Meeting for Conservators of the Baltic States, Tallinn, 7-10 May 2008 / [ed] Pia Ehasalu, Kriste Sibul, Talinn: Conservation Centre Kanut , 2008, s. 56-59Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how we can work step by step to design appropriate climate control systems. We know enough about climate specifications to reduce risks significantly. The specifications for preservation should be wheighed against other factors in a risk assessment, methods used in museums need to be adapted for this purpose. A climate analysis will give the basic conditions for climate control. A climate control strategy should use a combination of passive control, ventilation, heating and humidity control to achieve the desired indoor climate at low cost and with minimal impact on the building.

  • 10.
    Broström, Tor
    Tekniska högskolan i Stockholm. Institutionen för energiteknik.
    Uppvärmning i kyrkor: fukt- och värmetekniska beräkningar för dimensionering och klimatstyrning1996Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Kulturvård.
    Borgö, Louise
    Thulin, Christine
    Textilskåp med fuktstyrning2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present project was to develop and evaluate a solution forstorage of textiles in humid indoor environments, in this case churches. The proposed solution is based on creating a microclimate in the storage cabinets separated from the rest of the building. The cabinets were made air tight and insulated. With the use of a simple control system for conservation heating, the relative humidity can be kept below dangerous levels. The project comprises development and evaluation of textile cabinets in three churches on Gotland, Sweden. Measurements over one year show that cabinets with climate control are a simple and reliable method to prevent mould growth. Overall, the control systems have worked according to expectations. The relative humidity and temperature in the cabinets was maintained within a safe interval.

  • 12.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Berg, Fredrik
    Bygningsavdelingen - Norsk institutt for kulturminneforskning, NIKU.
    For the categorisation of historic buildings to determine energy saving2017Inngår i: AGATHON International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, ISSN 2464-9309, Vol. 1, s. 135-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical characteristics and cultural values affect the possibility of saving energy in the historic building stock. The issue has been addressed and studied in monumental buildings. For the majority of historic buildings, defined in this research as traditional constructions built before 1945 when the building sector became more industrialised, there is still a need for further studies. In order to study a large building stock it is necessary to make generalisations. To break down the stock into a few statistically representative categories is one way of doing that.

    The aim of this article is to present the development of a method to categorise a historic building stock with the ability to identify the potential for energy saving and preservation of cultural values. By studying building categories and typical buildings in detail the results can be extrapolated to represent a large building stock.

    The method for categorisation is done in three steps: building inventory, categorisation and selection of typical buildings. The inventory is when data on the building stock is gathered and compiled. This is necessary in order to have a sound statistical basis for the following steps of the method. The categorisation is done by dividing the buildings in groups based on their basic characteristics; for example size and number of adjoining walls. A delimitation is done, if necessary, in order to exclude atypical buildings.

    Typical buildings from each category are then selected by letting the medium values within the categories decide the characteristics of the typical buildings. Other characteristics such as age, use, construction type etc. can be determined for the typical buildings and motivated statistically based on the data in the inventory.

    A case study has been carried out on the historic building stock in the town Visby in Sweden, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. When applying the method for categorisation on the buildings built before 1945 in Visby the results show that 70 % of the buildings’ volume is represented by 87 % of the buildings. The study shows that it is possible to generalise some aspects even in a relatively richly nuanced building stock by letting the basic characteristics constitute the first common denominators in a categorisation.

    The result of the categorisation facilitates the identification of representative typical buildings that can be used for energy modelling. The six groups of typical buildings identified in Visby are presented at the end of the article.

    This study has been conducted within the multi-disciplinary projects Potential and policies for energy efficiency in Swedish buildings built before 1945, financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and Energy Efficiency for EU Historic Districts, funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme.

  • 13.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Liu, Linn
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Stahl, Fredrik
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings2014Inngår i: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 150-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish research project 'Potential and Policies for Energy Efficiency in Swedish Historic Buildings' aims to investigate the interdependency between political energy targets and effects on the built heritage. The first part of this paper presents an iterative and interactive method to assess the potential for and consequences of improving the energy performance in a stock of historic buildings. Key elements in the method are: categorisation of the building stock, identifying targets, assessment of measures, and life-cycle cost optimisation. In the second part of the paper, the method is applied to a typical Swedish building. The selected case study shows how the method allows for an interaction between the quantitative assessment of the techno-economic optimisation and the qualitative assessment of vulnerability and other risks. Through a multidisciplinary dialogue and iteration it is possible to arrive at a solution that best balances energy conservation and building conservation in a given decision context.

  • 14.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Norrström, Heidi
    Bruka, bevara och energieffektivisera2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Hagentoft, Carl-Eric
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Humidity Control in Historic Buildings through Adaptive Ventilation: a Case Study2011Inngår i: NSB 2011: 9th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, 2011, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive ventilation, controlled with respect to absolute humidity inside and outside a building, canbe used to reduce RH below risk levels for biodeterioration. In the present case study, adaptiveventilation was used in a historic stone building with severe moisture problems. Measurementscarried out over a year shows that ventilation had a significant drying effect. The mould risk is keptat an acceptable level with exception of two short periods .Short term variations in RH are acceptableaccording to conservation standards. Heating or dehumidification as an auxiliary measure would beneeded only for a short period of time. The performance can be improved by increased fan capacityand improving air tightness of the building.

  • 16.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Climate control strategies for occasionally used churches: heat, dehumidify, ventilate – or do nothing2012Inngår i: Cultural heritage preservation : EWCHP- 2012: proceedings of the 2nd European workshop on cultural heritage preservation / [ed] Elin Dahlin, Kjeller: NILU, Norwegian Institute for Air Research , 2012, s. 124-130Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Inneklimat i kyrkor förr och nu2014Inngår i: Från Gutabygd 2014, Visby: Gotlands Hembygdsförbunds förlag , 2014, s. 117-138Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Heat pumps for conservation heating2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th symposium on building physics in the Nordic countries: Copenhagen, June 16-18, 2008 / [ed] Carsten Rode, Lyngby: Technical university of Denmark , 2008, s. 1143-1150Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation heating is used to control relative humidity in order to better preserve historic buildings and their interiors. The heating load for conservation heating when applied in a Nordic climate was characterized in order to investigate if and how air-to-air heat pumps can be used for conservation heating. Heating for conservation results in indoor temperatures that follow the seasonal variation of the outdoor temperature. Depending on the season and moisture load on the building, the indoor temperature will be 0-10 °C higher than the ambient temperature. The heating load is much smaller and more stable over the year as compared to heating for comfort. In the south of Sweden conservation heating is motivated mainly by preservation aspects, whereas in northern Sweden the potential for energy saving is considerable. Heat pumps in general and air-to air heat pumps in particular, have properties that match the requirements of conservation heating and can provide a cost effective solution. Heat pumps specially designed for conservation heating could improve the performance radically in relation to standard heat pumps.

  • 19.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Hållbarhet och byggnadsvård2011Inngår i: Energiboken: energieffektivisering för småhusägare / [ed] Eva Löfgren & Paul Hansson, Stockholm: Svenska byggnadsvårdsföreningen , 2011, s. 34-45Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    The Indoor Climate in Skokloster Castle2010Inngår i: Historical buildings as museums: Systems for climate control and heritage preservation / [ed] Davide Del Curto, Firenze: Nardini Editore , 2010, s. 84-93Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Skokloster castle is a heavy stone and brick building without any active climatization. It houses a large collection of artefacts shown in their historic environment without any showcases. The objective of this study is to analyse the indoor climate, make a risk assessment and to propose interventions to improve the indoor climate with respect to the long term preservation of the collection. Relative humidity and temperature have been monitored within the castle for more than one year. Air exchange in selected rooms has been measured quarterly using diffusive sampling. The indoor climate is characterized by extremely low temperatures and high relative humidity in the winter. Even though the building does reduce the effect of outdoor variations, the variations in the indoor climate are larger than one would prefer in a museum. The primary risks associated with the indoor climate are mould growth, mechanical damages and chemical degradation. The variations in RH can be reduced by enhancing the effective hygrothermal inertia of the building through a reduction of the air exchange. In order to substantially reduce the mould risk, conservation heating and/or dehumidification would be needed.

  • 21.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Linden, Elisabet
    University of Gavle, Department of Built Environment.
    Lindström, Svante
    University of Gavle, Department of Built Environment.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gavle, Department of Built Environment.
    Sandberg, Mats
    KTH Research School, University of Gavle.
    Convective heating in a medieval church: Effects of air-to-air heat pumps on air movements, particle deposition and temperature distribution2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms (Roomvent) 2009, Busan, Korea, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe many historic buildings use direct electric heating. Air-to-air heat pumps are an interesting alternative, in particular for conservation heating. However, the convective heating may accelerate soiling of walls and artefacts by increasing the velocity and turbulence. The objective of the present paper is to discuss the general problem, the methodology for studying air motions and temperature distribution, and to present the results from a case study where air-to-air heat pumps and bench heaters were used for heating in a medieval church. The temperatures, velocities and humidity in the church have been measured for four different heating modes. The present study does not indicate any major disadvantages of using heat pumps for background heating in stone churches of the studied kind. More detailed long term studies are needed to ascertain the effects over time.

  • 22.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Nilsen, Lisa
    Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 20112012Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is an issue that brings the trade-off between aspects of use and preservation to a head. On the one hand, interventions for energy efficiency facilitate long-term use by reducing operating costs; on the other hand, the interventions may have both a physical and a visual impact on the cultural heritage value and the fabric of the building.

    In order to promote a sustainable use and preservation of historic buildings, The Swedish Energy Agency instituted a National Research Program for Energy Efficiency in HistoricBuildings. The first stage of the program ranfrom 2007 to 2010 with a total budget of around 4 million Euro. Additional funding was provided by the Church of Sweden and the NationalHeritage Board. There were fifteen projects involving some thirty researchers from different Swedish universities and research institutes.

    To mark the end of the first stage of the national research program the international conference Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings was held in Visby in February 2011. Most of the projects within the program were presented at the conference and international key-note speakers were invited to each session, giving a total of 24 papers. More than one hundred participants, representing ten countries, participated in the conference.

  • 23.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Nilsen, LisaLisa Nilsen Kulturvård, Stockholm.Carlsten, SusannaUppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings2018Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We proudly present the postprints of the third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, held in Visby, Sweden September 26th to 27th, 2018.

    The conference was organized jointly by the Swedish Energy Agency, Uppsala University and the Swedish National Heritage Board as part of their collaboration in the Swedish national research program on energy efficiency in historic buildings. The Region of Gotland kindly sponsored the conference dinner.

    There were close to one hundred abstracts submitted to the conference. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from the Scientific Committee in the review process.

    Our thanks to Lisa Nilsen who has been the conference coordinator and editor of the papers, Susanna Carlsten who has been in charge of information and conference planning and Alice Sunnebäck who finished the layout of the papers and the report as a whole.

    The organizing committee for EEHB2018,

    Tor Broström Uppsala University

    Jörgen Sjödin Swedish Energy Agency

    Camilla Altahr-Cederberg Swedish National Heritage Board

  • 24.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    WSP Environmental, Department of Building Physics.
    Climate Comfort Measurements in Swedish Churches Equipped with New Heating System2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Thermal Manikin and Modeling Meeting, University of Coimbra , 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many church buildings in Sweden have problems with rising heating costs combined with deterioration of inventories as a consequence of an inappropriate indoor climate. Gotland University has in collaboration with Gotland's churches installed a new radiant heating system for churches. The developed system has floor heating and bench heating pads combined with radiant heaters hanging from above the bench rows. These new installations have now been evaluated with respect to thermal climate comfort. The results show that the clothing of course plays an important role even with help radiant heaters and bench heat pads. Persons on both sides of the instrument as well as the height of the heaters do seem to play a smaller role in this investigation. An important parameter to check is the risk for drought that clearly is dependent on of the construction of the church benches.

  • 25.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Nordström, Anders
    Historiska Hus, Umeå, Sweden.
    Climate Control in Churches in Northern Sweden2009Inngår i: Proceedings Cold Climate HVAC Sisimiut, Greenland, 16-19 March 2009, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the extreme north of Sweden, the indoor climate and energy performance of 50 churches is being monitored in order to improve energy efficiency and to improve the indoor climate with respect to the preservation. The objective of the present paper is to investigate if and how both indoor climate and energy efficiency can be improved through better climate control. Three cases were chosen to study churches with no heating, permanent heating and intermittent heating. In each case the actual indoor climate was compared to climate criteria for preservation to determine the consequences in terms of climate control. The results show that there is a conflict between the climate criteria for preservation and the present use of the churches that cannot be resolved by technical solutions only. In order to come up with reasonable compromise research is needed on climate criteria and risk management at extremely low ranges of RH.

  • 26.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Svanström, Karin
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Solar energy and cultural-heritage values2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Conference, Linköping, May 2011: Volume 8 (Low-Energy Architecture) / [ed] Moshfegh, Bahram, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, s. 2034-2040Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of solar energy in a building of cultural-heritage value is an issue that brings the trade-off between aspects of use and preservation to a head. A sustainable use and preservation of historic buildings requires broad and long term compromises between social, economic and environmental aspects. The objective of the present paper is to present and discuss a decision framework for such compromises regarding the use of solar energy in historic buildings.

  • 27.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    van Schijndel, Jos
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, .
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    National museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Energy efficient climate control in historic buildings2014Inngår i: Climate for culture: Built culturalheritage in times of climate change / [ed] Johanna Leissner, Urban Kaiser, Ralf Kilian, Leipzig: Fraunhofer MOEZ , 2014, s. 29-32Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Eriksson, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Milic, Vlatko
    Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Balancing preservation and energy efficiency in building stocks2019Inngår i: International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, ISSN 2398-4708Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Energy use in buildings needs to be reduced to meet political goals; however, reducing energy use can conflict with heritage preservation objectives. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a method that combines quantitative and qualitative analyses of the potential of energy savings in an historic building stock. Specifically, this study examines how requirements of historic building preservation affect the energy saving potential on a building stock level.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Using the World Heritage Town of Visby, Sweden as a case study, this paper illustrates a step-by-step method as a basis for implementing energy savings techniques in an historic building stock. The method contains the following steps: categorisation of a building stock, definition of restriction levels for energy renovation scenarios and life cycle costs optimisation of energy measures in archetype buildings representing the building stock. Finally, this study analyses how different energy renovation strategies will impact heritage values and energy saving potentials for different categories of buildings.

    Findings

    The outcome of the study is twofold: first, the method has been tested and proven useful and second, the results from the application of the method have been used to formulate differentiated energy renovation strategies for the case study.

    Originality/value

    The study shows that it is possible to integrate techno-economic analysis with assessment of heritage values in a given building stock in order to facilitate a strategic discussion balancing policies and targets for energy savings with policies for the preservation of heritage values. The findings will contribute to sounder policy development and planning for historic building stocks.

  • 29. Genova, Enrico
    et al.
    Fatta, Giovanni
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Categorization of the historic archiecture in Palermo for the purpose of energy assessment.2015Inngår i: Proceedings of International Conference CISBAT 2015 “Future Buildings and Districts – Sustainability from Nano to Urban Scale”, / [ed] Scartezzini, Jean-Louis, 2015, s. 499-504Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Haugen, Annika
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res, Oslo, Norway.
    Bertolin, Chiara
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Architecture & Design, Dept Architecture & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Olstad, Tone
    Norwegian Inst Cultural Heritage Res, Oslo, Norway.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    A Methodology for Long-Term Monitoring of Climate Change Impacts on Historic Buildings2018Inngår i: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, nr 10, artikkel-id 370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology for long-term monitoring of climate change impacts on historic buildings and interiors has been developed. This paper proposes a generic framework for how monitoring programs can be developed and describes the planning and arrangement of a Norwegian monitoring campaign. The methodology aims to make it possible to establish a data-driven decision making process based on monitored decay related to climate change. This monitoring campaign includes 45 medieval buildings distributed over the entirety of Norway. Thirty-five of these buildings are dated to before 1537 and include wooden buildings as well as 10 medieval churches built in stone while the remaining 10 buildings are situated in the World Heritage sites of Bryggen, in Bergen on the west coast of Norway, and in Røros, which is a mining town in the inland of the country. The monitoring is planned to run for 30 to 50 years. It includes a zero-level registration and an interval-based registration system focused on relevant indicators, which will make it possible to register climate change-induced decay at an early stage.

  • 31.
    Ijla, Akram
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    The Sustainable Viability of Adaptive Reuse of Historic Buildings: the experiences of Two World Heritage Old Cities; Bethlehem in Palestine and Visby in Sweden2015Inngår i: International Invention Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, ISSN 2408-7238, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 52-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at investigating the viability of adaptive reuse of abandoned buildings (religious, Nobel Architecture, residential, commercial, and other) and the impact it has on the sustainability of existing environment in Bethlehem and Visby. There are many historic buildings in Bethlehem and Visby that are unique in their history, architecture, and built environment. This paper explores the importance of adaptive reuse by looking at several examples of reused historic buildings in both cities. The examples illustrate the viability of adaptive reuse in terms of sustainability; economic impact, affordable function, vitality of social life, and usability of existing urban resources and energy saving. The paper advocates policy makers is to increase the adaptive reuse policy within abandoned old cities as an integral tool of regeneration and sustainability policies. A comparative study of Palestine (Bethlehem) and Sweden (Visby) focuses on the experiences of two cities where conversions have registered a significant impact in terms of new facilities and businesses creation and has had a positive impact on the life both city centers. A survey of building owners, governors and local community leadership in Bethlehem old city and the old city of Visby, interviews, and a review of literature concerning adaptive reuse of historic buildings are used as a tool of conducting qualitative and comparative research. The researcher’s perception is that adaptive reuse with social life regeneration, economic development activities, and energy efficiency serve the key concepts of sustainability; in addition to the local community perception of adaptive reuse as a viable option to demolition and redevelopment of existing facilities. The research recommends key implications for local governments in Sweden and Palestine as they eventually provide a theoretical framework that can be incorporated in the decision-making processes for adaptive reuse projects.

  • 32.
    Kilian, Ralf
    et al.
    Fraunhofer IBP.
    Vyhlídal, TomášCzech Technical University in Prague.Broström, TorHögskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Developments in Climate Control of Historic Buildings: Proceedings from the international conference "Climitization of Historic Buildings, State of the Art"2011Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Climate Control in Cultural Heritage Buildings in Denmark2011Inngår i: Developments in Climate Control of Historic Buildings: Proceedings from the International Conference "Climatization of Historic Buildings, State of the Art", 2011, s. 39-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation heating has been used for decades to control the RH in cultural heritage buildings. But if the building is not used for living or working, heating is not needed for human comfort. The chemical decay of organic materials depends mainly on temperature, so it is better for preservation to reduce heating. The air exchange rate is related to the design of the building envelope. With rising energyprices humidity control by dehumidification may be an attractive alternative. The potential for energyefficient RH control was examined for a generic building exposed to the monthly average outsidetemperature and RH in Denmark. The indoor temperature was allowed to follow the outside average,whereas the indoor RH was controlled to 40 % 50 % 60 % or 70 %. Dehumidificationwas implemented inthree different buildings: A recent museum store, a medieval church, and an 18thcentury countrymansion. The energy consumption depends on the RH set point, theair exchange rate and the source of liquid moisture to the building. The air exchange rate related to the design of the building envelope. Single glazed windows and doors are the most important sources ofleakage to buildings. Lack of maintenance may lead to poor performance of the dehumidifier and waste energy.

  • 34.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    et al.
    The National Museum, Department of Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Climate control in historic buildings in Denmark2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many historic buildings, conservation heating has been used to control the RH in winter. Heat pumps are much more energy efficient than direct electric heating, so this technology may be adapted for climate control. Dehumidification has not been regarded as appropriate for historic buildings due to poor regulation, but recent development in electronic hygrostats makes this technology an attractive alternative. The annual energy consumption for both control strategies was calculated from statistical meteorological data for Denmark. The most energy efficient control strategy is determined by the U-value of the building, the air exchange rate and the volume. For large buildings conservation heating with heat pump technology seems to be the most energy efficient, unless the thermal insulation is very poor. For small buildings dehumidification is more efficient unless the building is very leaky. The two strategies for climate control were tested in historic houses owned by the National Museum in Denmark and used for exhibition only in the summer season. Kommandørgården has an uncontrolled climate in summer due to open doors in the opening hours. In winter the RH is controlled to 60-70% by hygrostatic heating. Liselund is an 18th century mansion located in a romantic garden on the island Møn at the Baltic Sea. The house is open only for guided tours in the summer, and the RH is controlled all year by dehumidification.

  • 35.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Aasbjerg Jensen, Lars
    The National Museum of Denmark, Department of Conservation.
    Energy and power demand for intermittent heating of churches2011Inngår i: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, Visby, 9-11 February 2011, Visby, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36. Klenz Larsen, Poul
    et al.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Adaptive ventilation for occasionally used churches2013Inngår i: EWCHP-2013 / [ed] Alexandra Troi, Elena Lucchi, Bolzano: European Academy of Bozen / Bolzano (EURAC) , 2013, s. 55-62Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many churches in Denmark and Sweden are rarely used for services or other activities. A simple climate control strategy is essential to avoid mold growth and attack by insects. Ventilation is the traditional method to reduce the humidity but it sometimes has the opposite effect. The ventilation needs to be controlled only to take in outside air, when it is drier than inside, to provide acceptable conditions. Adaptive ventilation was applied in three churches in Denmark and Sweden, each with a different heating regime. Nødebo church had intermittent heating for services in winter with basic heating to a constant temperature in between. Adaptive ventilation was only applied in the summer. The air was drawn from the outside without preheating. The ventilation reduced the relative humidity, but increased the short term fluctuations. Tyvelse church had intermittent heating for services during the winter, but no heating in between services. The air was drawn from the attic in order to gain heat from solar radiation in summer. It was assumed that preheating would raise the inside temperature slightly, and thereby reduce the RH, but no effect was observed. In Hangvar church, the intake air was preheated by a solar powered heating element. The preheating had only little effect on the interior RH, probably because of the large thermal capacity of the building itself. This is the major restriction for adaptive ventilation to work in very heavy buildings. A positive side effect is that the air quality inside the churches was improved by the ventilation because bad smells were removed.

  • 37.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Decision-making on Climate Control for Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Historic Buildings2012Inngår i: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011 / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen, Visby: Gotland University Press, 2012, s. 70-80Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual framework for decision-making about indoor climate control inhistoric buildings is suggested and discussed. Ideas developed in environmentaldecision making are discussed, and it is argued that the two fields share a set offundamental characteristics that make the transfer of ideas legitimate. It is alsosuggested that an improved decision process is a necessary, although not sufficient,step towards sustainable management.

  • 38.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Standardizing the indoor climate in historic buildings: opportunities, challenges and ways forward2018Inngår i: Journal of Architectural Conservation, ISSN 1355-6207, E-ISSN 2326-6384, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable management of historic buildings. Interviews with engineers and heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context. The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

  • 39.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen. University of Gothenburg.
    Kjellström, Erik
    Broström, Tor
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Camuffo, Dario
    Uncertainties in damage assessments of future indoor climates2013Inngår i: Climate for Collections - Standards and Uncertainties / [ed] Ashley-Smith, Jonathan and Burmester, Andreas and Eibl, Melanie, Munich, 2013, s. 405-418Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant amount of uncertainty is generated in the processof combining projections of future climate, building simulationsand damage functions to produce risk maps for historic buildings.The objective of this paper is to identify and qualitatively describethe main uncertainties in the production of such maps. The mainsources of uncertainty for each modeling step are identified. It isconcluded that the level of uncertainty in risk maps is so high thatdeterministic approaches have severe limitations, and that furtherresearch is needed to assess the levels of uncertainty introducedby each modeling step.

  • 40. Leissner et al, J.
    et al.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Climate for Culture - Assessing Climate change impacts resulting from modelled ondoor climates in historic buildings2014Inngår i: Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Leissner, Johanna
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Kilian, Ralf
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Kotova, Lola
    Helmholtz Ctr Geesthacht, Climate Serv Ctr 20, D-20095 Hamburg, Germany..
    Jacob, Daniela
    Helmholtz Ctr Geesthacht, Climate Serv Ctr 20, D-20095 Hamburg, Germany..
    Mikolajewicz, Uwe
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Schellen, Henk L.
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Martens, Marco
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    van Schijndel, Jos
    Tech Univ Eindhoven, NL-5612 AZ Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Antretter, Florian
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Winkler, Matthias
    Fraunhofer Gesell, D-80686 Munich, Germany..
    Bertolin, Chiara
    CNR ISAC Padova, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Camuffo, Dario
    CNR ISAC Padova, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Simeunovic, Goran
    Czech Tech Univ, Prague 16636 6, Czech Republic..
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    Czech Tech Univ, Prague 16636 6, Czech Republic..
    Climate for Culture: assessing the impact of climate change on the future indoor climate in historic buildings using simulations2015Inngår i: Heritage Science, E-ISSN 2050-7445, Vol. 3, artikkel-id 38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The present study reports results from the large-scale integrated EU project "Climate for Culture". The full name, or title, of the project is Climate for Culture: damage risk assessment, economic impact and mitigation strategies for sustainable preservation of cultural heritage in times of climate change. This paper focusses on implementing high resolution regional climate models together with new building simulation tools in order to predict future outdoor and indoor climate conditions. The potential impact of gradual climate change on historic buildings and on the vast collections they contain has been assessed. Two moderate IPCC emission scenarios A1B and RCP 4.5 were used to predict indoor climates in historic buildings from the recent past until the year 2100. Risks to the building and to the interiors with valuable artifacts were assessed using damage functions. A set of generic building types based on data from existing buildings were used to transfer outdoor climate conditions to indoor conditions using high resolution climate projections for Europe and the Mediterranean. Results The high resolution climate change simulations have been performed with the regional climate model REMO over the whole of Europe including the Mediterranean region. Whole building simulation tools and a simplified building model were developed for historic buildings; they were forced with high resolution climate simulations. This has allowed maps of future climate-induced risks for historic buildings and their interiors to be produced. With this procedure future energy demands for building control can also be calculated. Conclusion With the newly developed method described here not only can outdoor risks for cultural heritage assets resulting from climate change be assessed, but also risks for indoor collections. This can be done for individual buildings as well as on a larger scale in the form of European risk maps. By using different standardized and exemplary artificial buildings in modelling climate change impact, a comparison between different regions in Europe has become possible for the first time. The methodology will serve heritage owners and managers as a decision tool, helping them to plan more effectively mitigation and adaption measures at various levels.

  • 42.
    Lingfors, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik, Byggteknik.
    Johansson, Tim
    Gitter AB.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik, Byggteknik.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Target-based visibility assessment on building envelopes: Applications to PV and cultural-heritage values2019Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 204, artikkel-id 109483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy applications have, in recent years, become a common element in the urban landscape, especially on roofs and facades. However, it is important that the integration of solar energy in the built environment do not distort the fabric or expression of the existing building envelope, not at least in areas of high cultural-heritage values. The aesthetics depend, to a large extent, on how visible the new technology, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, is. This paper describes a method for visibility assessment of building envelopes. It is referred to as target-based as it, in contrast to previously reported methods, bases the assessment from the perspective of the building envelope itself, rather than possible vantage points on the ground. The method was evaluated for two Swedish cities; Stockholm and Visby. In Stockholm, each building was evaluated based on its cultural-heritage values, solar irradiation and visibility. Deploying PV only on the roofs with the lowest cultural-heritage values, with insolation > 900 kWh/m2, and with no visibility from ground, results in a total PV yield of up to 2% of the total electricity demand. In Visby, various definitions of the vantage area were evaluated, from which the building envelope can be seen. It was found that the choice of vantage area greatly impacts the solar energy potential. If the vantage area is defined by the public domain, i.e., streets and other public open spaces, the non-visible roof area doubles compared to if all ground/terrain defines it. Compared to previous studies, the use of a vantage area, instead of discrete vantage points, seems to result in higher visibility of the roofs.

  • 43.
    Luciani, Andrea
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Architecture and Urban Studies (DAStU), Italy.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    The influence of air exchange on the stability of the indoor climate in Skokloster castle2013Inngår i: e-Preservation Science, ISSN 1854-3928, E-ISSN 1581-9280, ISSN 1581-9280, Vol. 10, s. 77-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Skokloster Castle is a historic masonry building without any active climate control and hosting an important and heterogeneous collection of artefacts. Despite being cited as a good passive preservation environment, conservators are observing decay in the collections related to the indoor climate that may call for a re-evaluation of the climate control strategy. Air exchange is generally considered one of the driving forces influencing the indoor climate in unheated historic buildings. This study was developed to better understand and evaluate its influence on the indoor climate stability of the castle. The present study has outlined an experimental procedure for the assessment of the influence of air exchange that can be used in historic buildings in general. Air exchange rate was measured in seven rooms using tracer gas passive sampling. The results were related to an analysis of the variability of indoor temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and mixing ratio (MR). A connection with short-term RH fluctuations, considered the most dangerous for hygroscopic materials, was identified. Problems connected with mould growth and high RH levels were also considered and discussed.

  • 44.
    Molinari, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Exergy analysis of different solutions for humidity control in heritage buildings2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden: Volume 8 (Low-Energy Architecture), Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet , 2011, s. 2041-2048Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in the building stock represents a major contribution to the total energy use in developed countries. Increasing limitations to the energy demand of the new buildings have been imposed by the building codes in the last decades, which resulted in improved building envelopes.

    Yet, in many cases it is not either technically or economically feasible to improve the existing building shells. A typical example is represented by historical buildings, such churches and old buildings, which often may not be improved for aesthetical or economic reasons. Often poorly insulated, such buildings would require a high energy demand to keep them at the preferable hygro-thermal conditions. As a consequence they are often left unheated, which also affects the usability of these buildings. However, the risk of moisture damage often requires them to be slightly heated to a certain temperature.

    As the energy demand is linked to the possibility of improving the building shell, for instance by adding insulation or making it more airtight, the exergy approach gives interesting insights on the problem. Exergy analysis emphasizes the thermodynamic valuable part of the energy demand in the building and straightforwardly defines the minimum energy demand for a certain process. The energy demand being equal, it is still possible to lower the exergy demand and consumption. A lower exergy demand paves the way to the exploitation of renewable sources, such as solar power.

    Often the main task is to keep the RH humidity within a certain range. Aim of this paper is to perform a theoretical exergy analysis of three different solutions for lowering the RH in the building. The basic approach keeps the temperature of the indoor space at a constant level. A second approach-the so-called conservation heating- consists in letting the temperature vary according to the maximum allowed indoor relative humidity. In the third case the target is reached by means of a dehumidification process. Advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are shown under the energy and exergy points of view.

    The present research is done within the framework of the “Spara och bevara” project, which targets cost-efficient solutions for the conservation and the use of heritage buildings in Sweden and the IEA Annex49 and ESF COSTexergy projects, which aim at energy-efficient buildings and communities through the application of the low-exergy approach.

  • 45. Moshfegh, B.
    et al.
    Rohdin, P.
    Milic, V.
    Donarelli, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    A method to assess the potential for and consequences of energy retrofits in Swedish historic districts2018Inngår i: Conference Report: The 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen and Susanna Carlsten, Uppsala University, 2018, s. 302-310Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Napp, Margus
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Adaptive ventilation for climate control in a medieval church in cold climate2016Inngår i: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Old medieval churches hold objects of great historical and cultural value: organs, altars, paintings. But they have no systems for indoor climate control or the church may be heated only at services. These conditions are inadequate for the preservation of cultural heritage. The objective of this paper is to assess an adaptive ventilation (AV) solution in a church for reduction of the relative humidity (RH) in an unheated church to prevent mould growth and disintegration of wooden parts. The operation principle of the system is to ensure ventilation in the church when water vapour content in the outdoor air is lower than that indoors, to lower the RH in the church. A case study in Hangvar Church in Gotland, Sweden, was conducted to test the performance of AV to reduce the RH in the church. Field measurements showed that AV has a positive impact on the indoor RH of the church. During the measurement period without climate control, the RH in the church was higher than 70% of 98% of the time; with AV, the indoor RH was higher than 70% only 78% of the time. Building simulation was carried out to test the performance and energy consumption of AV under different conditions. The simulations showed that auxiliary heating and airflow rate both have high impact on the system performance. The higher the heating power, the more effective the system is; thus, lower airflow rates are needed. Infiltration has also high impact on the system performance: the lower the infiltration rate, the better the AV performance is.

  • 47. Sahin, Cem Dogan
    et al.
    Arsan, Zeynep Durmus
    Tuncoku, Selim Sarp
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Akkurt, Gulden Gokcen
    A transdisciplinary approach on the energy efficient retrofitting of a historic building in the Aegean Region of Turkey2015Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 96, s. 128-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings account for 40% of total energy consumption in the European Union, yet at the same time they have considerable energy saving potentials. Historic buildings should be treated different from contemporary ones when it comes to energy improvements. The specifications which underline historical, sociocultural and architectural values require certain care during realization of energy saving implementations to sustain these values. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how the energy efficient retrofitting in historic buildings should be managed in a transdisciplinary approach with a case study conducted on the historic building in Izmir-Turkey. A detailed building energy simulation tool was used to determine the impacts of energy efficient retrofits. The actual energy consumption of case building was based on the utility bills regarding electricity and heating fuel consumption. Building energy simulation tool was calibrated by comparing the measured and simulated indoor air temperatures and total energy consumptions. The inappropriate retrofits, which contradict to the cultural heritage values, were eliminated with a transdisciplinary approach. Later appropriate retrofits were gathered into three packages to evaluate their effects on the energy consumption. The results show that energy saving of more than 34% can be obtained without damaging the heritage values. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Söderström, Mikael
    et al.
    KanEnergi Sweden AB.
    Broström, Tor
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Kulturvård.
    Energieffektivisering i Karlstad stift2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Karlstad stift har under 2007 och 2008 genomfört vad man kallar ”Klimatprojektet”. Projektet består av tre delar; energiplanering, underhållsplanering och utbildning.Syftet är att stötta stiftets samfälligheter genom att dels genomföra energikartläggningarav sammanlagt 516 byggnader och dels underhållsplanera drygt 900 byggnader. Alla anställda inom samfälligheterna har dessutom genomgått en grundläggandeutbildning i energi- och miljöfrågor.

    Byggnaderna inom Karlstad stift använder idag ca 32 000 MWh energi fördelat påolika energislag där elanvändningen är dominerande med ca 18 000 MWh. Energikartläggningarnavisar att det sammantaget finns en besparingspotential på ca 30 %av energianvändningen med ca 40 % sänkta kostnader som följd genom effektiviseringav energianvändningen och byte av värmekällor.

    Underhållsplaneringen har genomförts enligt REPABs modell och samtliga byggnaderhar underhållsplanerats i programmet Summarum. Både energi- och underhållsplaneringenhar framför allt givit bra förutsättningar för att underlätta budgetarbetetinom samfälligheterna.

    Under projekttiden har dessutom en bra dialog mellan stift, samfälligheter, konsulter,antikvarier och entreprenörer startat. Man har börjat få en bättre förståelse förvarandras synsätt, framför allt hur man ser på antikvariska aspekter.

    Karlstad stift fortsätter nu med att stötta samfälligheterna till exempel genomdriftutbildning för vaktmästare och genom gemensamma upphandlingar av olikaåtgärder och el och man skall dessutom försöka dela med sig av erfarenheter ochmetoder för att sprida kunskaperna om energieffektivisering och underhållsplaneringtill andra stift i landet.

    Denna rapport har författats av Mikael Söderström Rosén på KanEnergi Sweden ABmed stöd av Tor Broström vid Högskolan på Gotland som också är beställare avrapporten. Arbetet har genomförts med ekonomiskt stöd från Energimyndighetensforskningsprogram ”Spara och bevara – energieffektivisering i kulturhistoriskt värdefullabyggnader”.

  • 49.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Instrumentation and Control Eng., Faculty of Mechanical Eng., Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    Dept. of Instrumentation and Control Eng., Faculty of Mechanical Eng., Czech Technical University, Parague, Czech Republic.
    A method to determine heating power and heat up time for intermittent heating of churches2017Inngår i: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] Stig Geving, Berit Time, Elsevier , 2017, Vol. 132, s. 915-920Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermittent heating, common in churches, requires higher heating power than steady state heating. With respect to energy use and preservation aspects, the heat up time should be short. Systems for intermittent heating are often designed using rule of thumb estimates or inadequate steady state calculations. This paper presents a method to relate heating power and heat up time for a specific building where thermal characteristics of a building are determined using a step response test.

  • 50.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    Nationalmuseet, Denmark.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Kulturvård.
    Solar energy augmented adaptive ventilation in historic buildings2014Inngår i: NSB 2014 / [ed] Jesper Arfvidsson, Lars-Erik Harderup, Anders Kumlin, Bitte Rosencrantz, Lund, 2014, s. 648-655Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many historic buildings suffer from problems related to moisture and high relative humidity. Adaptive ventilation can be a low-energy and low impact solution to mitigate these problems. Previous studies have shown that adaptive ventilation can have a significant drying effect. However due to the covariance of temperature and absolute humidity in the outside air, the effect on relative humidity inside a buildings is limited in the short term. The present paper presents results from a medieval stone church where a novel integration of solar heating and adaptive ventilation has been implemented. Solar energy is collected in the day and stored. In the night, when the outside air generally is drier (in absolute terms), outside air is preheated using the energy stored in the daytime and added to the building.

    The results show that adaptive ventilation can be a low-cost and low-energy option as compared to conventional humidity control.The average relative humidity and mould risk has decreased significantly. Auxiliary measures, such as dehumidification, would be needed, mainly in the summer. The energy from the photovoltaic elements has mitigated the cooling effect of the outside air.

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