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  • 1.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Abyei: the Kashmir of Sudan2012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development in Abyei on the border between Sudan and South Sudan is said to be a determining factor for the future relationship between the two states. An analysis of the contested area shows that there are at least four different conflict types present: communal, local elite, centre-periphery and cross-border conflicts. However, the conflicts in Abyei must not be seen in isolation but with an understanding of their interlinkages with Sudan’s other conflicts. The conflict complementarities framework presented in this article contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex situation.

  • 2.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Causes of Communal Conflicts: Government Bias, Elites and Conditions for Cooperation2015Report (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    CPA - New Sudan, Old Sudan or Two Sudan?: A review of the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement2007In: Journal of African Policy Studies, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 16-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 9 January 2005 the Sudan’s People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan (GoS) signed a peace agreement called the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which ended a conflict that had been going on since 1983 and resulted in at least 54 000 battle-related deaths. In total it is estimated that two million people have died during the war as a result of violence, famine and disease. This was the final outcome of the so called Machakos peace process which began in July 2002. Overall the implementation is lacking in momentum. Some encouraging signs could be seen: a ceasefire that has held with just one exception; the return of hundreds of thousands of refugees and Internally Displaced Person’s (IDP’s) to the South; and an extensive redeployment of troops. However, other parts of the agreement have not been implemented: there is still no consensus on the contentious region of Abyei; several stipulated commissions have not yet been launched and others are not working properly. The overall impression of the implementation process is negative and the foremost reason for this is the GoS’s lack of will and SPLM’s lack of capacity to properly implement the CPA.

  • 4.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Darfur: dimensioner och dilemman i en komplex situation2009Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för rapporten är en fältstudie genomförd av författaren i Sudan under november och december 2007 uppdelad på tre veckor i den sudanesiska huvudstaden Khartoum och en vecka i Juba, södra Sudan. Författaren försökte också resa in i Darfur men tyvärr gavs inte de erfor­derliga tillstånden. Trots misslyckandet att komma till Darfur så intervjua­des en stor mångfald av darfurier och människor som arbetar med Darfur-frågan. Under tiden i Sudan intervjuades ett urval av politiker, akademiker, traditionella ledare, rebelledare från varierande fraktioner, studerande, företrädare för frivilligorganisationer, människor som arbetar för olika FN-organ, människor som arbetar för mänskliga rättigheter etc. Detta urval innefattar avsiktligt både partiska och opartiska källor för att uppnå en så bred syn som möjligt. En intention med denna rapport är att använda detta unika material i så stor utsträckning som möjligt, men det är också kom­pletterat med andrahandskällor. Syftet med denna analys är att fördjupa kunskapen om den aktuella krisen i Darfur genom att närma sig på bred front. Studien börjar med en bakgrund till krisen i Sudan och uppmanar till en mångsidig syn på landet. Efter det kort information om några väsent­liga aspekter av krisen i Darfur följd av avsnitt om fredsbevarande styrkor, förhandlingar och den internationella respons konflikten har gett upphov till. Slutligen dras några slutsatser och vägar för framtida forskning före­slås. Man hävdar att den aktuella situationen i Darfur är ett resultat av fyra parallella och sammanlänkade typer av konflikter: kollektiva konflikter, konflikter mellan olika regionala eliter, konflikter mellan periferi och cen­trum samt ett proxy-krig mellan Sudan och Tchad. Det hävdas också att ett mångsidigt närmande till Sudan behövs för att finna en varaktig lösning i Darfur och andra områden i Sudan. Vidare betonar rapporten de oerhört stora problem som både förhandlingarna och den fredsbevarande verk­samheten står inför för närvarande. Slutligen framförs en uppmaning till starkare engagemang från, och samordning av, det internationella samfun­det för att lösa konflikterna i Darfur.

  • 5.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Darfur: Dimensions and Dilemmas of a Complex Situation2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure for this report is a field study conducted by the author in Sudan during the fall of 2007. The purpose of this analysis is to deepen knowledge about the current crisis in Darfur through a broad approach. The study includes a short background to the crisis in Darfur and examines some of the major actors, the situation on the ground, the peacekeeping process, the negotiations and the international response. It is argued that the current situation in Darfur is a result of three parallel and interlinked types of conflicts: communal conflicts, conflicts between different regional elites, and periphery-centre conflicts. It is also argued that a comprehensive approach to Sudan is needed to find a lasting solution in Darfur and other areas of Sudan. Moreover, the report stresses the vast problems that both the negotiations and the peacekeeping operation face at the moment. Finally, a call is made for a stronger commitment from, and co-ordination by, the international community to solve the conflicts in Darfur.

  • 6.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Ethno-communal Conflict in Sudan and South Sudan2019In: The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity / [ed] Steven Ratuva, Dordrecht: Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses ethno-communal conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan, which gained independence in 2011. In these two countries, ethno-communal rivalries have primarily manifested in three different types of violent conflicts: communal conflicts, rebel-rebel fighting and civil wars. The study consist of three core parts. First, the chapter provides some empirical information about center-periphery relations (in both Sudan and South Sudan elites in the center enjoys outmost political and economic power while other regions are severely marginalized) and the major violent conflicts in the two countries. Second, the chapter focuses on ethno-communal conflicts in Sudan’s westernmost region, Darfur. This section illustrates that an intricate web of ethno-communal conflicts exist in Darfur. It also emphasizes the importance of land and examines the government’s role in these different conflicts. Third, the chapter studies the civil war that has devastated South Sudan since December 2013. It shows that legacies from Sudan’s North-South war (particularly the Sudanese government’s strategy of divide-and-rule) are important for how the war in South Sudan has manifested.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-10-12 15:40
  • 7.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Good Understanding enables good solutions2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    “I have heard that before – I think that you should solve the problem in this manner” is a common comment from a partner, student or friend when someone has started to explain a problem. Sometimes the listener understands the situation and is correct in his/her analysis of it. At other times, however, the problem is not at all what the listener thought it was. This often leaves the person telling the story in frustration, and the suggested solution is often mismatched because the real problem has not been understood. The same goes for conflicts – if you do not understand you cannot fix it – but a good understanding enables a good solution.

  • 8.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Half a Century of Peace in Botswana2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Africa is the world’s most conflict-affected region, with one third of all civil and interstate conflicts since 1946 taking place on the continent. This bleak picture is not all-embracing, however. Surrounded by seven neighbours plagued by conflicts, Botswana, Malawi and Zambia constitute a ‘Zone of Peace’ spared from violent conflict since they gained independence over half a century ago. This article will describe the main characteristics of Botswana’s peace and chart some of its causes.

  • 9.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Humanitär katastrof i Sydsudan (Humanitarian Catastrophe in South Sudan)2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sydsudan pågår en humanitär katastrof i det tysta. Sedan fullskaligt inbördeskrig utbröt i december 2013 har minst 50 000 människor dött och över två miljoner drivits på flykt. Samtidigt riskerar tre miljoner människor – en fjärdedel av befolkningen – att svälta. Trots ett fredsavtal från augusti förra året har striderna inte upphört och situationen är fortsatt osäker. Johan Brosché, konfliktforskare vid Uppsala universitet, analyserar grundorsakerna till tragedin.

  • 10.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Masters of War: The Role of Elites in Sudan’s Communal Conflicts2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do communal conflicts turn violent in some regions but not in others? Communal conflicts pose a severe threat to human security and kill thousands of people each year, but our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, we lack knowledge about why some of these conflicts become violent while others are resolved peacefully. This study addresses this knowledge gap and has a novel approach by addressing subnational variations that are unexplained by previous research. The theoretical framework combines insights from three different perspectives focusing on the role of the state, elite interactions, and conditions for cooperation over common resources. Empirically, the research question is investigated by combining within- and between-region analyses of three Sudanese regions: Darfur, Eastern Sudan, and Greater Upper Nile. Despite sharing several similar characteristics, communal conflicts have killed thousands in Darfur and Greater Upper Nile but only a few dozen in Eastern Sudan. The empirical analysis builds on extensive material collected during fieldwork.

    This study generates several conclusions about the importance of government conduct and how state behavior contributes to the prevalence of violent communal conflicts. It finds that when governments act in a biased manner – favoring certain communities over others – interactions between central and local elites as well as among local elites are disrupted. Unconstructive elite interactions, in turn, have negative effects on three mechanisms that are crucial for communal cooperation. First, when the regime is biased, communal affiliation, rather than the severity and context of a violation, determines the sanctions that are imposed on the perpetrators. Second, government bias leads to unclear boundaries, which contribute to violent communal conflicts by creating disarray and by shifting power balances between the communities. Third, regime partiality distances rules from local conditions and restricts the influence of local actors who have an understanding of local circumstances. The study also reveals why a regime acts with partiality in some areas but not in others. The answer to this question is found in the complex interplay between the threats and opportunities that a region presents to the regime. Taken together, the findings have important implications for the prevention and management of communal conflict.

  • 11.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sharing Power - Enabling Peace?: Evaluating Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement 20052009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to examine what lessons can be learned from Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2005, with particular relevance to power-sharing. The author went to on a field-trip to Khartoum, Juba and Nairobi in July 2009 to complement his previous knowledge the Sudan conflict.

     

    The report draws ten lessons learned, and these are divided into the three aspects of process, provisions and implementation. In terms of the process, the report suggests that negotiators should strive to involve both regional actors and actors from the international community, focus on the functioning of the agreement, and seek to enhance the capacity-building of the parties. In relation to the key provision, power-sharing, the report calls for mediators to be wary of including exit options in power-sharing deals. The effects of exclusion and inclusion of various actors should be scrutinized and it is important that the message of the agreement is conveyed to various constituencies. Also, it is important to bring peace dividends for the people to increase the legitimacy of the agreement. Regarding the implementation phase, three key lessons are learned. First, for a successful implementation it is essential to keep the momentum of the signing. Secondly, the signing of an agreement is the start, not the end, of building a durable peace. Finally, the research findings demonstrate the importance of maintaining the moment ripe for implementation after the agreement is signed. One way of facilitating this is by keeping the same parties involved during the implementation process as during the negotiations. 

  • 12.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Crises Continue: Sudan’s Remaining Conflicts2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current conflicts in Sudan consist of different conflict-types, here presented in a theoretical framework of conflict complementarities. The framework consist of four parallel and interlinked conflicts types: communal conflicts, local elite conflicts, center-periphery conflicts, and cross-border conflicts. The structure of conflict complementarities is used to describe the continuing crisis in Darfur, and the emerging crisis in South Kordofan.

    The complexities of Sudan’s conflict have often been overlooked by outsiders leading to incorrect assessments of the root causes, as well as dynamics of these conflicts. Therefore, this paper makes a call for careful conflict analysis in order to understand the conflicts in Sudan. Although taken place in different areas the root causes of Sudan’s conflicts are similar. Poverty and severe marginalization of the peripheries, in combination with bad governance at the center, are the main reasons for conflicts all over the country. Also other areas of Sudan, such as Eastern Sudan and the far North, suffer from these problems. Thus, there is a risk that Sudan’s crisis will spread to new areas. For conflicts in Sudan to decline the root causes of the problems need to be tackled.

    Decentralization that would decrease the huge differences between the center and the marginalized peripheries would be a step in the right direction. Also, the government’s propensity for using militias and divide-and-rule strategies has to stop for a brighter future for Sudan. Finally, a stronger commitment from, and co-ordination by, the international community is needed to deal with the continuing crisis in Sudan.

  • 13.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Brounéus, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Fjelde, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hegre, Håvard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Themnér, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nio punkter för global fred (Nine Points for Global Peace)2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Insatserna för global fred måste stärkas skriver tolv företrädare för institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning apropå att världens ledare samlas i dag i New York för att anta 17 nya globala mål för en bättre värld och mer hållbar utveckling.

  • 14.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Duursma, Allard
    Univ Manchester, Humanitarian & Conflict Response Inst HCRI, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Hurdles to peace: a level-of-analysis approach to resolving Sudan's civil wars2018In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 560-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some peace agreements end armed conflicts whereas others do not? Previous studies have primarily focused on the relation between warring parties and the provisions included in peace agreements. Prominent mediators, however, have emphasised the importance of stakeholders at various levels for the outcome of peace agreements. To match the experience of these negotiators we apply a level-of-analysis approach to examine the contextual circumstances under which peace agreements are concluded. While prominent within the causes of war literature, level-of-analysis approaches are surprisingly scant in research about conflict resolution. This article compares two Sudanese Peace Agreements: the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005) that ended the North-South war and led to the independence of South Sudan, and the Darfur Peace Agreement (2006) which failed to end fighting in Darfur. We find that factors at the local, national and international level explain the different outcomes of the two agreements. Hence, the two case studies illustrate the merit of employing a level-of-analysis approach to study the outcome of peace agreements. The main contribution of this article is that it presents a new theoretical framework to understand why some peace agreements terminate armed conflict whereas others do not.

  • 15.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Communal conflict, civil war, and the state: Complexities, connections, and the case of Sudan2012In: African Journal on Conflict Resolution, ISSN 1562-6997, E-ISSN 2309-737X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 33-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses communal conflict, which we define as violent conflict between non-state groups that are organised along a shared communal identity, and how such conflicts relate to state-based violence. We argue that a deeper understanding of communal conflicts, the different types of dynamics and conflict issues, as well as of the complex connections between communal conflicts and other forms of organised violence, is necessary for improving academic research as well as for better informed policy and interventions. Our arguments are illustrated through a case study of Sudan. The article makes three main contributions: first, it shows that communal conflicts often have grave consequences, and illustrates several linkages between communal conflicts and state-based conflicts. Secondly, it demonstrates that a correct analysis is necessary before any party intervenes, in order to understand in what ways the communal conflict may be entangled with other types of organised violence. Thirdly, the article underlines that communal conflicts need to be taken into account both when signing a peace agreement and in the post-conflict situation, to avoid the risk that conflict and violence merely spills over from one type to another.

  • 16.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Fjelde, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Electoral violence and the legacy of authoritarian rule in Kenya and Zambia2020In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 111-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do the first multiparty elections after authoritarian rule turn violent in some countries but not in others? Thisarticle places legacies from the authoritarian past at the core of an explanation of when democratic openings becomeassociated with electoral violence in multi-ethnic states, and complement existing research focused on the immediateconditions surrounding the elections. We argue that authoritarian rule characterized by more exclusionary multiethniccoalitions creates legacies that amplify the risk of violent elections during the shift to multiparty politics.Through competitive and fragmented interethnic relations, exclusionary systems foreclose the forging of cross-ethnicelite coalitions and make hostile narratives a powerful tool for political mobilization. By contrast, regimes with abroad-based ethnic support base cultivate inclusive inter-elite bargaining, enable cross-ethnic coalitions, and reduceincentives for hostile ethnic mobilization, which lower the risk of violent elections. We explore this argument bycomparing founding elections in Zambia (1991), which were largely peaceful, and Kenya (1992), with large-scalestate-instigated electoral violence along ethnic lines. The analysis suggests that the type of authoritarian rule createdpolitical legacies that underpinned political competition and mobilization during the first multiparty elections, andmade violence a more viable electoral strategy in Kenya than in Zambia.

  • 17.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Crisis of governance in South Sudan: electoral politics and violence in the world's newest nation2016In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 67-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since mid-December 2013, thousands of people have been killed in armed conflict in South Sudan. The fighting is entrenched in a power struggle between the main political contenders ahead of elections which were scheduled for 2015. This article examines the violence in South Sudan since the North-South war ended with a focus on the consequences of the introduction of electoral politics. Our research contributes to the literature on state-building and peace-building in war-torn societies, by exploring how the extreme levels of violence are linked to three groups of factors. First, the stakes involved in being part of the government are extremely high, since it is the only way to secure political and economic influence. Second, the actors involved in political life are dominated by individuals who held positions within the rebel groups, which increases the risk of political differences turning violent. Third, the institutions important for a legitimate electoral process, and which work to prevent violence, are weak or non-existent.

  • 18.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hur ska vi förstå det fredliga Malawi? (How Should We Understand Malawi’s Peace?)2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det malawiska samhället innehåller flera av de ingredienser som vanligtvis förknippas med väpnade konflikter: utbredd fattigdom, en historia av konialförtryck och diktatur och svaga institutioner. Ändå har landet varit förskonat från väpnad konflikt alltsedan självständigheten.

  • 19.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Riek Machar: Warlord-Doctor in South Sudan2017In: Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politic / [ed] Anders Themnér, London: Zed Books, 2017, p. 199-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The diversity of peace and war in Africa2015In: SIPRI Yearbook 2015, Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 110-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Calissendorff, Love
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Zambia eroding: Four ongoing trends to be worried about2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The release of Zambia’s main opposition leader in August was greeted by some observers as a sign that the country’s democratic spirit lives on. Zambia has long been considered a model of stability in a tumultuous region, and Hakainde Hichilema’s four-month detention could be seen as an anomaly that has now been dealt with.

    But the reality is that it is too early to draw a sigh of relief.

  • 22.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    van Baalen, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jasaffären i Botswana strider mot Sveriges mål (Selling JAS to Botswana goes against Sweden’s Foreign Policy Goals)2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Som fredsforskare stöder vi starkt en svensk utrikespolitik med fokus på mänskliga rättigheter, fred och fattigdomsbekämpning. En Jasaffär med Botswana skulle stå i direkt strid med Sveriges utrikesmål.

  • 23.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A responsibility to talk: mediation and violence against civilians2018In: International Mediation in a Fragile World / [ed] David Carment and Evan Hoffman, New York: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kulturarv i skottgluggen2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ANALYS Den Islamiska staten attacker mot Palmyra och andra kulturarv i Syrien och Irak har fått stor uppmärksamhet i internationella medier. Men attacker mot kulturarv i väpnade konflikter är inte unikt för IS, och dessa attacker kan ha en rad olika syften. Det skriver Johan Brosché, Joakim Kreutz och Mattias Legner utifrån ett nytt tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt.

  • 25.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Political Science, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ijla, Akram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Heritage under Attack: motives for targeting cultural property during armed conflict2017In: International Journal of Heritage Studies (IJHS), ISSN 1352-7258, E-ISSN 1470-3610, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 248-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although attacks on cultural property have caused international outcry,our understanding of this phenomenon is still limited. In particular, littleresearch has been directed towards exploring the motivations for suchattacks. Therefore, we ask: What are the motives for attacking sites, buildingsor objects representing cultural heritage? By combining insights from peaceand conflict research with findings from heritage studies we present atypology of motivations for attacking cultural property. We identify four,not mutually exclusive, broad groups of motives: (i) attacks related to conflictgoals, in which cultural property is targeted because it is connected to theissue the warring parties are fighting over (ii), military-strategic attacks, inwhich the main motivation is to win tactical advantages in the conflict (iii),signalling attacks, in which cultural property is targeted as a low-risk targetthat signals the commitment of the aggressor, and (iv) economic incentiveswhere cultural property provides funding for warring parties. Our typologyoffers a theoretical structure for research about why, when, and by whom,cultural property is targeted. This is not only likely to provide academicbenefits, but also to contribute to the development of more effective toolsfor the protection of cultural property during armed conflict.

  • 26.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala University.
    Zambian Refugee Policy: Security, Repatriation and Local Integration2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why has Zambia, in contrast to most of its neighbours in Southern Africa, not experienced war since independence? This study is an attempt to shed light on the relationship between Zambia’s peaceful history, in a region plagued by conflict and refugee-flows, and the country’s generous refugee policy. The Zambian refugee policy is examined in this study, using a multidimensional security perspective as a theoretical tool, developed by Barry Buzan in the book People, States and Fear. The study focuses on Angolan refugees and describes two processes in the refugee policy, on one hand a process of local integration of refugees (the Zambian Initiative), on the other, a process of helping the refugees return to their country of origin (the repatriation project). With the help of interviews with officials from the government of Zambia, UN-agencies, NGO´s and the University, and with interviews at a grassroots level, some important conclusions have been made about the Zambian refugee policy. The demobilisation of refugees, the location of the camps, preventing the refugees from being politically active, the availability of land and the ethnical structure in the country are all essential factors that have contributed to the fact that the refugee issue has not yet become a source of conflict. In sum we see the Zambian refugee policy as a mostly constructive one with the Zambian Initiative as an admirable project that beneficially could be transmitted to other countries.   

  • 27.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rothbart, Daniel
    Violent conflict and peacebuilding: The continuing crisis in Darfur2013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the continuing devastation in the Darfur region of Sudan, focusing on its causes and consequences from the perspective of the complementarity of distinct conflicts.

    The crisis reached its peak in 2003–2004, when certain Arab militias joined forces with the Sudan armed forces against insurgent resistance movements. Engulfed in the tumult, many Darfurians have experienced systematic slaughter, sexual violence, and internal displacement on a massive scale. Although the violence has waned in recent years, the fighting continues to this day. The authors cast this crisis as a complex web of four distinct, yet interlacing, conflict types:

    • long-standing disputes between farmers and herders and between different herder communities
    • political struggles between the local elite leaders of the resistance movements, and those between traditional leaders (elders) and younger aspiring leaders
    • long-standing grievances of marginalized groups against those at the national centre of power
    • cross-border conflicts, primarily the proxy war waged between Chad and Sudan
    • the crisis in South Sudan is also examined through the lens of conflict complementarity.

    This book will be of interest to students of African politics, genocide, political violence, ethnic conflict, war and conflict studies, peacebuilding and IR.

  • 28.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rothbart, Daniel
    School of Conflict Analysis and Resolution (S-CAR), George Mason University.
    Yousif, Adeeb
    School of Conflict Analysis and Resolution (S-CAR), George Mason University.
    Darfur: The Crisis Continues2012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since it gained independence in 1956, Sudan has been ravaged by war. Its people have been devastated by both the North-South conflict that embroiled the country for the last two decades of the twentieth century and the war in Darfur, the country's western-most region. Since the early 2000s, Darfurians have been the continued victims of ethnic cleansing, large-scale killings, genocidal violence, and horrific displacement. Though the violence has waned from its level during the peak years of 2002 and 2003, the fighting continues to the present day. This report provides an up-to-date mapping of the current crisis in Darfur, giving special attention to its complexity, dynamics, and multiplicity of causes. The analysis that underpins this report is extensively examined in Violent Conflict and Peacebuilding: The Continuing Crisis in Darfur (Brosché and Rothbart 2013).

  • 29.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Katastrof i Sydsudan måste förhindras (Catastrophe in South Sudan has to be prevented)2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikten i Sydsudan är ett farligt maktspel där politiker hänsynslöst spelar ut ”det etniska kortet”. Stark diplomatisk press måste nu sättas på de olika aktörerna. Sverige kan spela en viktig roll, skriver freds- och konfliktforskarna Johan Brosché och Ralph Sundberg.

  • 30.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    This Land is Whose Land?: ‘Sons of the Soil’ Conflicts in Darfur2018In: People Changing Places: New Perspectives on Demography, Migration, Conflict, and the State / [ed] Isabelle Côté; Matthew I. Mitchell; Monica Duffy Toft, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 59-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Brosché, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Taub, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Syriens kris liknar den i Darfur (”The Crisis in Syria Resembles the Crisis in Darfur”)2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikterna i Syrien och Darfur har många likheter. Den förra riskerar att bli lika utdragen som den senare. Samtidigt kan man undvika att göra om misstagen med oinitierade fredsavtal som i stället allvarligt förvärrar krisen.

  • 32.
    Calissendorff, Love
    et al.
    Generations for Peace.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Dehumanization Amidst Massacres: An Examination of Dinka-Nuer Intergroup Attitudes in South Sudan2019In: Peace and Conflict: The Journal of Peace Psychology, ISSN 1078-1919, E-ISSN 1532-7949, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on dehumanization has been conducted primarily in Western contexts, and outside ofperiods of ongoing and highly violent conflict. The present study, in contrast, examines grassroots-leveldehumanization between South Sudan’s two largest ethnic groups—Dinka and Nuer—during an episodeof extreme interethnic violence. Using a mixed-methods approach we study levels of dehumanization andhow these attitudes are related to and structured around ongoing and/or very recent extreme violence.Whereas the results demonstrated mechanistic dehumanization by the Dinka participants vis-a`-vis theNuer, no similar dehumanization was found among the Nuer: although there were clear signs ofintergroup bias. Our focus groups demonstrated that dehumanization attitudes in South Sudan are to agreat degree structured around recent event of mass violence. In fact, practically all dehumanizingattitudes were related to these recent events and not to events previous, or to historicized stereotypes. Thecore contribution of this article is threefold. First, we deepen understanding of dehumanization byexamining a non-Western case with ongoing, highly violent, conflict. Second, we further knowledgeabout the psychological effects of events of mass violence. Third, we provide new insights to the situationin South Sudan by our analysis of intergroup perceptions.

  • 33.
    Kreutz, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Brosché, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A responsibility to talk: Mediation and violence against civilians2013In: Canadian Foreign Policy, ISSN 1192-6422, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Sundberg, Ralph
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Brosché, Johan
    Ställ tuffa krav på Sydsudan2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 34 of 34
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