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  • 1.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical Properties and Ion Conductivity of PEI-LiTFSI Polymer Electrolytes with Added SiO2 and In2O3:Sn Nanoparticles2012In: Abstracts: ISPE-13, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, P.
    Charakterization and Modelling of Polymer Electrolytes2009In: Proc E-MRS Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Pehlivan, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Runnerstrom, E. L.
    Milliron, D. J.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic Devices with Polymer Electrolytes Functionalized by SiO2 and In2O3:Sn Nanoparticles: Rapid Coloration/Bleaching Dynamics and Strong Near-Infrared Absorption2014In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 126, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georen, P.
    Electrical modeling of PEI-LiTFSI polymer electrolytes2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Runnerstrom, E. L.
    The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA och Dept of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Li, Shuyi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Milliron, D. J.
    The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    A polymer electrolyte with high luminous transmittance and low solar throughput: Polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide with In2O3:Sn nanocrystals2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 24, p. 241902-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically prepared similar to 13-nm-diameter nanocrystals of In2O3:Sn were included in a polyethyleneiminelithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolyte and yielded high haze-free luminous transmittance and strong near-infrared absorption without deteriorated ionic conductivity. The optical properties could be reconciled with effective medium theory, representing the In2O3:Sn as a free electron plasma with tin ions screened according to the random phase approximation corrected for electron exchange. This type of polymer electrolyte is of large interest for opto-ionic devices such as laminated electrochromic smart windows.

  • 6.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Characterization and modeling of Poly(ethylene imine)-LiTFSI Polymer Electrolytes2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Ion conduction of branched polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion conduction of branched polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolytes
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 57, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes containing branched poly (ethylene imine) (BPEI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was measured between temperatures of 20 and 70◦C and molar ratios of 20:1 and 400:1. The electrolytes were characterized by impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and viscosity measurements. At room temperature, the maximum conductivity was 2×10−6 S/cm at a molar ratio of 50:1. The molar conductivity of the electrolytes displayed first a minimum and then a maximum upon increasing salt concentration. A proportionality of molar conductivity to segmental mobility was seen from glass transition temperature and viscosity measurements. Analysis of the Walden product and isoviscosity conductivity showed that the percentage of ions bound in ion pairs increased at low concentrations below 0.1 mol/kg. The average dipole moment decreased with salt concentration. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity showed an Arrhenius behavior.

    Keywords
    Ionic conductivity, Poly (ethylene imine), Arrhenius behavior, Walden rule, Ion pairing
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Polymer Chemistry; Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-163443 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2011.04.040 (DOI)000298463900029 ()
    Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Ionic relaxation in polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide polymer electrolytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionic relaxation in polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide polymer electrolytes
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 108, no 7, p. 074102-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolytes containing polyethyleneimine and different concentrations of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide were investigated by impedance spectroscopy at different temperatures. Two equivalent circuit models were compared for the bulk impedance response. The first one includes a conductive Havriliak-Negami (HN) element which represents ionic conductivity and ion pair relaxation in a single process, and the second model includes a dielectric HN element, which represents ion pair relaxation, in parallel with ion conductivity. Comparison of the two circuit models showed that the quality of the fit was similar and in some cases better for the conductive model. The experimental data follow the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation, which relates the ion conductivity and the parameters of the relaxation. This indicates that ion conductivity and ion pair relaxation are two parts of the same process and should be described by the conductive model.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133611 (URN)10.1063/1.3490133 (DOI)000283222200101 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2010-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. PEI-LiTFSI electrolytes for electrochromic devices: Characterization by differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PEI-LiTFSI electrolytes for electrochromic devices: Characterization by differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 94, no 12, p. 2399-2404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolytes containing poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) can serve as model electrolytes for electrochromic devices. Such electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, conductivity, and viscosity measurements. The glass transition temperature (T-g) and viscosity of the PEI-LiTESI electrolytes have minima at a [N]:[Li] ratio of 100:1. Both T-g and viscosity increased at high salt concentrations. The temperature dependences of ionic conductivity and viscosity followed an Arrhenius equation with parameters depending only weakly on the salt concentration. The fluid behavior of the electrolytes could be reconciled with the Bingham plastic model with parameters being functions of salt concentration.

    Keywords
    Polymer electrolyte, Electrochromic, Smart window, PEI, DSC, Viscosity
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-135307 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2010.08.025 (DOI)000283959500066 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, İlknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Functionalization of polymer electrolytes for electrochromic windows2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Saving energy in buildings is of great importance because about 30 to 40 % of the energy in the world is used in buildings. An electrochromic window (ECW), which makes it possible to regulate the inflow of visible light and solar energy into buildings, is a promising technology providing a reduction in energy consumption in buildings along with indoor comfort. A polymer electrolyte is positioned at the center of multi-layer structure of an ECW and plays a significant role in the working of the ECW.

    In this study, polyethyleneimine: lithium (bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (PEI:LiTFSI)-based polymer electrolytes were characterized by using dielectric/impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity recording, optical spectroscopy, and electrochromic measurements.

    In the first part of the study, PEI:LiTFSI electrolytes were characterized at various salt concentrations and temperatures. Temperature dependence of viscosity and ionic conductivity of the electrolytes followed Arrhenius behavior. The viscosity was modeled by the Bingham plastic equation. Molar conductivity, glass transition temperature, viscosity, Walden product, and iso-viscosity conductivity analysis showed effects of segmental flexibility, ion pairs, and mobility on the conductivity. A connection between ionic conductivity and ion-pair relaxation was seen by means of (i) the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation, (ii) activation energies of the bulk relaxation, and ionic conduction and (iii) comparing two equivalent circuit models, containing different types of Havriliak-Negami elements, for the bulk response.

    In the second part, nanocomposite PEI:LiTFSI electrolytes with SiO2, In2O3, and In2O3:Sn (ITO) were examined. Adding SiO2 to the PEI:LiTFSI enhanced the ionic conductivity by an order of magnitude without any degradation of the optical properties. The effect of segmental flexibility and free ion concentration on the conduction in the presence of SiO2 is discussed. The PEI:LiTFSI:ITO electrolytes had high haze-free luminous transmittance and strong near-infrared absorption without diminished ionic conductivity. Ionic conductivity and optical clarity did not deteriorate for the PEI:LiTFSI:In2O3 and the PEI:LiTFSI:SiO2:ITO electrolytes.

    Finally, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) were added to PEI:LiTFSI in order to perform electrochromic measurements. ITO and SiO2 were added to the PEI:LiTFSI:PC:EC and to a proprietary electrolyte. The nanocomposite electrolytes were tested for ECWs with the configuration of the ECWs being plastic/ITO/WO3/polymer electrolyte/NiO (or IrO2)/ITO/plastic. It was seen that adding nanoparticles to polymer electrolytes can improve the coloring/bleaching dynamics of the ECWs.

    From this study, we show that nanocomposite polymer electrolytes can add new functionalities as well as enhancement in ECW applications.

    List of papers
    1. PEI-LiTFSI electrolytes for electrochromic devices: Characterization by differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PEI-LiTFSI electrolytes for electrochromic devices: Characterization by differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 94, no 12, p. 2399-2404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolytes containing poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) can serve as model electrolytes for electrochromic devices. Such electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, conductivity, and viscosity measurements. The glass transition temperature (T-g) and viscosity of the PEI-LiTESI electrolytes have minima at a [N]:[Li] ratio of 100:1. Both T-g and viscosity increased at high salt concentrations. The temperature dependences of ionic conductivity and viscosity followed an Arrhenius equation with parameters depending only weakly on the salt concentration. The fluid behavior of the electrolytes could be reconciled with the Bingham plastic model with parameters being functions of salt concentration.

    Keywords
    Polymer electrolyte, Electrochromic, Smart window, PEI, DSC, Viscosity
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-135307 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2010.08.025 (DOI)000283959500066 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Ion conduction of branched polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion conduction of branched polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolytes
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 57, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes containing branched poly (ethylene imine) (BPEI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was measured between temperatures of 20 and 70◦C and molar ratios of 20:1 and 400:1. The electrolytes were characterized by impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and viscosity measurements. At room temperature, the maximum conductivity was 2×10−6 S/cm at a molar ratio of 50:1. The molar conductivity of the electrolytes displayed first a minimum and then a maximum upon increasing salt concentration. A proportionality of molar conductivity to segmental mobility was seen from glass transition temperature and viscosity measurements. Analysis of the Walden product and isoviscosity conductivity showed that the percentage of ions bound in ion pairs increased at low concentrations below 0.1 mol/kg. The average dipole moment decreased with salt concentration. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity showed an Arrhenius behavior.

    Keywords
    Ionic conductivity, Poly (ethylene imine), Arrhenius behavior, Walden rule, Ion pairing
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Polymer Chemistry; Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-163443 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2011.04.040 (DOI)000298463900029 ()
    Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Ionic relaxation in polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide polymer electrolytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionic relaxation in polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide polymer electrolytes
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 108, no 7, p. 074102-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolytes containing polyethyleneimine and different concentrations of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide were investigated by impedance spectroscopy at different temperatures. Two equivalent circuit models were compared for the bulk impedance response. The first one includes a conductive Havriliak-Negami (HN) element which represents ionic conductivity and ion pair relaxation in a single process, and the second model includes a dielectric HN element, which represents ion pair relaxation, in parallel with ion conductivity. Comparison of the two circuit models showed that the quality of the fit was similar and in some cases better for the conductive model. The experimental data follow the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation, which relates the ion conductivity and the parameters of the relaxation. This indicates that ion conductivity and ion pair relaxation are two parts of the same process and should be described by the conductive model.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133611 (URN)10.1063/1.3490133 (DOI)000283222200101 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-21 Created: 2010-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. [PEI-SiO2]:[LiTFSI] nanocomposite polymer electrolytes: Ion conduction and optical properties
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>[PEI-SiO2]:[LiTFSI] nanocomposite polymer electrolytes: Ion conduction and optical properties
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 98, p. 465-471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ion conductivity and optical properties were investigated for polymer electrolytes based on poly (ethyleneimine) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and also containing up to 9 wt.% of 7-nm-diameter SiO2 nanoparticles. The [N]:[Li] molar ratio was kept constant at 50:1. Impedance measurements were performed in the frequency range 10(-2)-10(7) Hz and between the temperatures 20 and 70 degrees C with an applied ac voltage of 1 V. Spectrophotometric data of total and diffuse transmittance were taken between the wavelengths 300 and 2500 nm. The bulk impedance was fitted to a conductive Havriliak-Negami circuit model. The ion conductivity increased monotonically for increasing SiO2 contents: specifically its room temperature value went from 8.5 x 10(-7) S/cm without nanoparticles to 3.8 x 10(-5) S/cm for 8 wt.% of SiO2 while the diffuse transmittance remained at similar to 1% so that optical clarity prevailed.

    Keywords
    Polymer electrolyte, Nanocomposite, PEI, LiTFSI, SiO2
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171404 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2011.11.021 (DOI)000300536500065 ()
    Available from: 2012-03-20 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    5. Ion conduction mechanism of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes comprised of polyethyleneimine–lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and silica
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion conduction mechanism of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes comprised of polyethyleneimine–lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and silica
    2014 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 119, p. 164-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204451 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2013.12.032 (DOI)000335877000023 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. A polymer electrolyte with high luminous transmittance and low solar throughput: Polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide with In2O3:Sn nanocrystals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A polymer electrolyte with high luminous transmittance and low solar throughput: Polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide with In2O3:Sn nanocrystals
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 24, p. 241902-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically prepared similar to 13-nm-diameter nanocrystals of In2O3:Sn were included in a polyethyleneiminelithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolyte and yielded high haze-free luminous transmittance and strong near-infrared absorption without deteriorated ionic conductivity. The optical properties could be reconciled with effective medium theory, representing the In2O3:Sn as a free electron plasma with tin ions screened according to the random phase approximation corrected for electron exchange. This type of polymer electrolyte is of large interest for opto-ionic devices such as laminated electrochromic smart windows.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-178647 (URN)10.1063/1.4728994 (DOI)000305269200024 ()
    Available from: 2012-08-02 Created: 2012-08-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    7. Electrochromic Devices with Polymer Electrolytes Functionalized by SiO2 and In2O3:Sn Nanoparticles: Rapid Coloring/Bleaching Dynamics and Strong Near-Infrared Absorption
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochromic Devices with Polymer Electrolytes Functionalized by SiO2 and In2O3:Sn Nanoparticles: Rapid Coloring/Bleaching Dynamics and Strong Near-Infrared Absorption
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 126, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the optical properties and coloring/bleaching dynamics of electrochromic devices based on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide and incorporating polymer electrolytes functionalized by adding about one percent of nanoparticles of SiO2 (fumed silica) or In2O3:Sn. SiO2 improved the coloring/bleaching dynamics and In2O3:Sn quenched the near-infrared transmittance. Both of these effects can be important in electrochromic smart windows, and our results point at the advantage of a polymer laminated construction over a monolithic one.

    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204448 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2013.06.010 (DOI)000338395100035 ()
    Conference
    10th International Meeting on Electrochromism (IME), Holland, MI, August 12-16, 2012
    Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Arvizu, Miguel A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qiu, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Impedance Spectroscopy Modeling of Nickel–Molybdenum Alloys on Porous and Flat Substrates for Applications in Water Splitting2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 39, p. 23890-23897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen production by splitting water using electrocatalysts powered by renewable energy from solar or wind plants is one promising alternative to produce a carbon-free and sustainable fuel. Earth-abundant and nonprecious metals are, here, of interest as a replacement for scarce and expensive platinum group catalysts. Ni–Mo is a promising alternative to Pt, but the type of the substrate could ultimately affect both the initial growth conditions and the final charge transfer in the system as a whole with resistive junctions formed in the heterojunction interface. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substrates on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of Ni–Mo electrocatalysts. Ni–Mo catalysts (30 atom % Ni, 70 atom % Mo) were sputtered on various substrates with different porosities and conductivities. There was no apparent morphological difference at the surface of the catalytic films sputtered on the different substrates, and the substrates were classified from microporous to flat. The electrochemical characterization was carried out with linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the frequency range 0.7 Hz–100 kHz. LSV measurements were carried out at direct current (DC) potentials between 200 and −400 mV vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in 1 M NaOH encompassing the HER. The lowest overpotentials for HER were obtained for films on the nickel foam at all current densities (−157 mV vs RHE @ 10 mA cm–2), and the overpotentials increased in the order of nickel foil, carbon cloth, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and indium tin oxide glass. EIS data were fitted with two equivalent circuit models and compared for different DC potentials and different substrate morphologies and conductivities. By critical evaluation of the data from the models, the influence of the substrates on the reaction kinetics was analyzed in the high- and low-frequency regions. In the high-frequency region, a strong substrate dependence was seen and interpreted with a Schottky-type barrier, which can be rationalized as being due to a potential barrier in the material heterojunctions or a resistive substrate–film oxide/hydroxide. The results highlight the importance of substrates, the total charge transfer properties in electrocatalysis, and the relevance of different circuit components in EIS and underpin the necessity to incorporate high-conductivity, chemically inert, and work-function-matched substrate–catalysts in the catalyst system.

  • 9.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, Peter
    Marsal, Roser
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ion conduction of branched polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolytes2011In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 57, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes containing branched poly (ethylene imine) (BPEI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was measured between temperatures of 20 and 70◦C and molar ratios of 20:1 and 400:1. The electrolytes were characterized by impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and viscosity measurements. At room temperature, the maximum conductivity was 2×10−6 S/cm at a molar ratio of 50:1. The molar conductivity of the electrolytes displayed first a minimum and then a maximum upon increasing salt concentration. A proportionality of molar conductivity to segmental mobility was seen from glass transition temperature and viscosity measurements. Analysis of the Walden product and isoviscosity conductivity showed that the percentage of ions bound in ion pairs increased at low concentrations below 0.1 mol/kg. The average dipole moment decreased with salt concentration. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity showed an Arrhenius behavior.

  • 10.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, Peter
    Marsal, Roser
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ionic conductivity of PEI-LiTFSI electrolytes2010In: XII International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    ChromoGenics AB, Uppsala.
    Georen, Peter
    ChromoGenics AB, Uppsala.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    [PEI-SiO2]:[LiTFSI] nanocomposite polymer electrolytes: Ion conduction and optical properties2012In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 98, p. 465-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion conductivity and optical properties were investigated for polymer electrolytes based on poly (ethyleneimine) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and also containing up to 9 wt.% of 7-nm-diameter SiO2 nanoparticles. The [N]:[Li] molar ratio was kept constant at 50:1. Impedance measurements were performed in the frequency range 10(-2)-10(7) Hz and between the temperatures 20 and 70 degrees C with an applied ac voltage of 1 V. Spectrophotometric data of total and diffuse transmittance were taken between the wavelengths 300 and 2500 nm. The bulk impedance was fitted to a conductive Havriliak-Negami circuit model. The ion conductivity increased monotonically for increasing SiO2 contents: specifically its room temperature value went from 8.5 x 10(-7) S/cm without nanoparticles to 3.8 x 10(-5) S/cm for 8 wt.% of SiO2 while the diffuse transmittance remained at similar to 1% so that optical clarity prevailed.

  • 12.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, Peter
    Marsal, R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Influence of SiO2 nanoparticles on ionic conductivity of PEI-LiTFSI electrolytes2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Georén, Peter
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical properties of PEI-LiTFSI polymer electrolytes with added SiO2 nanoparticles2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Comparison of optical and electrical properties of PEI-LiTFSI polymer electrolytes with added SiO2 or In2O3:Sn nanoparticles2012In: XIII International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes, 2012, p. 156-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ion conduction mechanism of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes comprised of polyethyleneimine–lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and silica2014In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 119, p. 164-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Georén, Peter
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Characterization and Modeling of Poly (ethylene imine)-LiTFSI Polymer Electrolytes2011Other (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Goerén, Peter
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Impedance Spectroscopy of [PEI-SiO2] Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes2010In: 9th International Meeting on Electrochromism, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georen, Peter
    Characterization of PEI-LiTFSI Electrolytes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Viscosity Measurements2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    ChromoGenics AB.
    Pehlivan, Esat
    ChromoGenics AB.
    Runnerstrom, E. L.
    Milliron, D. J.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic device application of PEI:LiTFSI-based polymer electrolytes with added SiO2 and In2O3:Sn nanoparticles.2012In: IME-10. Tenth International meeting on Electrochromism, Holland, MI USA, August 12-16, 2012., 2012, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georen, Peter
    Electrical Modeling of PEI-LiTFSI Polymer Electrolytes2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Runnerstrom, E.
    Milliron, D.J.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Near-infrared absorption in PEI-LiTFSI polymer electrolytes with added nanoparticles2012In: 2nd International Advances in Applied Physics and Materials Science Congress (2012) Antalya, Turkey, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, S. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lansåker, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Oxide-based electrochromics: Advances in materials and devices2011In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1328, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Y.- X.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Pehlivan, E.
    Marsal, R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics and Thermochromics for Energy Efficient Fenestration: New Applications Based on Transparent Conducting Nanoparticles2013In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Online Library, Vol. 1558, p. 12 p.-, article id mrs13-1558-z09Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Y.-X.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics and Thermochromics for Energy Efficient Fenestration: New Applications Based on Transparent Conducting Nanoparticles2013In: MRS Proceedings Library, p. 1-12, article id mrs13-1558-z09Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Y.-X.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Transparent Conducting Nanoparticle Coatings for Energy Efficient Fenestration: Applications in Electrochromics and Thermochromics2013In: Soc. Vacuum Coaters 56th Ann. Techn. Conf. Proc., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Progress in chromogenic materials and devices: New data on electrochromics and thermochromics2013In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1492, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin, China.
    Wen, Rui-Tao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic materials and devices for energy efficiency and human comfort in buildings: A critical review2018In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 259, p. 1170-1182Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) materials can be integrated in thin-film devices and used for modulating optical transmittance. The technology has recently been implemented in large-area glazing (windows and glass facades) in order to create buildings which combine energy efficiency with good indoor comfort. This critical review describes the basics of EC technology, provides a case study related to EC foils for glass lamination, and discusses a number of future aspects. Ample literature references are given with the object of providing an easy entrance to the burgeoning research field of electrochromics.

  • 28.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics on a roll: Web-coating and lamination for smart windows2018In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 336, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic devices can vary the throughput of solar energy and visible light in glazing for buildings, which are then able to combine improved energy efficiency with enhanced indoor comfort and convenience. The technology can be implemented in different ways; here the focus is on web-coated devices which can be delivered, on a roll or in the form of large sheets, as foil for glass lamination. The present paper introduces the technology, discusses web-coating versus in-line glass coating, mentions lamination, and touches on possibilities to combine electrochromism with other functionalities such as thermochromic control of solar energy transmittance. The purpose of the paper is to give a tutorial overview of a technology that is currently introduced in buildings.

  • 29.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lansåker, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Oxide-based electrochromics: Advances in materials and devices.2011In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 1328, Materials Research Society, 2011, p. 11-22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Yu -Xia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, Shu-Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics and thermochromics for energy efficient fenestration: Functionalities based on nanoparticles of In2O3:Sn and VO22014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 559, p. 2-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows incorporating electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) materials are of great interest for today's and tomorrow's buildings and can create energy efficiency jointly with indoor comfort. This paper summarizes several recent studies and shows that nanoparticles of transparent conducting oxides-specifically In2O3: Sn (ITO) and thermochromic VO2-can lead to desirable functionalities. We consider three examples: (i) the use of ITO nanoparticles in conventional polaronic EC devices in order to suppress near-infrared solar transmittance, (ii) performance limits for plasmonic EC devices based on ITO nanoparticles, and (iii) ITO-VO2-based nanocomposites combining low thermal emittance with TC properties. We also consider Mg doping of VO2 to enhance the luminous transmittance and Al2O3/VO2 double layers with improved durability. Both experimental and theoretical results are reported. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Li, Shuyi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Progress in Electrochromics and Thermochromics: Two New Applications Involving ITO Nanoparticles.2012In: Society of Vacuum Coaters 55th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, Albuquerque, USA: Soiety of Vacuum Coaters , 2012, p. 41-46Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Qiu, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Impedance spectroscopy of water splitting reactions on nanostructured metal-based catalysts2019In: Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT 2018), Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, article id 012005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen production by water splitting using nanomaterials as electrocatalysts is a promising route enabling replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources. In particular, the development of inexpensive non-noble metal-based catalysts is necessary in order to replace currently used expensive Pt-based catalysts. We report a detailed impedance spectroscopy study of Ni-Mo and Ni-Fe based electrocatalytic materials deposited onto porous and compact substrates with different conductivities. The results were interpreted by a critical comparison with equivalent circuit models. The reaction resistance displays a strong dependence on potential and a lower substrate dependence. The impedance behaviour can also provide information on the dominating reaction mechanism. An optimized Ni-Fe based catalyst showed very promising properties for applications in water electrolysis.

  • 33.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Damas, Giane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Fernandes, Daniel L. A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    An experimental and theoretical study of an efficient polymer nano-photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution2017In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1372-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we report a highly efficient organic polymer nano-photocatalyst for light driven proton reduction. The system renders an initial rate of hydrogen evolution up to 50 +/- 0.5 mmol g(-1) h(-1), which is the fastest rate among all other reported organic photocatalysts. We also experimentally and theoretically prove that the nitrogen centre of the benzothiadiazole unit plays a crucial role in the photocatalysis and that the Pdots structure holds a close to ideal geometry to enhance the photocatalysis.

  • 34.
    Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Pehlivan, Esat
    Runnerstrom, E. L.
    Milliron, D. J.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic Devices with Polymer Electrolytes Functionalized by SiO2 and In2O3:Sn Nanoparticles: Rapid Coloring/Bleaching Dynamics and Strong Near-Infrared Absorption2014In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 126, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the optical properties and coloring/bleaching dynamics of electrochromic devices based on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide and incorporating polymer electrolytes functionalized by adding about one percent of nanoparticles of SiO2 (fumed silica) or In2O3:Sn. SiO2 improved the coloring/bleaching dynamics and In2O3:Sn quenched the near-infrared transmittance. Both of these effects can be important in electrochromic smart windows, and our results point at the advantage of a polymer laminated construction over a monolithic one.

  • 35.
    Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Georén, Peter
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ionic relaxation in polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide polymer electrolytes2010In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 108, no 7, p. 074102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolytes containing polyethyleneimine and different concentrations of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide were investigated by impedance spectroscopy at different temperatures. Two equivalent circuit models were compared for the bulk impedance response. The first one includes a conductive Havriliak-Negami (HN) element which represents ionic conductivity and ion pair relaxation in a single process, and the second model includes a dielectric HN element, which represents ion pair relaxation, in parallel with ion conductivity. Comparison of the two circuit models showed that the quality of the fit was similar and in some cases better for the conductive model. The experimental data follow the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa relation, which relates the ion conductivity and the parameters of the relaxation. This indicates that ion conductivity and ion pair relaxation are two parts of the same process and should be described by the conductive model.

  • 36.
    Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, Peter
    PEI-LiTFSI electrolytes for electrochromic devices: Characterization by differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements2010In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 94, no 12, p. 2399-2404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolytes containing poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) can serve as model electrolytes for electrochromic devices. Such electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, conductivity, and viscosity measurements. The glass transition temperature (T-g) and viscosity of the PEI-LiTESI electrolytes have minima at a [N]:[Li] ratio of 100:1. Both T-g and viscosity increased at high salt concentrations. The temperature dependences of ionic conductivity and viscosity followed an Arrhenius equation with parameters depending only weakly on the salt concentration. The fluid behavior of the electrolytes could be reconciled with the Bingham plastic model with parameters being functions of salt concentration.

  • 37. Saygili, Yasemin
    et al.
    Turren-Cruz, Silver-Hamill
    Olthof, Selina
    Saes, Bartholomeus Wilhelmus Henricus
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Saliba, Michael
    Meerholz, Klaus
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.
    Grätzel, Michael
    Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Freitag, Marina
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with High Open-CircuitVoltage Containing a Supramolecular Iron Complex as HoleTransport Material Dopant2018In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 19, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the most commonly used hole transport material (HTM) is spiro-OMeTAD, which is typically doped by metalorganic complexes, for example, based on Co, to improve charge transport properties and thereby enhance the photovoltaic performance of the device. In this study, we report a new hemicage-structured iron complex, 1,3,5-tris(5'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridin-5-yl)ethylbenzene Fe(III)-tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), as a p-type dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The formal redox potential of this compound was measured as 1.29 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode, which is slightly (20 mV) more positive than that of the commercial cobalt dopant FK209. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirm that the iron complex acts as an efficient p-dopant, as evidenced in an increase of the spiro-OMeTAD work function. When fabricating planar PSCs with the HTM spiro-OMeTAD doped by 5 mol % of the iron complex, a power conversion efficiency of 19.5 % (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2 ) is achieved, compared to 19.3 % for reference devices with FK209. Open circuit voltages exceeding 1.2 V at 1 sun and reaching 1.27 V at 3 suns indicate that recombination at the perovskite/HTM interface is low when employing this iron complex. This work contributes to recent endeavors to reduce recombination losses in perovskite solar cells.

  • 38.
    Sorar, Idris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey.
    Rojas González, Edgar Alonso
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromism of W–Ti Oxide Thin Films: Cycling Durability,Potentiostatic Rejuvenation, and Modelling of Electrochemical Degradation2019In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 15, p. H795-H801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of electrochromicWoxide and W–Ti oxide were prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering and were cycled voltammetrically in an electrolyte of lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate. Film degradation was studied for up to 500 voltammetric cycles in voltage ranges between 1.5–4.0 and 2.0–4.0 V vs. Li/Li+. Optically and electrochemically degraded films were subjected to potentiostatic posttreatment at 6.0 V vs. Li/Li+ to achieve ion de-trapping and rejuvenation so that the films partly regained their original properties. Ti incorporation and potentiostatic posttreatment jointly yielded superior electrochromic properties provided the lower limit of the voltage range was above 1.6–1.7 V vs. Li/Li+. Degradation dynamics for as-deposited and rejuvenated thin films was modeled successfully by power-law kinetics; this analysis indicated coexistence of two degradation mechanisms, one based on dispersive chemical kinetics and operating universally and another, of unknown origin, rendered inactive by rejuvenation. The results of the present study are of large interest for the development of electrochromic devices with exceptional durability.

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