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  • 1. Alström, Per
    et al.
    Jonsson, Knud A
    Jon, Fjeldså
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species2015In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 2, no 3, article id 140364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has diverged mainly in plumage, which may be the result of selection for improved camouflage in its new arboreal niche, while selection pressures for other morphological changes have probably been weak owing to preadaptations for the novel niche. By contrast, we suggest thatAmaurocichla's niche change has led to divergence in both structure and plumage.

  • 2.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Pamela C
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Integrat Biol, E Lansing, MI 48864 USA.; Michigan State Univ, MSU Museum, E Lansing, MI 48864 USA.; Nat Hist Museum Tring, Bird Grp, Akeman St, Tring HP23 6AP, England.
    Zhao, Chao
    Cloud Mt Conservat, Dali 671003, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Jingzi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Dalvi, Shashank
    GKVK, Natl Ctr Biol Sci, Researchers Wildlife Conservat, F-21,Bellary Rd, Bengaluru 560065, Karnataka, India.
    Cai, Tianlong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Guan, Yuyan
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.
    Kalyakin, Mikhail V.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Zool Museum, Bolshaya Nikitskaya Str 2, Moscow 125009, Russia.
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Integrative taxonomy of the Plain-backed Thrush (Zoothera mollissima) complex (Aves, Turdidae) reveals cryptic species, including a new species2016In: Avian Research, ISSN 0005-2175, E-ISSN 2053-7166, Vol. 7, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Plain-backed Thrush Zoothera mollissima breeds in the Himalayas and mountains of central China. It was long considered conspecific with the Long-tailed Thrush Zoothera dixoni, until these were shown to be broadly sympatric.

    Methods: We revise the Z. mollissimaZ. dixoni complex by integrating morphological, acoustic, genetic (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers), ecological and distributional datasets.

    Results: In earlier field observations, we noted two very different song types of “Plain-backed” Thrush segregated by breeding habitat and elevation. Further integrative analyses congruently identify three groups: an alpine breeder in the Himalayas and Sichuan, China (“Alpine Thrush”); a forest breeder in the eastern Himalayas and northwest Yunnan (at least), China (“Himalayan Forest Thrush”); and a forest breeder in central Sichuan (“Sichuan Forest Thrush”). Alpine and Himalayan Forest Thrushes are broadly sympatric, but segregated by habitat and altitude, and the same is probably true also for Alpine and Sichuan Forest Thrushes. These three groups differ markedly in morphology and songs. In addition, DNA sequence data from three non-breeding specimens from Yunnan indicate that yet another lineage exists (“Yunnan Thrush”). However, we find no consistent morphological differences from Alpine Thrush, and its breeding range is unknown. Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that all four groups diverged at least a few million years ago, and identify Alpine Thrush and the putative “Yunnan Thrush” as sisters, and the two forest taxa as sisters. Cytochrome b divergences among the four Z. mollissima sensu lato (s.l.) clades are similar to those between any of them and Z. dixoni, and exceed that between the two congeneric outgroup species. We lectotypify the name Oreocincla rostrata Hodgson, 1845 with the Z. mollissima sensu stricto (s.s.) specimen long considered its type. No available name unambiguously pertains to the Himalayan Forest Thrush.

    Conclusions: The Plain-backed Thrush Z. mollissima s.l. comprises at least three species: Alpine Thrush Z. mollissima s.s., with a widespread alpine breeding distribution; Sichuan Forest Thrush Z. griseiceps, breeding in central Sichuan forests; and Himalayan Forest Thrush, breeding in the eastern Himalayas and northwest Yunnan (at least), which is described herein as a new species. “Yunnan Thrush” requires further study.

  • 3.
    Donald, Paul F.
    et al.
    BirdLife Int, David Attenborough Bldg,Pembroke St, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Conservat Sci Grp, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, England..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Peoples R China.
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Univ Limpopo, Dept Biodivers, Private Bag 1106, ZA-0787 Sovenga, South Africa..
    Possible mechanisms of substrate colour-matching in larks (Alaudidae) and their taxonomic implications2017In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 159, no 3, p. 699-702Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Harris, Rebecca B.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Burke Museum Nat Hist & Culture, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Leache, Adam D.
    Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, USA.;Burke Museum Nat Hist & Culture, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Discordance between genomic divergence and phenotypic variation in a rapidly evolving avian genus (Motacilla)2018In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 120, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, genotypes and phenotypes are expected to be spatially congruent; however, in widespread species complexes with few barriers to dispersal, multiple contact zones, and limited reproductive isolation, discordance between phenotypes and phylogeographic groups is more probable. Wagtails (Motacilla) are a genus of birds with striking plumage pattern variation across the Old World. Up to 13 subspecies are recognized within a single species, yet previous studies using mitochondrial DNA have supported polyphyletic phylogeographic groups that are inconsistent with subspecies plumage characteristics. In this study, we investigate the link between phenotypes and genotype by taking a phylogenetic approach. We use genome-wide SNPs, nuclear introns, and mitochondrial DNA to estimate population structure, isolation by distance, and species relationships. Together, our genetic sampling includes complete species-level sampling and comprehensive coverage of the three most phenotypically diverse Palearctic species. Our study provides strong evidence for species-level patterns of differentiation, however population-level differentiation is less pronounced. SNPs provide a robust estimate of species-level relationships, which are mostly corroborated by a combined analysis of mtDNA and nuclear introns (the first time-calibrated species tree for the genus). However, the mtDNA tree is strongly incongruent and is considered to misrepresent the species phylogeny. The extant wagtail lineages originated during the Pliocene and the Eurasian lineage underwent rapid diversification during the Pleistocene. Three of four widespread Eurasian species exhibit an east-west divide that contradicts both subspecies taxonomy and phenotypic variation. Indeed, SNPs fail to distinguish between phenotypically distinct subspecies within the M. alba and M. flava complexes, and instead support geographical regions, each of which is home to two or more different looking subspecies. This is a major step towards our understanding of wagtail phylogeny compared to previous analyses of fewer species and considerably less sequence data.

  • 5.
    Hooper, Daniel M.
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, Comm Evolutionary Biol, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Olsson, Urban
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Zool, Systemat & Biodivers, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, POB 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    The Rusty-tailed Flycatcher (Muscicapa ruficauda; Ayes: Muscicapidae) is a member of the genus Ficedula2016In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 102, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phylogenetic relationships of the avian family Muscicapidae (Old World chats and flycatchers) have historically been enigmatic and remain an active area of study. Widespread instances of non-monophyly resulting from misleading morphological and behavioral similarities have merited numerous taxonomic revisions to the group. Here we report one such instance with regard to the Rusty-tailed Flycatcher Muscicapa ruficauda, which has recently been placed in the newly proposed monotypic genus Ripleyia, due to inferred sister relationship to the genus Muscicapa and related genera (Voelker et al., 2016a). This name was later replaced by Ripleyornis, as it was realized that Ripleyia is a junior homonym of a genus of Mollusca (Voelker et al., 2016b). Using a Bayesian phylogenetic assessment of the Muscicapidae with near-complete taxon sampling of the genus Ficedula for five loci, along with an acoustic comparison of M. ruficauda to a subset of other flycatcher species, we show that this species should be reassigned to the genus Ficedula and accordingly that the names Ripleyia and Ripleyornis are both junior synonyms of Ficedula.

  • 6. Li, Xinlei
    et al.
    Dong, Feng
    Lei, Fumin
    Alström, Per
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Zou, Fasheng
    Yang, Xiaojun
    Shaped by uneven Pleistocene climate: mitochondrial phylogeographic pattern and population history of White Wagtail Motacilla alba (Aves: Passeriformes).2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the phylogeography and population history of the white wagtail Motacilla alba, which has a vast breeding range, covering areas with different Pleistocene climatic histories. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit II gene (ND2) and Control Region (CR) were analyzed for 273 individuals from 45 localities. Our data comprised all nine subspecies of white wagtail. Four primary clades were inferred (M, N, SW and SE), with indications of M. grandis being nested within M. alba. The oldest split was between two haplotypes from the endemic Moroccan M. a. subpersonata (clade M) and the others, at 0.63–0.96 Mya; other divergences were at 0.31–0.38 Mya. The entire differentiation falls within the part of the Pleistocene characterized by Milankovitch cycles of large amplitudes and durations. Clade N was distributed across the northern Palearctic; clade SW in southwestern Asia plus the British Isles and was predicted by Ecological niche models (ENMs) to occur also in central and south Europe; and clade SE was distributed in central and east Asia. e deep divergence within M. a. subpersonata may reflect retention of ancestral haplotypes. Regional differences in historical climates have had different impacts on different populations: clade N expanded after the last glacial maximum (LGM), whereas milder Pleistocene climate of east Asia allowed clade SE a longer expansion time (since MIS 5); clade SW expanded over a similarly long time as clade SE, which is untypical for European species. ENMs supported these conclusions in that the northern part of the Eurasian continent was unsuitable during the LGM, whereas southern parts remained suitable. e recent divergences and poor structure in the mitochondrial tree contrasts strongly with the pronounced, well defined phenotypical differentiation, indicating extremely fast plumage divergence. 

  • 7.
    Liu, Baoyan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fjeldsa, Jon
    Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Zool Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Quan, Qing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Roselaar, Kees C. S.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Saitoh, Takema
    Yamashina Inst Ornithol, Abiko, Chiba, Japan..
    Yao, Cheng-te
    COA, Endem Species Res Inst, High Altitude Expt Stn, Chi Chi, Taiwan..
    Hao, Yan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Wenjuan
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Life Sci, Ctr Watershed Ecol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China.;Nanchang Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Poyang Lake Environm & Resource Utilizat, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Explosive radiation and spatial expansion across the cold environments of the Old World in an avian family2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 16, p. 6346-6357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our objective was to elucidate the biogeography and speciation patterns in an entire avian family, which shows a complex pattern of overlapping and nonoverlapping geographical distributions, and much variation in plumage, but less in size and structure. We estimated the phylogeny and divergence times for all of the world's species of Prunella based on multiple genetic loci, and analyzed morphometric divergence and biogeographical history. The common ancestor of Prunella was present in the Sino-Himalayan Mountains or these mountains and Central Asia-Mongolia more than 9 million years ago (mya), but a burst of speciations took place during the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The relationships among the six primary lineages resulting from that differentiation are unresolved, probably because of the rapid radiation. A general increase in sympatry with increasing time since divergence is evident. With one exception, species in clades younger than c. 3.7 my are allopatric. Species that are widely sympatric, including the most recently diverged (2.4 mya) sympatric sisters, are generally more divergent in size/structure than allo-/parapatric close relatives. The distributional pattern and inferred ages suggest divergence in allopatry and substantial waiting time until secondary contact, likely due to competitive exclusion. All sympatrically breeding species are ecologically segregated, as suggested by differences in size/structure and habitat. Colonizations of new areas were facilitated during glacialperiods, followed by fragmentation during interglacials-contrary to the usual view that glacial periods resulted mainly in fragmentations.

  • 8.
    Liu, Yang
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Guoling
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Qin
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Jia, Chenxi
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Natl Zool Museum China, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Carey, Geoff
    AEC, Yuen Long, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Leader, Paul
    AEC, Yuen Long, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yun
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zou, Fasheng
    South China Inst Endangered Anim, Guangdong Entomol Inst, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaojun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Zool, State Key Lab Genet Resources & Evolut, Kunming, Peoples R China..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Species delimitation of the white-tailed rubythroat Calliope pectoralis complex (Aves, Muscicapidae) using an integrative taxonomic approach2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 899-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our knowledge of the systematics and taxonomy of Asian birds has improved much in the last two decades, and the number of recognised species has increased significantly as a result of in-depth studies using an integrative taxonomic approach. The Sino-Himalayan mountains harbor a high level of passerine diversity. Several allopatric or parapatric taxa that are currently treated as subspecies of polytypic species within that region are likely to deserve full species status, and thus their taxonomic status needs to be revisited. Based on analyses of multilocus data, vocalizations and morphology, we propose that the white-tailed rubythroat Calliope pectoralis should be treated as two species, the Himalayan rubythroat C. pectoralis sensu stricto in the Tian Shan and Himalayan mountains, and the Chinese rubythroat C. tschebaiewi in the mountains of southwestern and north-central China. According to our dating analyses based on mitochondrial loci, these two species diverged approximately 2.2 million yr ago. We further found that C. tschebaiewi was paraphyletic to C. pectoralis sensu stricto in nuclear data, which demonstrates a state of mitonuclear discordance that warrants further work. Our results suggest that geographic changes and glacial cycles in the Pleistocene may have caused allopatric divergence in the C. pectoralis complex. Our study stresses the importance of applying an integrative taxonomy approach to fully unravel the true avian diversity in the Sino-Himalayan Mountains.

  • 9.
    Olsson, Urban
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci Systemat & Biodivers, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rguibi-Idrissi, Hamid
    Univ Chouaib Doukkali, Fac Sci, Equipe Rech Valorisat Ressources Nat & Biodiversi, El Jadida, Morocco..
    Luis Copete, Jose
    Martinez de la Rosa 27 Pral 3a, Barcelona 08012, Spain..
    Arroyo Matos, Jose Luis
    CSIC, Donana Biol Stn, Nat Proc Monitoring Team, C Amer Vespucio S-N, E-41092 Seville, Spain..
    Provost, Pascal
    2 Route Radome, F-22560 Pleumeur Bodou, France..
    Amezian, Mohamed
    Abdelmalek Essaadi Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Biol, MHannech 2, Tetouan 93030, Morocco..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jiguet, Frederic
    Ctr Rech Biol Populat Oiseaux, UMR7204 Sorbonne Univ MNHN CNRS UPMC, CESCO, CP 135,43 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Eurasian/African reed warbler complex (Acrocephalus, Aves). Disagreement between morphological and molecular evidence and cryptic divergence: A case for resurrecting Calamoherpe ambigua Brehm 18572016In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 102, p. 30-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tree based on the mitochondrial cyt b gene for 278 samples from throughout the range of the Eurasian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus - African Reed Warbler A. baeticatus complex shows well supported geographically structured divergence for eight distinct lineages. The phylogenetic structuring together with the clarification of priority, provided by sequence data from seven type specimens, suggests that both taxonomy and distribution boundaries are in need of revision. The Iberian and Moroccan populations form a well-supported Glade, and we propose that these are treated as taxonomically distinct, under the name ambiguus (Brehm, 1857). We propose that the names scirpaceus, fuscus, avicenniae, ambiguus, minor, cinnamomeus, hallae and baeticatus are used for the well supported clades in the complex, which we recommend to treat as one polytypic species, A. scirpaceus, pending studies of gene flow and assortative mating in the contact zones.

  • 10.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, POB 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.;Nat Biodivers Ctr, Vondellaan 55,Postbus 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Forsmark, Emma
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, SE-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, SE-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Niltavinae, a new taxon of Old World flycatchers (Aves: Muscicapidae)2016In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4196, no 3, p. 428-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Song, Gang
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Ctr Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cai, Tianlong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Complete taxon sampling of the avian genus Pica (magpies) reveals ancient relictual populations and synchronous Late-Pleistocene demographic expansion across the Northern Hemisphere2018In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 49, no 2, article id UNSP e01612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have suggested that bird populations in east Asia were less affected by Pleistocene climatic fluctuations than those in Europe and North America. However, this is mainly based on comparisons among species. It would be more relevant to analyse geographical populations of widespread species or species complexes. We analyzed two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns for all taxa of Pica to investigate 1) which Earth history factors have shaped the lineage divergence, and 2) whether different geographical populations were differently affected by the Pleistocene climatic changes. Our mitochondrial tree recovered three widespread lineages, 1) in east Asia, 2) across north Eurasia, and 3) in North America, respectively, with three isolated lineages in northwest Africa, Arabia and the Qinghai‐Tibet Plateau, respectively. Divergences among lineages took place 1.4–3.1 million yr ago. The northwest African population was sister to the others, which formed two main clades. In one of these, Arabia was sister to Qinghai‐Tibet, and these formed the sister clade to the east Asia clade. The other main clade comprised the North American and north Eurasian clades. There was no or very slight structure within these six geographical clades, including a lack of differentiation between the two North American species black‐billed magpie P. hudsonia and yellow‐billed magpie P. nutalli. Demographic expansion was recorded in the three most widespread lineages after 0.06 Ma. Asymmetric gene flow was recorded in the north Eurasian clade from southwestern Europe eastward, whereas the east Asian clade was rooted in south central China. Our results indicate that the fragmentation of the six clades of Pica was related to climatic cooling and aridification during periods of the Pliocene–Pleistocene. Populations on both sides of the Eurasian continent were similarly influenced by the Pleistocene climate changes and expanded concomitantly with the expansion of steppes. Based on results we also propose a revised taxonomy recognising seven species of Pica.

  • 12.
    Song, Gang
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Griffith Univ, Environm Futures Res Inst, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia..
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Ctr Dev Biol, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Zhiheng
    Peking Univ, Dept Ecol, Coll Urban & Environm Sci, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.;Peking Univ, Key Lab Earth Surface Proc, Coll Urban & Environm Sci, Minist Educ, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.;Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Dong, Lu
    Beijing Normal Univ, Coll Life Sci, Minist Educ, Key Lab Biodivers & Ecol Engn, Beijing 100875, Peoples R China..
    Kristin, Anton
    Inst Forest Ecol SAS, Zvolen 96053, Slovakia..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, POB 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, POB 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lambert, David M.
    Griffith Univ, Environm Futures Res Inst, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia..
    Fjeldsa, Jon
    Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    A zoogeographical boundary between the Palaearctic and Sino-Japanese realms documented by consistent north/south phylogeographical divergences in three woodland birds in eastern China2016In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 2099-2112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The location of zoogeographical boundaries in eastern China has long been the subject of debate. To identify any north/south genetic divergence between the Palaearctic and Sino-Japanese realms proposed by previous studies, we conducted a comparative phylogeographical study involving three passerine species with wide latitudinal distributions in eastern China.

    Location

    Eastern China.

    Methods

    Two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear introns were amplified and sequenced. Population structures were analysed using intra-specific phylogeny, tcs networks, AMOVA and structure inferences. We tested for evidence of genetic barriers based on pairwise differences. Lineage divergences, demographic dynamics and gene flow between lineages were estimated using Bayesian methods.

    Results

    A congruent north/south phylogeographical divergence was identified for three species. A geographical barrier was inferred at c. 40° N in eastern China. The population sizes of the northern and southern lineages have both been stable through the late Pleistocene, while multiple divergences were inferred during the early and middle Pleistocene.

    Main conclusions

    Our results suggest a general phylogeographical break in north-eastern China, coinciding with the Palaearctic/Sino-Japanese boundary. Physical blocking of the Yan Mountains and fragmentation of suitable habitat during glacial stages between the north and south probably acted together to provide long-lasting barrier effects. Our comparative phylogeographical approach demonstrates that the Palaearctic/Sino-Japanese boundary may represent a gene-flow barrier even within widespread species.

  • 13.
    Stervander, Martin
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Mol Ecol & Evolut Lab, Ecol Bldg, SE-22368 Lund, Sweden.;AP Leventis Ornithol Res Inst, Jos, Plateau, Nigeria..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Goteborg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ottosson, Ulf
    AP Leventis Ornithol Res Inst, Jos, Plateau, Nigeria..
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Mol Ecol & Evolut Lab, Ecol Bldg, SE-22368 Lund, Sweden..
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Mol Ecol & Evolut Lab, Ecol Bldg, SE-22368 Lund, Sweden..
    Multiple instances of paraphyletic species and cryptic taxa revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear RAD data for Calandrella larks (Aves: Alaudidae)2016In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 102, p. 233-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The avian genus Calandrella (larks) was recently suggested to be non-monophyletic, and was divided into two genera, of which Calandrella sensu stricto comprises 4-5 species in Eurasia and Africa. We analysed mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and nuclear Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequences from all species, and for cytb we studied 21 of the 22 recognised subspecies, with the aim to clarify the phylogenetic relationships within the genus and to compare large-scale nuclear sequence patterns with a widely used mitochondrial marker. Cytb indicated deep splits among the currently recognised species, although it failed to support the interrelationships among most of these. It also revealed unexpected deep divergences within C. brachydactyla, C. blanfordi/C erlangeri, C. cinerea, and C. acutirostris. It also suggested that both C. brachydactyla and C. blanfordi, as presently circumscribed, are paraphyletic. In contrast, most of the many subspecies of C brachydactyla and C. cinerea were unsupported by cytb, although two populations of C. cinerea were found to be genetically distinct. The RAD data corroborated the cytb tree (for the smaller number of taxa analysed) and recovered strongly supported interspecific relationships. However, coalescence analyses of the RAD data, analysed in SNAPP both with and without an outgroup, received equally strong support for two conflicting topologies. We suggest that the tree rooted with an outgroup - which is not recommended for SNAPP - is more trustworthy, and suggest that the reliability of analyses performed without any outgroup species should be thoroughly evaluated. We also demonstrate that degraded museum samples can be phylogenetically informative in RAD analyses following careful bioinformatic treatment. We note that the genus Calandrella is in need of taxonomic revision.

  • 14.
    Votier, Stephen C.
    et al.
    Univ Exeter, Environm & Sustainabil Inst, Penryn Campus, Penryn TR10 9EZ, Cornwall, England..
    Aspinall, Simon
    Bearhop, Stuart
    Univ Exeter, Ctr Ecol & Conservat, Penryn Campus, Penryn TR10 9EZ, Cornwall, England..
    Bilton, David
    Univ Plymouth, Marine Biol & Ecol Res Ctr, Plymouth, Devon, England..
    Newton, Jason
    SUERC, NERC Life Sci Mass Spec Facil, Rankine Ave, Glasgow SUERC, Lanark, Scotland..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Leader, Paul
    Asia Ecol Consultants Ltd, 127 Commercial Ctr, Palm Springs, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Carey, Geoff
    Asia Ecol Consultants Ltd, 127 Commercial Ctr, Palm Springs, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Furnes, Robert W.
    Univ Glasgow, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Graham Kerr Bldg, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Stable isotopes and mtDNA reveal niche segregation but no evidence of intergradation along a habitat gradient in the Lesser Whitethroat complex (Sylvia curruca; Passeriformes; Aves)2016In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 157, no 4, p. 1017-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Niche segregation plays a critical role in the speciation process, but determining the extent to which taxa are geographically or ecologically isolated is challenging. In this study, we use stable isotopes of carbon (delta C-13), nitrogen (delta N-15), hydrogen (delta H-2) and oxygen (delta O-18) to test for ecological differences among taxa in the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed 6 distinct haplotype groups, which conform to at least 5 distinct taxa. Stable isotopes provided insight into geographical and broad-scale ecological differences among haplotypes. The most striking isotope differences were between the populations inhabiting Siberian boreal forest (S. c. blythi) from the one inhabiting semi-desert in Kazakhstan (S. c. halimodendri). It is generally assumed that these two populations form a morphological cline along a gradient from mesic to xeric habitat. Our sample includes a large proportion of morphologically intermediate individuals that appear to represent a hybrid population. However, in all of these, there is strict correspondence between haplotype and isotope signature, suggesting an ecological division on the breeding grounds between all our samples of these two taxa. The lack of ecologically intermediate individuals among our sample of morphologically intermediate ones thus speaks against the existence of a cline. The two taxa blythi and halimodendri emerge as potential models for the study of the early stages of the speciation process. While differences in stable isotopes may be largely influenced by geography, we also demonstrate how, in specific instances (such as the alleged cline reported here), they may be used to evaluate niche segregation between taxa, providing information of importance for determination of species limits.

  • 15.
    Wei, Chentao
    et al.
    Beijing Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Biodivers & Ecol Engn, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chicago, Dept Ecol & Evolut, 940 E 57Th St, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Price, Trevor D.
    Univ Chicago, Dept Ecol & Evolut, 940 E 57Th St, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Liu, Jiayu
    Beijing Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Biodivers & Ecol Engn, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Yanyun
    Beijing Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Biodivers & Ecol Engn, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    The evolutionary origin of variation in song length and frequency in the avian family Cettiidae2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1295-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspects of bird song have been shown to correlate with morphological and ecological features, including beak and body size, and habitat. Here we study evolution of song length and song frequency among 30 species belonging to the Cettiidae. Frequency is negatively correlated with body size, and song length increases with latitude. Although migration distance correlates with latitude, the association of song length with latitude is only present within the non-migratory species, implying the association is not a consequence of migration. We place these correlations in a historical framework to show that the body size-frequency association arose early in the group, but the latitude-song length association is more evolutionarily labile. We suggest that latitudinal correlates of song length may reflect increased importance of sexual selection by female choice.

  • 16.
    Zhang, Dezhi
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Song, Gang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Gao, Bin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Cheng, Yalin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Shaoyuan
    Jiangsu Normal Univ, Sch Life Sci, Xuzhou, Peoples R China..
    Shao, Shimiao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Yongjie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Sichuan Univ, Coll Life Sci, Key Lab Bioresources & Ecoenvironm, Minist Educ, Chengdu, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Genomic differentiation and patterns of gene flow between two long-tailed tit species (Aegithalos)2017In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 26, no 23, p. 6654-6665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of heterogeneous genomic differentiation have been well documented between closely related species, with some highly differentiated genomic regions (genomic differentiation islands) spread throughout the genome. Differential levels of gene flow are proposed to account for this pattern, as genomic differentiation islands are suggested to be resistant to gene flow. Recent studies have also suggested that genomic differentiation islands could be explained by linked selection acting on genomic regions with low recombination rates. Here, we investigate genomic differentiation and gene-flow patterns for autosomes using RAD-seq data between two closely related species of long-tailed tits (Aegithalos bonvaloti and A.fuliginosus) in both allopatric and contact zone populations. The results confirm recent or ongoing gene flow between these two species. However, there is little evidence that the genomic regions that were found to be highly differentiated between the contact zone populations are resistant to gene flow, suggesting that differential levels of gene flow is not the cause of the heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Linked selection may be the cause of genomic differentiation islands between the allopatric populations with no or very limited gene flow, but this could not account for the heterogeneous genomic differentiation between the contact zone populations, which show evidence of recent or ongoing gene flow.

  • 17.
    Zhao, Min
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hu, Ruocheng
    Peking Univ, Sch Life Sci, Res Ctr Nat & Soc, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.;Shanshui Conservat Ctr, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Chao
    Cloud Mt Conservat, Dali 671003, Yunnan, Peoples R China..
    Hao, Yan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Phylogenetic relationships, song and distribution of the endangered Rufous-headed Robin Larvivora ruficeps2017In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 204-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rufous-headed Robin Larvivora ruficeps is one of the world's rarest and least known birds. We summarize the known records since it was first described in 1905 from Shaanxi Province, central China. All subsequent Chinese records are from seven adjacent localities in nearby Sichuan Province. We studied its phylogenetic position for the first time using mitochondrial and nuclear markers for all species of Larvivora and a broad selection of other species in the family Muscicapidae. Our results confirmed that L. ruficeps is appropriately placed in the genus Larvivora, and suggested that it is sister to the Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans, with these two forming a sister clade to a clade comprising both the Japanese Robin Larvivora akahige and Ryukyu Robin Larvivora komadori. Siberian Blue Robin Larvivora cyane and Indian Blue Robin Larvivora brunnea form the sister clade to the other Larvivora species. In contrast, song analyses indicated that the song of L. ruficeps is most similar to that of L. komadori, whereas the song of L. sibilans is relatively more similar to that of L. akahige, and songs of L. cyane and L. brunnea closely resemble each other. We used ecological niche modelling to estimate the suitable habitats of L. ruficeps based on the records from breeding grounds, suggesting that north and central Sichuan, south Gansu, south Shaanxi and south-east Tibet are likely to contain the most suitable habitats for this species.

  • 18.
    Zhao, Min
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Phylogenetic position of the Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria2016In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 913-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria is usually placed in a monotypic family or subfamily within the superfamily Certhioidea, with assumed close relationships to Certhia (treecreepers), Sitta (nuthatches) and Salpornis (spotted creepers). Previous studies have suggested that Tichodroma is most closely related to Sitta, alternatively to Salpornis. We analysed the relationships of Tichodroma using two mitochondrial and five nuclear loci. The tree based on concatenated sequences strongly supported a sister relationship between Tichodroma and Sitta, as well as between Salpornis and Certhia. However, species tree analysis (MP-EST) was unable to resolve these relationships, and although the concatenation tree remains the best hypothesis, more data are needed to corroborate this.

  • 19.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Organism Biology.
    Alström, Per
    Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes)2010In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 370-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diurnal birds belong to one of two classes of colour vision. These are distinguished by the maximum absorbance wavelengths of the SWS1 visual pigment sensitive to violet (VS) and ultraviolet (UVS). Shifts between the classes have been rare events during avian evolution. Gulls (Laridae) are the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) previously reported to have the UVS type of opsin, but too few species have been sampled to infer that gulls are unique among shorebirds or that Laridae is monomorphic for this trait. We have sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene in a broader sample of species. We confirm that cysteine in the key amino acid position 90, characteristic of the UVS class, has been conserved throughout gull evolution but also that the terns Anous minutus, A. tenuirostris and Gygis alba, and the skimmer Rynchops niger carry this trait. Terns, excluding Anous and Gygis, share the VS conferring serine in position 90 with other shorebirds but it is translated from a codon more similar to that found in UVS shorebirds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings, based on a molecular gene tree, is a single VS to UVS shift and a subsequent reversal in one lineage.

  • 20.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Alström, Per
    Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation: the passerines2011In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 11, p. 313-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results: We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions: The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

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