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  • 1. Chernitskiy, S. V.
    et al.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Neutronic Model of a Stellarator-Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid2013In: Fusion science and technology, ISSN 1536-1055, E-ISSN 1943-7641, Vol. 63, no 1T, p. 322-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MCNPX numerical code has been used to model the neutron transport in a mirror based fusion-fission reactor. The purpose is to find a principal design of the fission mantle which fits to the neutron source and to calculate the leakage of neutrons through the mantle surface of the fission reactor. The fission reactor part has a cylindrical shape with an outer radius 1.66 m and a 4 m length. The fuel has the isotopic composition of the spent nuclear fuel from PWR after uranium-238 removal. Inside the fission reactor core is a vacuum chamber with a radius 0.5 m containing a 4 m long hot plasma producing fusion neutrons. To sustain the hot ion plasma which is responsible for the fusion neutron production, neutral beam injection is considered. Calculation results for the radial leakage of neutrons through the mantle surface of the fission reactor are presented. These calculations predict that the power released with neutrons from the reactor to outer space would be small and will not exceed the value of 6 kW while the reactor thermal power is 1 GWth.

  • 2. Chernitskiy, S. V.
    et al.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Abdullayev, A.
    Neutronic Model of a Stellarator-Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid2012In: PROBL ATOM SCI TECH, ISSN 1562-6016, no 6, p. 58-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MCNPX numerical code has been used to model a compact concept for a fusion-fission reactor based on a combined stellarator-mirror trap. Calculation results for the radial leakage of neutrons through the mantle surface of the fission reactor are presented.

  • 3. Chernitskiy, S. V.
    et al.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Abdullayev, A.
    Static neutronic calculation of a subcritical transmutation stellarator-mirror fusion-fission hybrid2014In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 72, p. 413-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MCNPX Monte-Carlo code has been used to model the neutron transport in a sub-critical fast fission reactor driven by a fusion neutron source. A stellarator-mirror device is considered as the fusion neutron source. The principal composition for a fission blanket of a mirror fusion-fission hybrid is devised from the calculations. Heat load on the first wall, the distribution of the neutron fields in the reactor, the neutron spectrum and the distribution of energy release in the blanket are calculated. The possibility of tritium breeding inside the installation in quantities that meet the needs of the fusion neutron source is analyzed. The portion of the plasma column generates fusion neutrons that mainly do not reach the fission reactor core is proposed to be surrounded by a vessel filled with borated water to absorb the flying out neutrons. The flux of the neutrons escaping from the device to surrounding space is also calculated.

  • 4.
    Chernitskiy, S. V.
    et al.
    NSC KIPT, Nucl Fuel Cycle Sci & Technol Estab, Kharkov, Ukraine..
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    NSC KIPT, Inst Plasma Phys, Kharkov, Ukraine..
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    A fuel cycle for minor actinides burning in a stellarator-mirror fusion-fission hybrid2017In: PROBLEMS OF ATOMIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 1562-6016, no 1, p. 36-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MCNPX Monte-Carlo code has been used to model a concept of a fusion-fission stellarator-mirror hybrid aimed for transmutation transuranic content from the spent nuclear fuel. A fuel cycle for the subcritical fusion-fission hybrid is investigated and discussed.

  • 5. Chernitskiy, S. V.
    et al.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Abdullayev, A.
    Neutronic Model Of A Fusion Neutron Source2013In: Problems of Atomic Science and Technology, ISSN 1562-6016, no 1, p. 61-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MCNPX numerical code has been used to model a fusion neutron source based on a combined stellarator-mirror trap. Calculation results for the neutron spectrum near the inner wall and radial leakage of neutrons through the mantle surface of the fusion neutron source are presented.

  • 6.
    Källne, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    Tardocchic, Marco
    Grosso, Giovanni
    Neutron Diagnostics For Mirror Hybrids2012In: Fusion for Neutrons and Subcritical Nuclear Fission: Proceedings of the International Conference / [ed] Jan Källne, Dimitri Ryutov, Giuseppe Gorini, Carlo Sozzi, Marco Tardocchi, 2012, p. 281-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fusion-fission (FuFi) hybrids will need instrumentation to diagnose the deuterium-tritium plasma, whose 14-MeV neutron emission is the driver of the sub-critical fission core. While the fission neutron yield rate (Y-fi and hence power P-fi) can be monitored with standard instrumentation, fusion plasmas in hybrids require special diagnostics where the determination of Y-th (proportional to P-fu) is a challenge. Information on Y-fu is essential for assessing the fusion plasma performance which together with Y-fi allows for the validation of the neutron multiplication factor (k) of the subcritical fission core. Diagnostics for hybrid plasmas are heuristically discussed with special reference to straight field line mirror (SFLM). Relevant DT plasma experience from JET and plans for ITER in the main line of fusion research were used as input. It is shown that essential SFLM plasma information can potentially be obtained with proposed instrumentation, but the state of the hybrid plasma must be predictably robust as derived from fully diagnosed dedicated experiments without interface restrictions of the hybrid application.

  • 7. Moiseenko, V. E.
    et al.
    Kotenko, V. G.
    Chernitskiy, S. V.
    Nemov, V. V.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Källne, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Voitsenya, V. S.
    Garkusha, I. E.
    Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 094008-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  • 8. Moiseenko, V.E.
    et al.
    Chernitskiy, S. V.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    A fuel for sub-critical fast reactor2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Radio-frequency heating in straight field line mirror neutron source2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need in a practical scenario for ion heating up to high temperatures in a mirror based neutron source. Such a scenario could be developed with the ion cyclotron heating. Fundamental harmonic ion cyclotron heating of deuterium and second harmonic heating for tritium are studied numerically from the point of view of antenna coupling and heating efficiency. The behavior of the antenna loading resistance and radio-frequency power shine-through the cyclotron zone with the heating frequency, plasma density and temperature and the antenna position is analyzed.

  • 10.
    Noack, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir E
    Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center "Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology", Kharkiv, Ukraina.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Neutronic model of a mirror based fusion-fission hybrid for the incineration of spent nuclear fuel and with potential for power generation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) published several design concepts of tokamak based fusion-fission hybrids which use solid fuel consisting of the transuranic elements of spent nuclear fuel from Light-Water-Reactors. The objectives of the hybrids are the incineration of the transuranic elements and additional net energy production. The paper presents a rough scientific design of the blanket of a mirror hybrid which was derived from the results of neutron transport calculations. The main operation parameters of two hybrid options were specified. One is the analog to Georgia Techs first version of a 'fusion transmutation of waste reactor" (FTWR) and the other is a possible near-term option which requires minimal fusion power.

  • 11.
    Noack, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir E
    Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center "Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology",Kharkiv, Ukraina.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Neutronic model of a mirror based fusion-fission hybrid for the incineration of the transuranic elements from spent nuclear fuel and energy amplification2011In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 38, no 2-3, p. 578-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Georgia Institute of Technology has developed several design concepts of tokamak based fusion-fission hybrids for the incineration of the transuranic elements of spent nuclear fuel from Light-Water-Reactors. The present paper presents a model of a mirror hybrid. Concerning its main operation parameters it is in several aspects analogous to the first tokamak based version of a "fusion transmutation of waste reactor". It was designed for a criticality keff <= 0.95 in normal operation state. Results of neutron transport calculations carried out with the MCNP5 code and with the JEFF-3.1 nuclear data library show that the hybrid generates a fission power of 3 GWth requiring a fusion power between 35 and 75 MW, has a tritium breeding ratio per cycle of TBRcycle = 1.9 and a first wall lifetime of 12-16 cycles of 311 effective full power days. Its total energy amplification factor was roughly estimated at 2.1. Special calculations showed that the blanket remains in a deep subcritical state in case of accidents causing partial or total voiding of the lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Aiming at the reduction of the required fusion power, a near-term hybrid option was identified which is operated at higher criticality keff <= 0.97 and produces less fission power of 1.5 GWth. Its main performance parameters turn out substantially better.

  • 12.
    Noack, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Källne, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir E.
    Safety And Power Multiplication Aspects Of Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrids2012In: Fusion for Neutrons and Subcritical Nuclear Fission: Proceedings of the International Conference / [ed] Jan Källne, Dimitri Ryutov, Giuseppe Gorini, Carlo Sozzi, Marco Tardocchi, 2012, p. 186-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in a research project at Uppsala University a simplified neutronic model for a straight field line mirror hybrid has been devised and its most important operation parameters have been calculated under the constraints of a fission power production of 3 GW and that the effective multiplication factor k(eff) does not exceed 0.95. The model can be considered as representative for hybrids driven by other types of mirrors too. In order to reduce the demand on the fusion power of the mirror, a modified option of the hybrid has been considered that generates a reduced fission power of 1.5 GW with an increased maximal value k(eff) = 0.97. The present paper deals with nuclear safety aspects of this type of hybrids. It presents and discusses calculation results of reactivity effects as well as of driver effects.

  • 13.
    Noack, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Comments on the power amplification factor of a driven subcritical system2013In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 59, p. 261-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power amplification factor PAF of a driven subcritical system is defined as the ratio of the fission power output of the blanket to the power which the driver must deliver to sustain its neutron source intensity. This parameter decisively determines the effectiveness of the whole system independent of its special purpose as energy amplifier or as transmutation facility. The present note derives a refined analytical expression for the PAF which reveals more physical details than the expressions given by other authors. Moreover, the traditionally used forms of the static reactor eigenvalue equation and of its adjoint equation are rewritten for subcritical systems and used in the derivation of the expression for the PAF. The derived formula and the modified eigenvalue equations are discussed.

  • 14.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Radial Drift Invariant In Long-Thin Mirrors2012In: Fusion for Neutrons and Subcritical Nuclear Fission: Fusion for Neutrons and Subcritical Nuclear Fission / [ed] Jan Källne, Dimitri Ryutov, Giuseppe Gorini, Carlo Sozzi, Marco Tardocchi, 2012, p. 255-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In omnigenous systems, the guiding centers are constrained to move on magnetic surfaces. Since a magnetic surface is determined by a constant radial Clebsch coordinate, omnigenuity implies that the guiding center radial coordinate (the Clebsch coordinate) is constant. Near omnigenuity is probably a requirement for high quality confinement and in such systems only small oscillatory radial banana guiding center excursions from the average drift surface occur. The guiding center radial coordinate is then the leading order term for a more precise radial drift invariant I-r, where higher order corrections arise from the oscillatory "banana ripple" associated with the excursions from the mean drift magnetic surface. An analytical expression for the radial invariant is derived for long-thin quadrupolar mirror equilibria. The formula for the invariant is then used in a Vlasov distribution function. To model radial density profiles, it is necessary to use the radial invariant (the parallel invariant is insufficient for this). The results are also compared with standard fluid approaches. In several aspects, the fluid and Vlasov system with the radial invariant give analogous formulas. One difference is that the parallel current associated with finite banana widths could be derived from the radial invariant.

  • 15.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Källne, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Anglart, H.
    Hybrid Reactor Studies Based on the Straight Field Line Mirror2013In: Fusion science and technology, ISSN 1536-1055, E-ISSN 1943-7641, Vol. 63, no 1T, p. 52-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) hybrid reactor studies aim to identify a concept where the safety of fission power production could be enhanced. A fusion neutron source could become a mean to achieve this. The SFLM studies address critical issues such as reactor safety, natural circulation of coolants, steady state operation for a year or more and means to avoid too strong material loads by a proper geometrical arrangement of the reactor components. A key result is that power production may be possible with a fusion Q factor as low as 0.15. This possibility arises from the high power amplification by fission, which within reactor safety margins may exceed a factor of 100. The requirements on electron temperature are dramatically lower for a fusion hybrid compared to a stand-alone fusion reactor. This and several other factors are important for our choice to select a mirror machine for the fusion hybrid reactor studies.

  • 16.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, V.E.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Källne, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Anglart, H.
    Hybrid reactor studies based on the straight field line mirror: Invited talk2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, V.E.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Källne, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Anglart, H.
    The straight field line mirror concept aiming at a hybrid reactor: Oral presentation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Conceptual study of a straight field line mirror hybrid reactor2011In: Problems of Atomic Science and Technology, ISSN 1562-6016, no 1, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid reactor based on the straight field line mirror (SFLM) with magnetic expanders at the ends is proposed as a compact device for transmutation of nuclear waste and power production. Compared to a fusion reactor, plasma confinement demands can be relaxed if there is a strong energy multiplication by the fission reactions, i.e. Q(r)=Pfission/Pfusion >> 1. The values of Q(r) is primarily restricted by fission reactor safety requirements. For the SFLM, computations suggest that values of Q(r) ranging up to 150 are consistent with reactor safety. In a mirror hybrid device with Q(r) > 100, the lower bound on the electron temperature for power production can then be estimated to be around 400 eV, which may be achievable for a mirror machine. The SFLM with its quadrupolar stabilizing fields does not rely on plasma flow into the expanders for MED stability, and a scenario with plasma density depletion in the expanders is a possibility to increase the electron temperature. Efficient power production is predicted with a fusion Q= 0.15 and an electron temperature around 500 eV. A fusion power of 10 MW could then be amplified to 1.5 GW fission power in a compact 25 m long hybrid mirror machine. Beneficial features are that all sensitive equipment can be located outside the neutron rich region and a steady state power production seems possible. Self circulation of the lead coolant, which is useful for heat removal if coolant pumps cease to operate, could be arranged by orienting the magnetic axis vertically. Results from studies on plasma equilibrium and stability, coil designing, RF heating and neutron computations are presented.

  • 19.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir E
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Radial Drift Invariant in Long-Thin Mirrors2012In: European Physical Journal D: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, ISSN 1434-6060, E-ISSN 1434-6079, Vol. 66, no 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In omnigenous systems, guiding centers are constrained to move on magnetic surfaces. Sincea magnetic surface is determined by a constant radial Clebsch coordinate, omnigeneity implies that theguiding center radial coordinate (the Clebsch coordinate) is a constant of motion. Near omnigeneity isprobably a requirement for high quality confinement and in such systems only small oscillatory radialbanana guiding center excursions from the average drift surface occur. The guiding center radial coordinateis then the leading term for a more precise radial drift invariant Ir, corrected by oscillatory “bananaripple” terms. An analytical expression for the radial invariant is derived for long-thin quadrupolar mirrorequilibria. The formula for the invariant is then used in a Vlasov distribution function. Comparisons arefirst made with Vlasov equilibria using the adiabatic parallel invariant. To model radial density profiles, itis necessary to use the radial invariant (the parallel invariant is insufficient for this). The results are alsocompared with a fluid approach. In several aspects, the fluid and Vlasov system with the radial invariantgive analogous predictions. One difference is that the parallel current associated with finite banana widths could be derived from the radial invariant.

  • 20.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Studies of a Straight Field Line Mirror with emphasis on fusion-fission hybrids2010In: Fusion science and technology, ISSN 1536-1055, E-ISSN 1943-7641, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) field with magnetic expanders beyond the confinement region is proposed as a compact device for transmutation of nuclear waste and power production. A design with reactor safety and a large fission-to-fusion energy multiplication is analyzed. Power production is predicted with a fusion Q = 0.15 and an electron temperature of [approximately]500 eV. A fusion power of 10 MW may be amplified to 1.5 GW of fission power in a compact hybrid mirror machine. In the SFLM proposal, quadrupolar coils provide stabilization of the interchange mode, radio-frequency heating is aimed to produce a hot sloshing ion plasma, and magnetic coils are computed with an emphasis on minimizing holes in the fission blanket through which fusion neutrons could escape. Neutron calculations for the fission mantle show that nearly all fusion neutrons penetrate into the fission mantle. A scenario to increase the electron temperature with a strong ambipolar potential suggests that an electron temperature exceeding 1 keV could be reached with a modest density depletion by two orders in the expander. Such a density depletion is consistent with stabilization of the drift cyclotron loss cone mode.

  • 21.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, K
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fusion-fission hybrid reactor studies for the straight field line mirror2011In: Fusion science and technology, ISSN 1536-1055, E-ISSN 1943-7641, Vol. 59, no 1T, p. 166-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparatively small mirror fusion hybrid device may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear waste. This opportunity ensues from the large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Q(r) =P-fis/P-fus <= 150, in a subcritical fusion device surrounded by a fission mantle with the neutron multiplicity k(eff) approximate to 0.97. The geometry of mirror machines is almost perfectly suited for a hybrid reactor application, and the requirements for plasma confinement can be dramatically relaxed in correspondence with a high value of Q(r) Steady state power production in a mirror hybrid seems possible if the electron temperature reaches 500 eV. A moderately low fusion Q factor, the ratio of fusion power to the power necessary to sustain the plasma, could be sufficient, i.e. Q approximate to 0.15. Theoretical predictions for the straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept are presented, including results from radio frequency heating, neutron Monte Carlo and magnetic coil computations. Means to achieve an electron temperature of 500 eV are briefly discussed. The basic study considers a 25 m long confinement region with 40 cm plasma radius with 10 MW fusion power and a power production of 1.5 GW thermal.

  • 22.
    Ågren, Olov
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noack, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Moiseenko, V. E.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Källne, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Anglart, H.
    The Hybrid Reactor Project Based On The Straight Field Line Mirror Concept2012In: Fusion for Neutrons and Subcritical Nuclear Fission: Proceedings of the International Conference / [ed] Jan Källne, Dimitri Ryutov, Giuseppe Gorini, Carlo Sozzi, Marco Tardocchi, 2012, p. 173-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with "semi-poor" plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Q(r) = P-fis/P-fus >> 1. The upper bound on Q(r) is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Q(r)approximate to 150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of k(eff) =0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement T-e approximate to 10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q approximate to 0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on the implications of the geometry for possible diagnostics. Reactor safety issues are addressed and a vertical orientation of the device could assist passive coolant circulation. Specific attention is put to a device with a 25 m long confinement region and 40 cm plasma radius in the mid-plane. In an optimal case (k(eff) = 0.97) with a fusion power of only 10 MW, such a device may be capable of producing a power of 1.5 GW(th).

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