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  • 1.
    Armstrong, Chelsey
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    McKechnie, Iain
    Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Hakai Institute, Heriot Bay, Quadra Island, British Columbia, Canada.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Szabó, Péter
    Department of Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa .
    McAlvay, Alex C.
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America .
    Boles, Oliver
    Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Walshaw, Sarah
    Department of History, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gibbons, Kevin
    Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.
    Quintana Morales, Erendira
    Department of Anthropology, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America .
    Anderson, Eugene
    Department of Anthropology, University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America .
    Ibragimow, Aleksandra
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Podruczny, Grzegorz
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Vamosi, Jana
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada .
    Marks-Block, Tony
    Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    LeCompte, Joyce
    Independent Scholar, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Awâsis, Sākihitowin
    Department of Geography, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, Atlohsa Native Family Healing Services, Canada, London, Ontario, Canada .
    Nabess, Carly
    Department of Anthropology, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America; Integrated History of Future of People on Earth (IHOPE) Initiative, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0171883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.

  • 2.
    Badenhorst, Shaw
    et al.
    Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Faunal remains from Chibuene, an Iron Age coastal trading station in central Mozambique2011In: Southern African Humanities, ISSN 1681-5564, Vol. 23, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the small faunal assemblage from the Iron Age coastal trading station of Chibuene, situated on the coastal littoral of central Mozambique. The faunal assemblage was excavated in 1995 and contains bones from a variety of animals, including livestock, chickens, wild game animals, as well as aquatic species such as turtles and fish. Fish, turtle and shark remains dominate the assemblage. The fauna from the first and second millennium AD occupations share similarities with other contemporaneous sites to the north on the East African coast, rather than with sites located in South Africa.

  • 3.
    Bergman, Jonas
    Arkeolgerna.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Med landet i centrum ˗: boskap, jordbruk och landskap i Gamla Uppsala2017In: at Upsalum -: människor och landskapande: Utbyggnad av Ostkustbanan genom Gamla Uppsala / [ed] Beronius Jörpeland, Lena; Göthberg, Hans; Seiler, Anton; Wikborg, Jonas (red.), Stockholm: Arkeologerna , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergman, Jonas
    et al.
    UV, Riksantikvarieämbetet.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Heimdahl, Jens
    UV, Riksantikvariämbetet.
    Makrofossilanalys och stratigrafibedömning.:  Bilaga 6 s.225-2302011Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Boles, Oliver J. C.
    et al.
    Univ Penn, Dept Anthropol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;Univ York, Dept Environm, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York, N Yorkshire, England;UCL, Inst Archaeol, London, England.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ York, Dept Environm, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York, N Yorkshire, England;Univ Basel, Dept Environm Sci, Geoecol, Basel, Switzerland.
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge, England;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Historical Ecologies of Pastoralist Overgrazing in Kenya: Long-Term Perspectives on Cause and Effect2019In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 419-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectre of overgrazing' looms large in historical and political narratives of ecological degradation in savannah ecosystems. While pastoral exploitation is a conspicuous driver of landscape variability and modification, assumptions that such change is inevitable or necessarily negative deserve to be continuously evaluated and challenged. With reference to three case studies from Kenya - the Laikipia Plateau, the Lake Baringo basin, and the Amboseli ecosystem - we argue that the impacts of pastoralism are contingent on the diachronic interactions of locally specific environmental, political, and cultural conditions. The impacts of the compression of rangelands and restrictions on herd mobility driven by misguided conservation and economic policies are emphasised over outdated notions of pastoralist inefficiency. We review the application of overgrazing' in interpretations of the archaeological record and assess its relevance for how we interpret past socio-environmental dynamics. Any discussion of overgrazing, or any form of human-environment interaction, must acknowledge spatio-temporal context and account for historical variability in landscape ontogenies.

  • 6.
    Breman, Elinor
    et al.
    Royal Bot Gardens, Kew, Wellcome Trust Millennium Bldg, Ardingly RH17 6TN, W Sussex, England.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Cape Town, Bot Dept, Plant Conservat Unit, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Norström, Elin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Quaternary Geol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phytolith-based environmental reconstruction from an altitudinal gradient in Mpumalanga, South Africa, 10,600 BP-present2019In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 263, p. 104-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying vegetation change across biome boundaries provides insight into vegetation resilience. In this study, shifts in grassland composition are reconstructed from sediments in three wetland sites across altitudinal gradient from 2128 to 897 m.a.s.l., representing a gradient from the grassland biome to the grassland/savanna boundary in the Mpumalanga region, north-eastern South Africa. Phytolith records from Verloren Valei (dated from 10,600 BP), Graskop (dated from 6500 BP) and Versailles (dated from 4500 BP) are used to reconstruct shifts in grassland composition and vegetation change. Phytolith morphotypes are used to construct environmental indices that are correlated with pollen main ecological groups, charcoal and delta 13C and C/N ratio. The results are compared to available regional paleoclimate data. Both Verloren Valei and Graskop have been dominated by grassland, but Versailles show a stronger influence of bushveld/savanna pollen. Phytolith data suggest that grassland composition was stable at Versailles and Graskop, but grassland at Verloren Valei has changed significantly over time. The early Holocene was dominated by a Pooideae/Chloridoideae C3 and C4 grassland, probably a remnant of the earlier Pleistocene cool-dry conditions. After 8500 BP grassland composition changed gradually to a Chloridoideae and Panicoidea dominated C4 grassland BP, and finally a moist Cyperaceae and Panicoidea dominated C3/C4 grassland after 4000 BP. This shift possibly occurs as a delayed response to the warmer and wetter conditions of the mid Holocene optimum at this high altitude site. The results suggest that the grassland/savanna boundary has remained stable over time, indicating considerable resilience of grasslands to climate change. This resilience may be related to the turnover of species within the grassland biome, as indicated by shifts between 8500 and 4000 BP at Verloren Valei.

  • 7.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    A cattle Country2015In: Seminar, Vol. september, no 673Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies.
    A Cattle Country2015In: Seminar, Vol. September, no 673Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies.
    An historical ecology of cattle in Mozambique2018In: At Nature’s Edge: the global present and long-term history / [ed] Cederlöf, Gunnel ; Rangarajan, Mahesh, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No account of human nature history can be complete without the complimentary story of one of our companion species. Cattle in many parts of Africa, as also other parts of the world are highly prized and loved, sharing the destinies of the people who rear them. By structuring the narrative around cattle: its biology, selection and breeding history, and tracing the social webs and markets of cattle we allow them to become agents of history. In this narrative the relations between cattle, people and landscapes are central to how history unfolded and nature was remade. Rather than structuring the narrative chronologically or along a cultural-history continuum, I will here attempt to focus on nodes of connections in the long history of the relationships of cattle and people. The historical ecology of cattle illustrates the intricate and long term relationship between people, cattle, and landscapes, and the ecological skills of farmers and herders. Cattle herding in southern Africa demand a good ecological understanding of landscape dynamics. Traditional cattle keeping are ecologically well suited to meet the environmental constraints of episodic disease and episodic droughts. Contrary to industrialised forms of cattle rearing, traditional cattle keeping remain an enterprise that is low in environmental cost. Cattle usually roam freely over large distances and grazing is low intensive and crucial for biodiversity and to keep the landscape open.

  • 10.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Archaeology, Historical Sciences, and Environmental Conservation2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology / [ed] Christian Isendahl and Daryl Stump, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conservation has long been orientated towards reconstructing or conserving ‘naturalness’. The historical sciences in combination with new ecological thinking have taught us that landscapes are constantly in flux. We now know that many landscapes that previously were regarded as natural in fact have been shaped and reshaped by people over millennia, and that human disturbance of different kinds may enhance landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity. This chapter presents cases from different parts of Africa that demonstrate how archaeology, palaeoecology, and historical analysis have contributed to reform the traditional outlook of environmental conservation and revise misconstrued landscape histories. It shows that historical studies can offer insights that contribute a better understanding of species conservation, ecosystem function, prediction of ecosystem behaviour, and sound management of cultural landscapes. The long-term historical continuities in the landscape raise awareness of the importance of traditional practices and their benefits for environmental conservation.

  • 11.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Forest-savanna dynamics in the coastal lowland of southern Mozambique since 400 AD2008In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 18, p. 1247-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coastal lowlands of Mozambique, an expansion of savannas at the cost of forests has been attributed to anthropogenic influence. There are few investigations that have studied vegetation dynamics over the long term. Pollen analysis from two sedimentary cores in the Chibuene area, 7 km south of Vilanculos presented in this paper show that the coastal area 1600 years ago consisted of a mosaic of forests, Miombo woodlands and grasslands. The data also show that the area supported extensive forests in the past until AD 1400–1600 when the forests declined dramatically. Changing settlement patterns, as suggested from archaeological excavations, cannot be correlated with the forest decline and the charcoal abundance, in the sedimentary cores does not suggest an intensification of farming. Instead the decline of forests appears to be temporally correlated with a prolonged period of repeated dry spells associated with the ‘Little Ice Age’, which caused a shift in vegetation whereby typical forest species as Trema, Celtis and Moraceae were outcompeted on account of the droughts. This study challenges rooted assumptions about the cause of decline of forests in the coastal region. It also suggests that the forest fragments present on the Mozambique coast today are naturally subject to threat from climatic stress and as such are highly sensitive areas to future climate change.

  • 12.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Livelihood Security, Vulnerability and Resilience: A Historical Analysis of Chibuene, Southern Mozambique2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 479-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk.

  • 13.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Miljöhistoria och dess frestelser2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental history is a wide field that encompasses many of our traditional disciplines. This paper gives a short introduction and historical overview over the different directions that environmental history as a field entails. It also gives a brief introduction to the Philosophy of History. The historical overview is based on the categories: Natural History, History of ideas, Traditional Environmental History, Historical Ecology and what I refer to here as ‘Postcolonial Environmental History’  – a direction that is yet to develop. In the second part of the paper, specific problems or ‘temptations’ related to environmental history are raised. The aim of this paper is to advocate an inclusive and broad environmental history that does not shy away from the complexities of interactions within society, within nature and in the interactions between them.

  • 14.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Samhälle, beslutsfattande och miljö2012In: Miljöhistorier: Personliga, lokala, globala berättelser om dåtid, nutid och framtid. / [ed] Anneli Ekblom, Michel Notelid, CSD Uppsala och Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2012, p. 53-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har det varit en renässansför synteser över Global miljöhistoria, speciellt synteser i syfte att kommenteradagens hållbarhets-problem. Som en arkeolog delar jag detta intresse förhistoria. Men problemet är att miljöhistoria i mitt tycke sällan tar upp just de frågor som är relevanta idag. Berättelserna om ekologiska självmord,miljöförstöring och kollaps av samhällen på grund av klimatförändringar är visserligenbra historier. De ger oss, som Cronon (1992) skulle säga, moraliska pekpinnarochde kan övertyga oss om att vi behöver förändra vårt samhälle. Men de kommerinte att hjälpa oss att förstå hur förändringen ska gå till. Om vi är överensom att samhälleligaomställningar är nödvändiga för att möta de utmaningar somen mer hållbar framtid innebär, ja då måste vi ha verktyg för att forma dessa omställningar. Vi behöver veta vilka omställningar som är mer hållbara än andra och  vi måste vara tydliga med vad vi vill att dessa omställningar ska leda till.. Historien kan hjälpa oss här, eftersom en rad olika lösningar redan har testats och utvärderats i det förflutna. Men för att förstå och utvärdera dessa lösningar måste vi intressera oss för detspecifika och det komplexa samhälleliga samspelet mellan individer, normer, och politiska och sociala system (se texterna i denna bok; Balée 2006; Crumley2007; Costanza et al. 2007; Chakrabarty 2009). Vi måste bättre förstå vilka de faktorerär som tenderar att driva omställningar i samhället: är det starka individer, kollektiva krav, statlig kontroll, innovation, resiliens, långsamma gradvisa övergångareller revolutionära förändringar, tryck från miljö eller klimat ellerekonomiska, sociala krafter eller en kombination? – listan skulle kunna varal ängre. Här kommer jag att hävda vikten av att ta dess frågor på allvar genom att lyfta fram några utvalda exempel från det förflutna och nutid och jag kommer strukturera texten på basis av ett antal påståenden om relationen mellan samhälle och miljö

  • 15.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Eichhorn, Barbara
    Institut für Archäologische Wissenschaften, Archäologie und Archäobotanik Afrikas, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Badenhorst, Shaw
    Department of Archaeozoology, Transvaal Museum, Department of anthropology and Archaeology, University of South Africa.
    Berger, Amelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Land use history and resource utilisation from A.D. 400to the present, at Chibuene, southern Mozambique2014In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses changing patterns of resource utilisation over time in the locality of Chibuene, Vilankulos, situated on the coastal plain of southern Mozambique. The macroscopic charcoal, bone and shellassemblages from archaeological excavations are presented and discussed against the off-site palaeoecological records from pollen, fungal spores and microscopic charcoal. The Chibuene landscape has experienced four phases of land use and resource utilisation that have interacted with changes in the environment. Phase 1 (A.D. 400–900), forest savanna mosaic, low intensity cattle herding and cultivation, trade of resources for domestic use. Phase 2 (A.D. 900–1400), forest savanna mosaic, high intensity/extensive cultivation and cattle herding. Phase 3 (A.D. 1400–1800), savanna woodland and progressive decrease in forests owing to droughts. Decline of agricultural activities and higher reliance on marine resources. Possible trade of resources with the interior. Phase 4 (A.D. 1800–1900), open savanna with few forest patches. Warfare and social unrest. Collapse of trade with the interior. Decline in marine resources and wildlife. Loss of cattle herds. Expansion of agriculture locally and introduction of New World crops and clearing of Brachystegia trees. The study shows the importance of combining different environmental resources for elucidating how land use and natural variability have changed over time.

  • 16.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dung fungi as indicators of past herbivore abundance, Kruger and Limpopo National Park2010In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 296, no 1-2, p. 14-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective wildlife management needs historical data on herbivore abundance and its interactions with vegetation, climate and disturbance over longer time periods than is available through observational and archive data. Spores specific to herbivore dung provide a potential source of information on past herbivore abundances. This paper sets out to evaluate the potential of fungal spores as environmental indicators and in particular the use of coprophilous fungi in understanding past herbivore densities and their impact on the savanna landscape of Kruger and Limpopo National Parks (South Africa and Mozambique). Spore assemblages from six sedimentary cores are analysed and compared with the pollen data. Spores of coprophilous fungi, Coniochaeta cf ligniaria, and Sordariaceae in particular provide a valuable source of information about past herbivore densities.  The spore assemblages of investigated localities show historical fluctuations in herbivore abundance. Peaks in wild/domestic herbivore densities can be seen, on a local scale from 800– 900 AD and another at 1400 AD, however, these cannot be linked with any significant changes in vegetation. The last 200-300 years have seen an increased abundance of herbivores in the Limpopo floodplain sites, particularly domestic cattle. There is no clear correspondence between changes in herbivore abundance and local vegetation in this period or the 20th century. However, domestic cattle, together with wild herbivores, probably contributed to creating a mosaic type of landscape with heterogeneous tree cover.

  • 17.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Fire history and fire ecology of Northern Kruger (KNP) and Limpopo National Park (PNL), southern Africa2010In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 1063-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the general correlations between fire and grass/tree relationships, as represented by fossil charcoal and pollen, from different vegetation types in the savanna ecosystems of the neighbouring Kruger (KNP) and Limpopo (PNL) national parks. Our analysis suggests that the basic presumption that fire is a main driver of vegetation dynamics in the savanna ecosystem by suppressing tree seedlings and encouraging grasses needs to be re-examined. An improved approach is to understand how fire may act both as a negative and positive feedback in different vegetational phases and both as a driver and responder in transitions between phases. The correlation between arboreal pollen (AP) percentages and charcoal influx suggests that in the grassland phase (< 5% AP), fire acts as a driver of woody recruitment and as a positive feedback, i.e. potentially driving the system to shift into a savanna phase. In the savanna phase (5–10% AP) fire limits woody recruitment and acts as a negative feedback in maintaining the savanna. Thus, in the savanna phase other factors than fire alone drive the transition from savanna to woodland-forest. In the riparian phase, where evidence of farming is present particularly from ad 1600 onwards, fire appears to facilitate tree recruitment where AP ranges between c. 10 and 20% AP. Though a decline in AP abundance can be seen contemporaneously with charcoal peaks, our analysis suggests that overall, human-induced fires do not seem to have a negative impact on woody cover. Our results have implications for fire management as riparian-dominated phases and savannas with a sufficient woody cover are less sensitive to changes in fire policies than open grasslands that may, with a change in fire frequency, change into another state.

  • 18.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    University of Cape Town.
    Hierarchy and scale: testing the long term role of water, grazing and nitrogen in the savanna landscape of Limpopo National Park (Mozambique)2010In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1529-1546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares vegetation dynamics at two sites in the savanna landscape of Limpopo National Park (PNL), Mozambique. In order to test the relationship between vegetation cover and hydrology, nutrient availability and disturbance from grazing and fire over the last 1,200 years at local (100 m2) scales, we use palaeoecological data (i.e. pollen assemblages, charcoal abundance, C/N ratio, stable isotopes and herbivore-associated spore abundance). Two pans governed by similar rainfall regimes (on average 600 mm/year) but different hydrologies are compared. Chixuludzi Pan is responsive to the Limpopo River and is more water rich than Radio Pan, which is situated in a dry landscape with little surface water. The analysis suggests that in savannas where water is scarce, the recruitment of woody taxa is constrained mainly by the availability of underground water. In the Radio Pan sequence, the present grassland savanna has been stable throughout the time studied. In contrast, the Chixuludzi Pan savanna landscape where local hydrology, due to the proximity of Limpopo River, allows for a higher water availability the relationship between grass-arboreal pollen suggests a greater variability in vegetation cover, and other factors such as grazing, herbivory and nitrogen availability are important as controlling mechanisms for woody cover. The historical depth of the analysis enables a sub-hierarchy of local scale process to be identified, in this case local hydrology. Local water availability is shown to override the effect of regional rainfall and, in turn, to control the influence of other local scale factors such as nutrients and grazing.

  • 19.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town.
    The Importance of paleoecology in the conservation andrestoration of Cultural landscapes.2017In: PAGES Magazine, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 88-89Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    A Historical Ecology of the Limpopo and Kruger National Parks and Lower Limpopo Valley2011In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History, ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper uses new palaeo-ecological data and a selective review of archaeological and written sources to show how social and natural history over the last 1200 years have interacted to form the present day landscape of Limpopo National Park and Northern Kruger National Park. The long-term mosaic of different communities in this landscape, hunter and gatherers, pastoralists, farmers and traders has, over time, contributed to shape and reshape a heterogeneous landscape. While some features in this landscape, such as water scarcity, have remained stable over time, there have also been major transformations in both the physical landscape and social life. The natural mosaics have been utilised and enhanced over time and the combination of natural and cultural mosaics are reflected in the landscape through archaeological sites, the pollen record and in the present day landscape.

  • 21.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Univ Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Water flow, ecological dynamics, and management in the lower Limpopo Valley: a long‐term vie2017In: WIREs Water, ISSN 0935-879X, E-ISSN 2049-1948, Vol. 4, no 5, article id e1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we review long-term (millennial-decadal scale) river-flow changes, climate interactions, and interlinkage with vegetation dynamics, as well as society and policy, focusing on the lower Limpopo Valley (from the South African border through Mozambique). Drawing on paleoecological data, we address the valley's potential for defining critical ecological thresholds and managing an adaptive ecological landscape, by focusing on the dynamic relationship between different drivers (fire, hydrology, and grass/tree relationships). We briefly review the long-term interactions between water flow, climate variability, and society using archeological records and written sources. Lastly, we analyze the social and political context of water management, focusing on the last 100 years and transboundary water management. We also discuss planning and mitigation in relation to climate change and rainfall extremes that are projected to increase. It is stressed that forward-thinking policies must heed long-term climate variability, hydrology and biological and social impact and to plan and mitigate for environmental events. The discussion also brings to the fore the importance of an adaptable and equitable strategy in cross-border water sharing.

  • 22.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany department, University of Cape Town.
    Risberg, Jan
    Bert Bolin Centre for Climate research, Stockholm University.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Bert Bolin Centre for Climate research, Stockholm University.
    Chidoub, Zara
    Rainfall variability and vegetation dynamics of the lower Limpopo Valley, Southern Africa, 500 AD to present2012In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 363, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long‐term responses of vegetation to climate variability are of relevance for predicting present and future vegetation change, and have implications for the management of savanna and riparian ecosystems. This paper explores the links between regional rainfall, hydrology and vegetation dynamics in the savannas and riverine forests of the lower Limpopo Valley, southern Africa, from 800 AD to the present, reviewing palaeoecological data (fossil pollen, spores, diatoms and lithology) from several hydrological systems in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa and Limpopo National Park (PNL), Mozambique. The PNL–KNP records show that riverine arboreal taxa expanded during wetter periods, including 800–1400 AD and after 1800 AD. Between 1400 and 1800 AD, grasses, savanna taxa and generalist taxa were favored over riparian taxa, a change that is linked with the onset of dry spells in the region (corresponding to the so-called Little Ice Age). The most extreme drought events around 1700 AD resulted in a marked decline of riparian forest taxa near Lake Mapimbi, KNP. In contrast, many water-scarce sequences away from the riverine environment, such as Radio Pan, Mafayeni Pan, Malahlapanga Pan and Lake Makwadzi show stable grassland vegetation throughout the last 1200 years. The results demonstrate the resilience of the grassland–savanna ecosystems to projected climate change with warmer and overall drier climate. The riverine forests are predicted to be more vulnerable especially as more extreme weather events are projected.

  • 23.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    The Resilience of Heritage: Cultivating a Future of the Past. Essays in Honour of Professor2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout his career, Paul Sinclair has encouraged students to pursue a concerned archaeology that goes beyond establishing cultural chronologies to formulating critical inquiries fundamental to our world and for our future. This book honours his achievements by exploring urbanism, resilience and livelihoods, contacts and trade, and heritage and landscape. In the tradition of Paul Sinclair’s eclectic multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary approach to archaeology and historical ecology, this book expands the scope of archaeology by combining the examination of the material record with climatology, paleoecology, ethnography, sociology and archival sources to address both past and present interactions between people and environment. In doing so, the contributions to this volume highlight the value of knowledge about the past in contemporary society.

  • 24.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Radimilahy, Chantal
    Rakotoarisoa, J.-A.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Virah-Samwy, Malika
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town.
    Migrations and interactions between Madagascar and the eastern Africa, 500 BC – 1000 AD:: the archeological perspective2016In: Early Exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World / [ed] Campbell, G., Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 191-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    A White Man’s Bush?: A Comparison of Socio-Politics in the Creation of Kruger and Limpopo National Parks2010In: Politicized Nature: Global Exchange, Resources and Power / [ed] Eva Friman & Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández, Uppsala: Centre for Environment and Development Studies, (Cemus) , 2010, p. 93-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Arkadien2013In: Institutionens historier: En vänbok till Gullög Nordquist / [ed] Weiberg, Erica, Carlsson, Susanne, Ekroth, Gunnel, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2013, p. 3-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Få landskap har ett sådant symbolvärde som det grekiska och särskilt gäller det regionen Arkadien. Det arkadiska landskapet spred välljud, dofter och bilder till barockens, renässansens och romantikens poeter och konstnärer. I herdediktningen, som ju hade sitt ursprung i antikens diktning, blev Arkadien scenen för en hängiven längtan efter pastorala och lantliga idyller. Men vid sidan av det som lite nedsättande (och missvisande) brukar kallas ”bonderomantik” bär bilden av Arkadien också på teman för en historiskt återkommande civilisationskritik. Idag liksom igår är människor ibland oense om hur jorden bäst ska brukas, hur landskap ska formas, omformas och förskönas för att passa människors och till och med gudars behov idag och i morgon. Ekvationen har blivit mycket komplex nu när vi också måste ta ställning till långsiktiga effekter på biologisk mångfald och ekologisk hållbarhet. Rötterna till denna komplexitet kan vi finna i den feta, mjuka, grekiska jorden som redan på Platons tid kunde uppfattas som hotad. Vill vi följa miljöhistoriens hemliga meanderbana bör vi emellertid börja vid en punkt där den antika människan försökte finna sig en plats i ett redan besjälat landskap.

     

  • 27.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, MichelUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Miljöhistorier: Personliga, lokala, globala berättelser om dåtid, nutid och framtid.2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även miljön har en historia och denna historia har stor relevans för hållbarhetsfrågor idag.

     

    Genom att följa ekologiska skeenden och debatter kring miljöfrågor historiskt närmar sig studenter och forskare här frågor kring miljö, ekonomi och social rättvisa.  

     

    Texterna följer företeelser eller olika debatter genom tid både utifrån lokala och globala per-

    spektiv: från Uppsalabornas relation till sopor och vatten och matvanor och sociala roller,

    eller Sundsvalls hantering av industriavfall; till energiförsörjningens ekologiska historia,

    vetets globala miljöhistoria eller konstens roll när det gäller att väcka samhällsdebatt kring

    miljöfrågor.

    Cemus (Centre for Sustainable Development, Uppsala) har sedan lång tid tillbaka haft ett intresse för miljöhistoria som ett sätt att ge perspektiv och uppslag på hållbarhetsfrågor i dag. Boken är ett resultat av Cemus kurs i Global miljöhistoria och innehåller texter från både studenter och föreläsare på kursen.

  • 28.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Natur skövlas i miljöns namn2012In: Uppsala nya tidning, Vol. 22, no JuniArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Varför denna bok?2012In: Miljöhistorier: Personliga, lokala, globala berättelser om dåtid, nutid och framtid. / [ed] Anneli Ekblom, Michel Notelid, Uppsala: CSD Uppsala och Institution för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet , 2012, p. 3-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna bok är det intresse för miljöhistoria och dess roll i att förklara och förändra de problem vi står inför idag som se­dan lång tid tillbaka har funnits på Cemus (Centrum för miljö och utvecklingstudier, CSD Uppsala). Bokens olika medförfattare har kanske olika syn på miljöhistoriens roll och hur själva miljöproblematiken ska han­teras. Men tanken om att miljöhistoria är ett relevant verktyg för att förklara och förändra är något som förenar bokens författare 

  • 30.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Witter, Rebecca
    Appalachian State Univ, Dept Sustainable Dev, Boone, NC 28608 USA.
    Negotiating identity and heritage through authorised vernacular history, Limpopo National Park2017In: Journal of social archaeology, ISSN 1469-6053, E-ISSN 1741-2951, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 49-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we assess vernacular history, traditional authority and the use of heritage places as mediums for negotiating ancestry, identity, territory and belonging based on conversations, interviews and visitations to heritage places together with residents in Limpopo National Park. We explore how particular vernacular histories become dominant village history through the authorisation of traditional leaders and their lineage histories and how traditional leaders use heritage places to mediate narratives. Authorised vernacular histories are narratives about mobility and identity, but they are also localised narratives about ‘home’ in terms of access to resources and heritage places. We discuss how lineage histories and traditional authority are mobilised or questioned in the context of the ongoing displacement of local residents through resettlement programmes and make comparisons with the historical experiences of evictions in the neighbouring Kruger and Gonarezhou National Parks. We emphasise the need for residents to remain connected to and in control of heritage places; otherwise, the linkages between these places, ancestral authority, and present-day authority risk being severed.

  • 31.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Risberg, Jan
    Holmgren, Karin
    Coastal forest and Miombo woodland history of the Vilankulo region, Mozambique2014In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present day distribution of Miombo savanna-woodland in Mozambique has been attributed to an expansion due to the clearing of original coastal forests through agriculture and use of fire. Here, we test this hypothesis using palaeoecological data from Lake Nhauhache, situated in the Vilankulo region. Our analysis shows that Brachystegia, one of the main constituents of the Miombo, has varied over time, and its variability seems to be driven by hydrological changes related to climatic variability rather than by land-use changes. The analyses show that Brachystegia was most common during ad 200-700 when a marshy forest/shrub community was dominant. After ad 700, this community changes to a dominance of Syzygium and Fagara linked to gradually rising water levels. Brachystegia remains in low abundance and fluctuating over time. From ad 1000, a general decline in trees/shrubs in favour of grasses concurs with an increase in grass pollen (possibly cereal) and charcoal, most probably as a result of farming activities. The decline in tree taxa was probably exacerbated by periodic droughts after c. ad 1200 as indicated by the diatom assemblage. In the period ad 1700 to late 1800, arboreal pollen is well represented, and this is concurrent with the diatom record suggesting high lake levels.

  • 32.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Univ Cape Town, Plant Conservat Unit, Bot Dept, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, England;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Conservation through Biocultural Heritage-Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa2019In: Land, ISSN 2073-445X, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 5Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we review the potential of biocultural heritage in biodiversity protection and agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. We begin by defining the concept of biocultural heritage into four interlinked elements that are revealed through integrated landscape analysis. This concerns the transdisciplinary methods whereby biocultural heritage must be explored, and here we emphasise that reconstructing landscape histories and documenting local heritage values needs to be an integral part of the process. Ecosystem memories relate to the structuring of landscape heterogeneity through such activities as agroforestry and fire management. The positive linkages between living practices, biodiversity and soil nutrients examined here are demonstrative of the concept of ecosystem memories. Landscape memories refer to built or enhanced landscapes linked to specific land-use systems and property rights. Place memories signify practices of protection or use related to a specific place. Customary protection of burial sites and/or abandoned settlements, for example, is a common occurrence across Africa with beneficial outcomes for biodiversity and forest protection. Finally, we discuss stewardship and change. Building on local traditions, inclusivity and equity are essential to promoting the continuation and innovation of practices crucial for local sustainability and biodiversity protection, and also offer new avenues for collaboration in landscape management and conservation.

  • 33.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Stabell, Bjørg
    Department of Geoscience, University of Oslo.
    Paleohydrology of Lake Nhaucati (southern Mozambique),c. 400 AD to present2008In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 40, p. 1127-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the correlations between lake level change, rainfall variability and general atmospheric forcing in southern Africa. The analysis of fossil diatom assemblages in a sediment sequence from the small, rain-fed Lake Nhaucati, southern Mozambique, is presented and discussed in relation to regional palaeoclimate data. The accumulation of organic sediments in Lake Nhaucati began 1,600 years ago when the lake level was rising. Lithology and pollen suggest a low stand at 800 AD, which correlates with other climate proxies from the summer rainfall region of southern Africa. The diatom assemblage suggests that lake levels were high between 900 and 1300 AD, with shorter low stands at c.1100 and 1200 AD. The period after 1400 AD was marked by a slow rate of accumulation and consequently a low temporal resolution. The correlation with other climate proxies in the summer rainfall region, written sources, and pollen data suggests repeated droughts corresponding to the Little Ice Age, though the driest periods may have caused complete desiccation of the lake. Higher lake levels are suggested after 1800 AD, though written sources suggest droughts in the beginning of the twentieth century. The analysis shows a good correlation with palaeoclimate data from the summer rainfall region and confirms the presence of an antiphase relationship between the summer rainfall region of southern Africa and the bi-modal rainfall region of east tropical Africa. It also supports the general hypothesis that variation in the intensity of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone is the main agent modulating rainfall over southern and eastern Africa on centennial timescales.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Lennartsson, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Concepts for Integrated Research in Historical Ecology2018In: Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology: ThePast and Future of Landscapes and regions / [ed] Crumley, Carole; Lennartsson,Tommy & Westin, Anna, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 145-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    et al.
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Resilience and Thresholds in Savannas: Nitrogen and Fireas Drivers and Responders of Vegetation Transition2009In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, p. 1189-1203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience theory suggests that ecosystems can persist for long periods, before changing rapidly to a new vegetation phase. Transition between phases occurs when ecological thresholds have been crossed, and is followed by a reorganization of biotic and environmental interactions, leading to the emergence of a new vegetation phase or quasistable state. Savannas are dynamic, complex systems in which fire, herbivory, water and nutrient availability interact to determine tree abundance. Phase and transition has been observed in savannas, but the role of these different possible drivers is not always clear. In this study, our objectives were to identify phase and transition in the fossil pollen record, and then to explore the role of nitrogen and fire in these transitions using d15N isotopes and charcoal abundance. We present palaeoenvironmental data from the Kruger National Park, South Africa, which show transition between grassland and savanna phases. Our results show transition at the end of the ninth century A.D. from a nutrient and herbivore-limited grazing lawn, in which fire was absent and C4 grasses were the dominant and competitively superior plant form, to a water-, fire and herbivory-limited semi-arid savanna, in which C4 grasses and C3 trees and shrubs co-existed. The data accord with theoretical frameworks that predict that variability in ecosystems clusters in regions of higher probability space, interspersed by rapid transitions between these phases. The data are also consistent with the idea that phase transitions involve switching between different dominant driving processes or limiting factors.

  • 36.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    et al.
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Untangling anthropogenic and climatic influence on riverineforest in the Kruger National Park, South Africa2009In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the interplay between climatic and anthropogenic factors is a major challenge in palaeoecology. In particular, it is often difficult to distinguish anthropogenic and ‘‘natural’’ fire in the charcoal record. In this paper, analysis of fossil pollen, charcoal, diatoms and isotopic evidence from Mapimbi, a small lake in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, suggests that for most of the past ca. 700 years, the riverine gallery forests surrounding Mapimbi were primarily influenced by climate, and benefited during warmer, wetter periods. The transitions between four, statistically different phases in the time-series data coincide with regional climate records previously constructed from speleothem data, and are consistent with the transition from the medieval warm period ending in the 14th century A.D. to the cooler, drier conditions prevailing during the little ice age of ca. A.D. 1400–1800. The data also suggest a period of significant, anthropogenic influence after A.D. 1800, when maize was grown and the incidence of localised fires increased. An increase in woody cover in recent decades may be associated with the management of the area by Kruger National Park. A decline in cultivation occurred in the end of the 20th century linked with changes in socio-political organisation.

  • 37.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    et al.
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Willis, Kathy J
    Oxford Long-Term Ecology Laboratory, Biodiversity.
    Froyd, Cynthia
    Oxford Long-Term Ecology Laboratory, Biodiversity.
    Holocene palaeo-invasions: the link between pattern,process and scale in invasion ecology?2008In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 757-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasion ecology has made rapid progress in recent years through synergies with landscape

    ecology, niche theory, evolutionary ecology and the ecology of climate change. The palaeo-record of

    Holocene invasions provides a rich but presently underexploited resource in exploring the pattern and

    process of invasions through time. In this paper, examples from the palaeo-literature are used to illustrate the spread of species through time and space, also revealing how interactions between invader and invaded communities change over the course of an invasion. The main issues addressed are adaptation and plant migration, ecological and evolutionary interactions through time, disturbance history and the landscape ecology of invasive spread. We consider invasions as a continuous variable, which may be influenced by different environmental or ecological variables at different stages of the invasion process, and we use palaeoecological examples to describe how ecological interactions change over the course of an invasion. Finally, the use of palaeoecological information to inform the management of invasions for biodiversity conservation is discussed.

  • 38. Holmgren, Karin
    et al.
    Risberg, Jan
    Freudendahl, Johan
    Achimo, Mussa
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Mugabe, Joao
    Norström, Elin
    Sitoe, Sandra
    Water-level variations in Lake Nhauhache, Mozambique, during the last 2,300 years2012In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 311-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stratigraphic variations in diatom composition and phytolith abundance in a sediment core from a small, hydrologically isolated waterbody, Lake Nhauhache, Mozambique, provide evidence of water-level fluctuations over the past 2,300 years. Ten AMS radiocarbon dates on bulk sediment samples show that the lake came into existence about 2,300 years ago and that it has dried out since then, but only for brief time periods. Changes in the diatom assemblage composition indicate that lake level fluctuated in response to shifting humidity conditions. The changes reflect wetter conditions ca. 300 BC-AD 800, more variable conditions between AD 800 and 1150, a distinct dry phase within the time span AD 1150-1700 and a return thereafter to more humid conditions until present. There is general agreement between the Lake Nhauhache record and other records from the Southern Hemisphere summer rainfall region. This suggests that sediments from small interdunal lakes, which are abundant along the coast of southern Africa, provide reliable, regional paleoenvironmental information about an area from which more such data are needed.

  • 39.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    A framework for exploring and managing biocultural heritage2019In: Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2213-3054, Vol. 25, article id 100195Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptual framework of biocultural heritage allows for new approaches to heritage, nature conservation, landscape planning and development goals, providing means to negotiate management goals in these areas, and in certain cases, also to combine them. By reviewing knowledge from the literature, this paper develops a new conceptual framework of biocultural heritage. Five "elements" constitute biocultural heritage in this framework. First, ecosystem memories denote biophysical properties, non-human organisms and agents changed or affected directly or indirectly by humans. Second, landscape memories represent tangible materialised human practice and semi-intangible ways of organising landscapes, such as built environments and archaeological sites, and settlement systems linked to user and property rights. Third, place-based memories refer to intangible living features of human knowledge and communication expressed in know-how, place names, orature, arts, ideas and culture, received, preserved and transmitted over generations. The fourth element, integrated landscape analysis, denotes a toolbox and a conceptual framework for knowledge construction and landscape management. The final fifth element of biocultural heritage, stewardship and change, represents the activity of, and ability in, exploring memory reservoirs of biocultural heritage for transferring knowledge to policy and management and for shaping collaborative initiatives. To illustrate the framework, this paper then presents a study from the village Angersjo located in the boreal forest in central Sweden. As conclusion, we suggest that the approach - with improvements and modifications - represents an operational joint framework for exploring and managing biocultural heritage, drawing on the past for envisioning the future. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Ljungkvist, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Rethinking Human Nature: Bridging the ‘Gap’ through Landscape Analysis and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)2015In: Topoi, Vol. 4, p. 94-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss a pedagogical approach to integrating the humanities and the natural sciences. Our approach calls for extended collaboration between the two fields and a capacity to integrate the experimental and deductive lines of reasoning within the natural sciences with the holistic and critical perspectives of the humanities. This paper will describe and discuss how this notion is applied to the construction of a pedagogical framework or a learning environment constituted from landscape theory, GIS, and pedagogical principles derived from EBL and PL. The paper highlights how a landscape approach in combination with the interactive and dynamic properties of GIS can be used as an active learning environment crossing the interfaces of the disciplines.

  • 41.
    Ljungkvist, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ekblom, AnneliUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Innehåll

    1. Introduktion - Anneli Ekblom, John Ljungkvist, Cecilia Rodéhn, Karin Hallgren

    2. Biologiska värden - Karin Hallgren

    3. Landskapsbruk och museipedagogik - Cecilia Rodéhn

    4. En annorlunda visning - Emil Niklasson, Cecilia Rodéhn, Kristina Persson

    5. Skapandet av en plats - John Ljungkvist, Anneli Ekblom

    6. Medeltidens landskapsförändringar - John Ljungkvist, Joakim Kjellberg

    7. Ett hävdat landskap - Karin Hallgren

    8. Utfärder till Gamla Uppsala - Cecilia Rodéhn

    9. Att uppleva Gamla Uppsala på ett nytt sätt - Daniel Löwenborg

     

     

  • 42.
    Ljungkvist, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Skapandet av en plats2018In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer -: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala Universitet , 2018, p. 91-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Ljungkvist, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Rodéhn, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Hallgren, Karin
    Introduktion2018In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer -: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala Universitet , 2018, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44. Ljunkvist, John
    et al.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Rodéhn, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Karin, Hallgren
    Introduktion2018In: Framtidens naturvärden i kulturmiljöer: fallstudie Gamla Uppsala, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet , 2018, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Macamo, Solange
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University.
    Risberg, Jan
    Bert Bolin Centre for Climate research and Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    The archaeology of Afro-Portuguese settlements and site formation processes in the Zambezi valley, Mozambique.2011In: Zimbabwean Prehistory, Vol. 29, p. 38-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Marchant, Rob
    et al.
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Richer, Suzi
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England;Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Boles, Oliver
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Capitani, Claudia
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Prendergast, Mary E.
    St Louis Univ, Dept Anthropol, Ave Valle 34, Madrid 28003, Spain.
    Stump, Daryl.
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    De Cort, Gijs
    Royal Museum Cent Africa, Dept Earth Sci, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium;Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    ARVE Res SARL, Pully, Switzerland;Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Phelps, Leanne
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Surface Dynam, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kay, Andrea
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Surface Dynam, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Olago, Dan
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Climate Change & Adaptat, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Platts, Philip J.
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England;Univ York, Dept Biol, York Y010 5DD, N Yorkshire, England.
    Punwong, Paramita
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Environm & Resource Studies, Salaya 73170, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Human Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie
    Univ South Africa, Dept Anthropol & Archaeol, UNISA, POB 392, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Ferro-Vazquez, Cruz
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Benard, Jacquiline
    Kenya Wildlife Serv, Shimba Hills, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Boivin, Nicole
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Crowther, Alison
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany;Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Deere, Nicolas J.
    Univ Kent, Sch Anthropol & Conservat, DICE, Marlowe Bldg, Canterbury CT2 7NR, Kent, England.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Farmer, Jennifer
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, Scotland;Carbon Fdn East Africa, POB 70480 Lubowa Estate, Kampala, Uganda.
    Finch, Jemma
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Agr Earth & Environm Sci, Discipline Geog, Private Bag X01, ZA-3201 Scottsville, South Africa.
    Fuller, Dorian
    UCL, Inst Archaeol, 31-34 Gordon Sq, London WC1H OPY, England.
    Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-Jose
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Univ Cape Town, Plant Conservat Unit, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Bot Dept, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Githumbi, Esther
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kabora, Tabitha
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kariuki, Rebecca
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kinyanjui, Rahab
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Kyazike, Elizabeth
    Lang, Carol
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Lejju, Julius
    Mbarara Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, POB 1410, Mbarara, Uganda.
    Morrison, Kathleen D.
    Univ Penn, Dept Anthropol, 3260 South St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Muiruri, Veronica
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Mumbi, Cassian
    Tanzania Wildlife Res Inst TAWIRI, Arusha, Tanzania.
    Muthoni, Rebecca
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Muzuka, Alfred
    Nelson Mandela African Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Water Resources & Environm Sci & Engn, Arusha, Tanzania.
    Ndiema, Emmanuel
    Natl Museums Kenya, Archaeol Sect, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Nzabandora, Chantal Kabonyi
    Univ Officielle Bukavu, Bukavu, DEM REP CONGO.
    Onjala, Isaya
    Kyambogo Univ, Dept Hist & Archaeol, Kampala, Uganda.
    Schrijver, Annemiek Pas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Human Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rucina, Stephen
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England;Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Thornton-Barnett, Senna
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    van der Plas, Geert
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Watson, Elizabeth E.
    Kyambogo Univ, Dept Hist & Archaeol, Kampala, Uganda;Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Downing Pl, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England.
    Williamson, David
    IRD, United Nations Ave,POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Wright, David
    Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Archaeol & Art Hist, 1 Gwanak Ro, Seoul 08826, South Korea.
    Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present2018In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 178, p. 322-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region. Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

  • 47.
    Norström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Noren, Gabriel
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Cologne, Inst Geol & Mineral, D-50923 Cologne, Germany.
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Massuanganhe, Elidio A.
    Univ Eduardo Mondlane, Dept Geol, CP 257, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Leaf wax delta D inferring variable medieval hydroclimate and early initiation of Little Ice Age (LIA) dryness in southern Mozambique2018In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 170, p. 221-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sediment sequence from a coastal, hydrologically isolated lake in southern Mozambique was analysed for leaf wax delta D, n-alkane abundance (ACL) and bulk organic geochemistry (delta C-13, TOC, %N), providing a record of past rainfall variability and savanna dynamics over the last 1500 years. The delta D-wax a rainfall reconstruction reveals a stable hydroclimate between 500-700 CE, while ACL and delta C-13 together with previous pollen data suggest savanna vegetation was characterized by a relatively dense woody cover. Highly variable hydroclimate conditions are inferred by delta D-wax between 800-1350 CE, with repeated centennial scale intervals of extreme dry and wet conditions overlapping the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 950-1250 CE). Savanna tree cover stayed relatively intact over this phase. After ca 1250 CE, a progressive change towards drier conditions was initiated, leading up to maximum aridity during the AD 1700s, a period associated with the Little Ice age (LIA; 1500-1850 CE). Tree cover was now replaced by a more grass-dominated savanna. The clear antiphase rainfall patterns between Nhaucati and equatorial East African proxy records gives support to the notion that Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) gradients act as modulator of southern African climate on a multi-decadal time scale, possibly forced by long-term El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. We suggest that strong ENSO variability and greater occurrence of La Nina events triggered the generally wet and unstable MCA in southern Africa. From around 1250 CE, a shift towards a predominance of El Nino induced drier conditions in south-east Africa during the LIA. Our study of vegetation and hydroclimate proxies in parallel suggests that savanna tree and shrub cover was relatively resilient to the abrupt shifts in hydroclimate over the MCA, but more sensitive to the long-term progressive drying over the LIA.

  • 48.
    Norström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Öberg, Helena
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sitoe, Sandra R.
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Eduardo Mondlane, Dept Geol, Maputo, Mozambique..
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Westerberg, Lars-Ove
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vegetation dynamics within the savanna biome in southern Mozambique during the late Holocene2018In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 277-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores temporal dynamics within grassland and Miombo woodland ecosystems in southern Mozambique and their potential coupling to hydro-climate change during the late-Holocene period. Palaeo-reconstructions are based on phytolith and diatom assemblages and mineral magnetic properties in fossil sediments from Lake Chilau, southern Mozambique. Phytolith interpretation was aided by previous ecological studies on modern plants and soils. The Lake Chilau record suggests high abundance of Panicoideae and other mesophytic grasses during the AD 1200s and 1300s, followed by an increase in Chloridoideae and grasses of more xerophytic affinity between ca. AD 1400 and 1550. This vegetation transition takes place during the early phase of the so-called Little Ice Age' (LIA), when regional palaeoclimate records report a shift from warmer and wetter towards drier and cooler conditions in southern Africa. Concurrent to these shifts within the grassland biome, the Chilau record reports an increase in phytoliths associated with arboreal vegetation (ca. AD 1400-1550), probably associated with the woody component of the Miombo savanna ecosystem. This supports previous studies hypothesizing that the forest component of the Miombo savanna was favoured by LIA dryness, although at Chilau, this expansion may have been amplified by a decline in fire disturbance. These tentative responses in the woody components of the savanna biome to shifts in moisture availability in the past have implications for future management and sustainability of the Miombo ecosystem in southern Mozambique under a changing climate.

  • 49.
    Sinclair, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Wood, Marilee
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Trade and society on the south-east African coast in the later first millennium AD: the case of Chibuene2012In: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 86, no 333, p. 723-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The south-east coast of Africa in the later first millennium was busy with boats and the movement of goods from across the Indian Ocean to the interior. The landing places were crucial mediators in this process, in Africa as elsewhere. Investigations at the beach site of Chibuene show that a local community was supplying imported beads to such interior sites as Schroda, with the consequent emergence there of hierarchical power structures.

1 - 49 of 49
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